Vol 59, No 6 (2019)

Marine Phisics

Conductors of the current variations of the sea-surface temperature of the North Atlantic

Vakulenko N.V., Sonechkin D.M.


It is generally accepted to believe that changes in the heat content of North Atlantic can be a source of surprises in the climate evolution, especially the climate of Europe. The RAPID program providing monitoring of this heat content serves to investigate this problem. However, results of such monitoring cover still too short time period to come to any conclusion. In this regard, changes of the North Atlantic’s sea surface mean temperature which already is observed during a long enough period (from the middle of the 20-th century) is analyzed as an indirect characteristic of the heat content. Wavelets are used for this purpose. Three scales, which define temporal variability of this characteristic, are found: from two to four, from seven up to ten, and about twenty two years. It is assumed that sources of variations of the first two from the specified scales are wobbles of the Earth’s rotation axis, and the source of variations of the third scale is the Hale's cycle of heliomagnetic activity.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):895-902
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The mesocyclone over the northern part of the Japan/East sea in February 2013

Potalova E.Y., Kleshcheva T.I., Permyakov M.S.


The case of the influence of the mesoscale cyclone (MC) on the northern part of the Japan/East Sea in 10–11 February 2013 was investigated. The passage of the MC was accompanied by a sharp increase in the wind to storm values, a reduction in the total heat transfer by almost two times, an increase of the momentum flux by four times. The perturbations of the hydrological characteristics in the MC trace, estimated from the data of two Argo buoys, were traced to a depth of 300 meters off the west coast of Hokkaido island and up to ~100 m in the deep-water area, which is due to the difference in the background stability of vertical structures. Some estimates of the contribution of various factors to the observed variability of the upper sea layer are given.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):903-912
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Impact of salt finger convection on the structure of oceanic thermohalocline

Pereskokov A.I.


One of the key problems of physical oceanology is to find the efficient global mechanisms able to ensure formation and maintaining of the oceanic thermohalocline accumulating in mid latitudes a huge amount of heat. The conducted research has found a genetic link of this element of macroscale stratification with the intensity of vertical mixing of water due to double-diffusive in form of salt finger convection. Consequently the structural transformation happens as a result of more structured work in the ocean water column of such small-scale process as salt finger convection. Due to this the transition from warm and salt surface waters to deeper ocean layers occurs not very rapidly but comparatively gradually through the fixed transition layer ─ oceanic thermohalocline. The obtained results support our view considering salt finger convection as a climate forming factor.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):913-919
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Variability of ice conditions of the Bering sea and assessment of the possibility of their modelling

Plotnikov V.V., Vakulskaya N.M., Dubina V.A.


Various aspects of seasonal and interannual variability of the sea ice cover are estimated on the basis of all available the Bering Sea ice data from 1960 to 2017. The possibility of long-term and superlong-term modeling of the ice cover is investigated. Results of tests are given, and a conclusion about prospects of the proposed model and an opportunity of its practical application is done.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):920-927
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Marine Chemiatry

Sources and mechanisms of seawater freshening at the Tsivol’ki and Sedov’ bays (Novaya Zemlya): isotope (δD, δ18О) data

Dubinina E.O., Kossova S.A., Miroshnikov A.Y.


Three-year monitoring of isotope (δD, δ18О) parameters in the waters of the Sedov’ and Tsivol’ki bays (Novaya Zemlya) was carried out. The fresh waters of the bays are originated from several sources (continental runoff, precipitations, and waters going from the archipelago). The freshening extent and sources of fresh waters are different at the different depth. The δD and δ18О values varies only in the surface waters which contains more than 30% of fresh component. In 2015 the surface waters of Sedov’ bay were represented by Ob’ river waters, and the surface waters of Tsivol’ki bay were enriched by the runoff from Novaya Zemlya. Deep waters in both bays show signs of desalination by high latitude atmospheric precipitations. These waters can be transferred to the southeast coast of Novaya Zemlya through the trenches of St. Anne and Voronin. The difference in the freshening mechanisms of the waters of Sedov and Tsivolka bays is determined by different bottom morphologies and different degrees of free water exchange with the Kara Sea.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):928-938
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Solubility of BaSo4 and physicochemical state of barium in seawater

Savenko V.S., Savenko A.V., Pokrovsky O.S.


