Vol 55, No 5 (2019)

ARTICLES
Dynamical-stochastically parametrization of cloudiness in the atmospheric general circulation model
Galin V.Y., Dymnikov V.P.
Abstract

In the paper dynamical-stochastically method of the non-convective cloudiness parameterization in the general circulation model is formulated. This algorithms is evaluated on the basis of general circulation model with given see surface temperature of oceans. The results of calculations were compared with observational data and the results simulations with sophisticated couple GCM full filled in frame of CMIP5 program. These results showed the perspectives of suggested dynamical-stochastically approach.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):3-8
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Effect of changes in global temperature and radiative forcing on general atmospheric circulation
Bogdanov M.B., Morozova S.V.
Abstract

Possible connections are studied between the monthly average values of the wind angular moment module and anomalу of the globally averaged surface temperature and change in radiative forcing. The existence of statistically significant positive linear correlation between these characteristics is shown. The results obtained are in accordance with the conclusions of the theory of similarity of planetary atmospheres.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):9-12
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Modeling of the heat island in the period of extreme frost in Moscow in January 2017
Yushkov V.P., Kurbatova M.M., Varentsov M.I., Lezina E.A., Kurbatov G.A., Miller E.A., Repina I.A., Artamonov A.Y., Kallistratova M.A.
Abstract

Using the example of an analysis of an extreme lowering of temperature in Moscow in January 2017, the horizontal and vertical extent of the urban heat island against the background of a strong stable stratification of the atmospheric boundary layer is studied. The possibilities of measuring and monitoring the vertical structure of the atmosphere by means of ground-based remote sensing are investigated. The capabilities of the mesoscale model WRF, adapted for a detailed description of mixing processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, in reproducing the spatial dynamics of the temperature anomaly are demonstrated. The numerical estimates of the amplitude and vertical extent of the urban heat island are compared with the measurement accuracy and the total errors of the numerical predictions. Comparison of measurement data and numerical simulation results on the WRF model, using the example of a winter urban heat island in January 2017, showed that mesoscale synoptic models so far only capture the main features of the urban heat island. But deviations between model and observed temperature fields can reach 5 °C.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):13-31
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Influence of North Atlantic oscillation on Moscow climate continentality
Alexandrov G.A., Ginzburg A.S., Golitsyn G.S.
Abstract

Natural variability of regional climatic conditions poses certain difficulties in detecting global climate change at a local scale. The question about the ratio between the contribution of human forcing, induced by the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and the contribution of natural variability in atmospheric and oceanic circulation arises in each particular case. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to evaluate the contribution of the North Atlantic Oscillation to decrease in Moscow’s climate continentality during the period of 1951-2000. The results of this study show that a significant part of the decrease in continentality could be attributed to increase in the North Atlantic Oscillation index observed during this period.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):32-38
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Interaction of Rossbi waves with a jet flow: basic equations and verification for Antarctic circumpolar current
Gnevyshev V.G., Frolova A.V., Kubryakov A.A., Sobko Y.V., Belonenko T.V.
Abstract

The article focuses on the interaction of Rossby waves in the ocean with zonal jet flows. A new approach is proposed to show that nonlinearity in the long-wave approximation exactly compensates the Doppler shift. A new dispersion relation for the Rossby waves interacting with the jets is deduced from the nonlinear theory. The conclusion is verified using satellite altimetry data of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). For the ACC area, we compare empirical velocities obtained from the altimetry data with theoretical phase velocities of Rossby waves calculated from nonlinear dispersion relation using the equivalent beta effect. The comparison shows that the new dispersion relation based on the nonlinear approach is capable of describing both the westward and the eastward propagation of mesoscale eddies in the field of sea level anomalies that can be identified as manifestation of Rossby waves in the ocean.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):39-50
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On pressure perturbations caused by a moving heat source of the frontal type (hydrostatic mode)
Kalashnik M.V., Kulichkov S.N.
Abstract

The problem of perturbations of the surface pressure caused by a moving nonstationary frontal heat source (localized along one horizontal coordinate) is considered. Pressure disturbances are associated with internal gravity waves (IGWs). It is shown that when a source moves in a finite-height atmospheric layer (atmospheric waveguide) when a discrete set of vertical IGW modes is excited, there are three types of temporal variation of surface pressure at a fixed observation point. These types correspond respectively to the time signal with amplitude modulation, the signal with frequency modulated Doppler type and the signal that occurs only after passing through the source. Each type is implemented for specific values of the oscillation frequency of the source and the Mach number (the ratio of the speed of the source to the phase velocity of the IGW). At Mach numbers less than one, an oscillating source always excites wave precursors – disturbances observed before the source arrives. The movement of the source in a semi-infinite atmosphere leads to additional excitation of waves that transfer energy to the upper layers of the atmosphere.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):51-61
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On the algebraic perturbations in atmospheric boundary layer
Chkhetiani O.G., Vazaeva N.V.
Abstract

A simple model for the development of submesoscale perturbations in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is proposed. The growth of perturbations is associated with the shear algebraic instability of the wind velocity profile in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). For the scales of optimal perturbations (streaks) in the lower part of the ABL, estimates of their sizes were obtained – about 100-200 m vertically and 300-600 m horizontally. Similar scales are noted for experimental data on the structure of the wind field in the lower part of the ABL, obtained in 2017, 2018 in the summer at the Tsimlyansk Scientific Station at the acoustic sounding of the atmosphere by the Doppler three-component minisodar of high resolution.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):62-75
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Simulation of seasonal dynamics of the global electric circuit diurnal variation
Ilin N.V., Shatalina M.V., Slyunyaev N.N.
Abstract