The solubility of barium sulfate in diluted Na2SO4–NaNO3 solutions and seawater with 35‰ salinity at 22°C was experimentally studied. Value of the thermodynamic solubility product of barium sulfate = (7.57±0.87)×10–11 was ascertain. It was shown that equilibrium concentration of dissolved barium in seawater is equal 30.7 g/l and water layer of the World Ocean is in the state of low undersaturation for BaSO4. Values of the ionic-mean activity coefficient of BaSO4, total activity coefficient and part of free ions of Ва 2+ in seawater, equal 0.108, 0.131, and 0.59, respectively, were determined according to the experimental data.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):939-943
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Interseasonal variability in methane concentrations and its fluxes on water-atmosphere border in the western part of the Sea of Okhotsk

Obzhirov A.I., Mishukova G.I., Shakirov R.B., Mishukov V.F., Maltseva E.V., Sokolova N.L., Okulov A.K., Yatsuk A.V., Lifanskiy E.V.


For the first time subannual variability of methane fluxes on the water-atmosphere border in the water area of the Sea of Okhotsk, located eastward to Sakhalin Island, is shown. Variability of methane fluxes is determined by the presence and activity of submarine methane sources and is connected to the seasonal changes in hydrological and hydrochemical parameters of the sea water and the structure of of currents in the region under study. In spring and autumn the average fluxes are higher, than in the summer period. Within the summer modification of water and increase of stratification, the methane flux from the sea surface is reduced. In autumn, as a result of the autumnal convection of water and high average wind speed, methane, accumulated in transitional waters, is emitted into the atmosphere.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):944-951
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Influx of streaming methane into anoxic waters of the Black Sea basin

Artemov Y.G., Egorov V.N., Gulin S.B.


Based on data on the spatial distribution and fluxes of streaming (bubbling) methane within the Black Sea, the rate of dissolved methane inflow to Black Sea deep waters was assessed. Calculations showed that gas bubble streams annually replenish the methane budget in the Black Sea by 1.2 109 m3, or 0.9 Tg, which is considerably less than determined by known biogeochemical estimates of components of methane balance in the Black Sea.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):952-963
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Marine Biology

Picophytoplankton distribution at the Ob section and in western part of the Kara sea

Belevich T.A., Ilyash L.V., Demidov A.B., Flint M.V.


The spatial distribution of picophytoplankton abundance, biomass, chlorophyll a and contribution of picoalgae to total chlorophyll a was studied in the outer Ob estuary with an adjacent shelf and in the western part of the Kara Sea. In August-September picophytoplankton abundance and biomass varied from 0.1 to 17.3×106 cell/l and from 0.06 to 9.20 mg С/m3, respectively. Cyanobacteria dominated in plankton picofraction, its contribution to total picophytoplankton biomass did not exceed 11%. The highest contribution of picophytoplankton to the total phytoplankton abundance was observed at a lower (<11 mg/m2) chlorophyll a concentration in the euphotic layer. The spatial heterogeneity of picoforms contribution was determined by the silicon concentration.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):964-973
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Heterotrophic nanoflagellates in the pelagic zone and sediments of the eastern Laptev sea

Kosolapova N.G., Kosolapov D.B., Kopylov A.I., Romanenko A.V.