Based on the ionospheric potential (IP) parameterization, the seasonal dynamics of the diurnal variation of IP for 2016–2017 were modeled for the first time using the numerical weather forecast model WRF-ARW. The diurnal variation of the IP, averaged over the annual simulation periods, shows good agreement with the classical Carnegie curve. The proposed parametrization correctly reproduces the basic characteristics of the stationary global electric circuit generators. The annual variation does not show a precise repeatability from year to year, but in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere a lower IP value was obtained, and in the summer - an increased one. The model diurnal variation demonstrates stable seasonal trends, and in the northern hemisphere, the variation is characterized by only one strongly distinguished maximum IP in the 16-18 UTC area of ~120% of the average value, while in the summer season the daily variation curve has two maxima with smaller value (~ 107% of average): morning at 8–9 UTC and evening at 18–20 UTC. The model annual variation of the diurnal variation agrees with the experimental data of the surface field measuring in Antarctica in the period 2006–2011. The proposed parametrization and modeling technique made possible the accurate reproduction of the IP variation maximums times, their seasonal variability, and decreasing of the amplitude of variation in the summer period of the Northern Hemisphere.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):76-84
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Transfer of lightning optical radiation into space through the cloud layer
Busygin V.P., Krasnokutskaya L.D., Kuzmina I.Y.
Abstract

We have developed mathematical models and performed simulations of transfer of short optical impulses through the cloud layer into space. The main cloud layer variables chosen are its vertical optical and geometrical depths. The physical processes behind the time-amplitude characteristics of the radiative field are studied. It is shown that the presence of a cloud layer results in a formation of a secondary source at the upper boundary of a cloud and in substantial distortions in the temporal pattern of the initial impulse.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):85-93
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Tsunami hazard assessment at Mediterranean coast of Egypt
Zaytsev A.I., Babeyko A.Y., Kurkin A.A., Yalciner A., Pelinovsky E.N.
Abstract

Possibilities of forecasting of a tsunami characteristics for areas with small base of historical tsunami are discussed. The PTHA method (Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment), which cornerstone the statistical analysis of real and predictive earthquakes which number is rather big, with the subsequent calculation of waves of a Tsunami from possible earthquakes is for this purpose used. This method for assessment of long-term tsunami danger on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt is used. It is shown that the predicted wave heights change along the coast that is caused by heterogeneity of topography of a coastal zone and features of the chart of radiation of a tsunami in the sea. The predicted wave heights for 1000 years change within 0.8–3.4 m.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):94-102
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Sensitivity of the ocean circulation model to the k–omega vertical turbulence parametrization
Zalesny V.B., Moshonkin S.N.
Abstract

Ocean general circulation model (OGCM) of the INM RAS with embedded k – ω turbulent model is developed. The solution of the k – ω model equations depends on the frequencies of buoyancy and velocity shift which are generated by the OGCM. The coefficients of vertical turbulence in OGCM depend on k and omega. The numerical algorithms of both models are based on the splitting method for physical processes. The model equations are split into two stages, describing the three-dimensional transport-diffusion of the kinetic energy of turbulence and frequency and their local generation-dissipation. The system of ordinary differential equations arising at the second stage is solved analytically, which ensures the efficiency of the algorithm. Analytical solution also written for the vertical turbulence coefficient equation. The model is used to study the sensitivity of the model circulation of the North Atlantic–Arctic Ocean to variations in the parameters of vertical turbulence. Experiments show that varying the coefficients of the analytical model solution can improve the adequacy of the simulation.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):103-113
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On the revealing closed circulations on satellite maps of dynamic topography of the ocean surface
Tarakanov R.Y.
Abstract

An algorithm for revealing closed multi-core circulations on digital maps of dynamic topography (DT) is described. The algorithm consists in the expansion of eddies over the area from their cores (local maxima/minima of the DT) until the DT sills corresponding to these cores are reached, and is carried out in several iterations until the points belonging to the closed circulations are completely exhausted. The algorithm is an exact numerical solution of the problem of determining the value of the DT for a closed loop, the most distant from the core of circulation. The algorithm takes into account the problems of nesting into each other circulations of a different sign, the possible intersection with each other of the circulation of a different sign on the numerical grid, as well as the possible existence of islands or floating ice inside the circulations. A method is described for gluing smaller DT maps with the circulations revealed on them to larger maps.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):114-125
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The rate of the turbulence dissipation in a water layer under wind waves based on the data of laboratory experiment
Polnikov V.G., Baidakov G.A., Troitskaya Y.I.
Abstract

The aim of the work is to obtain estimates and parameterization of the dissipation rate of the turbulence kinetic energy of (TKE-dissipation) ε in the upper water layer, induced by the presence of wind waves at the surface. For this purpose, data from the laboratory measurements of the wind waves and three components of currents at six horizons in the upper water layer and four different winds, performed in the wind-wave channel of IAP RAS [1, 2], were used. It was established that for a majority of horizons, the frequency spectra, SUz( f ), for the vertical component of the flow velocity, Uz, induced by wind and waves, have the Kolmogorov-type ranges of the kind:  Using the algorithms described in [3, 4], this fact allows us to obtain estimates of the TKE-dissipation at the corresponding horizons, and then establish the dependence of ε on the friction velocity, u*, the height of waves at the surface, a0, the peak frequency of the spectrum, ωp, and the depth of the horizon, z. The analysis of the obtained results allows (for the available data) to propose a parameterization of the form ε ≈ 0.00025 for which a physical interpretation is proposed.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(5):126-136
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