For the first time, the species composition of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, their quantitative characteristics, as well as the abundance and biomass of their main food objects: bacteria and picophytoplankton, were determined in the water column and sediments of the Laptev Sea. On a meridional transect from the Lena delta to the deep-sea zone in early autumn an increase in the number and biomass of planktonic flagellates was recorded in the area of the internal shelf, which is impacted by Lena's freshwater input. The pattern of vertical distribution of planktonic flagellates differed in the different parts of the sea, but everywhere their greatest number was confined to either the surface or the near-bottom water layers. Quantitative parameters of planktonic flagellates positively correlated with the temperature, bacterial abundance and biomass and negatively correlated with the water salinity. The abundance and biomass of heterotrophic flagellates in the surface sediments was 3–4 orders of magnitude higher than in the water column and exceeded those of planktonic flagellates in the shallow sites under 1 m2. A total of 28 species and forms of heterotrophic flagellates have been identified. Representatives of two taxonomic groups: Kinetoplastea and Stramenopiles, which were the most tolerance to the salinity, dominated in the community. The species richness of the flagellates decreased with the water depth and was minimal in the less saline coastal waters and increased in the deep-see area.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):974-986
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Zooplankton composition and trophic status of hydrobionts of the Laptev and East Siberian seas

Gorbatenko K.M., Kiyashko S.I.


Species composition, density, biomass and distribution of zooplankton on shelf and slope of northwestern part of the Laptev Sea and shallow-water shelf of the East Siberian Sea were studied in 2015 summer period. Using analysis of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13 С) and nitrogen (δ15N), trophic status of abundant zooplankton and fish species, and their positions in food webs of these two seas, were compared. Gut content analysis, as well stable isotope data, showed mutual changes in the trophic status of dominant fish species — arctic cod, Boreogadus saida, with age.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):987-997
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Genetic diversity of copepod, Limnocalanus macrurus, from Russian Arctic seas

Gordeeva N.V., Drits A.V., Flint M.V.


The diversity, phylogenetic relationship and demographic history in glacial relict copepod, Limnocalanus macrurus from estuaries of large Siberian Arctic rivers — Ob’, Khatanga, Lena, Indigirka and Kolyma were studied using of mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase c gene (CO I mtDNA). It was shown, that Siberian populations of Limnocalanus macrurus together with ones from Canadian Arctic and the Baltic Sea belong to the single Palearctic phylogenetic lineage, which probably survived in one refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and then rapidly expand within the Arctic about 21 000–7500 years ago. The presence of common haplotypes in L. macrurus from three Arctic seas and lack of differences in haplotypic frequencies may be caused recent origin of populations or present day genetic exchange between them.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):998-1007
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Oithona davisae: naturalization in the Black sea, inter-annual and seasonal dynamics, effect on the structure of the planktonic copepod community

Gubanova A.D., Garbazey O.A., Altukhov D.A., Mukhanov V.S., Popova E.V.


Long-term (2003–2014) routine observations of zooplankton in Sevastopol Bay (the Black Sea) have allowed the naturalization of the invasive copepod Oithona davisae to be studied in the Black Sea coastal waters. Inter-annual and seasonal variability of the species and their impact on the native copepod community have been analyzed. The invasion of O. davisae and their undoubted dominance in terms of abundance were shown to alter the community structure but, at the same time, the abundances of the native species did not decrease, excepting the Black Sea earlier invader Acartia tonsa. A significant decline in A. tonsa numbers over the stages of O. davisae establishment and naturalization provided evidence of competition between the species. O. davisae have been demonstrated to gain competitive advantage over A. tonsa, that ensured their fast dispersal in the Black Sea, acclimatization in the new habitat and the successful competition over native species.


Океанология. 2019;59(6):1008-1015
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Submergence of the sublittoral-bathyal species into the abyssal zone of the Sea of Japan

Mironov A.N., Dilman A.B., Minin K.V., Malyutina M.V.


The bathymetric ranges of the same deep-sea (>2000 m) species in the Sea of Japan and outside it are compared. Among 85 deep-sea species of the Sea of Japan mega- and macrofauna, 25 species are known outside the sea at the depths greater than 2000 m and 45 species are known outside the sea only from the sublittoral and bathyal (<2000 m). Remaining 14 species are endemic to the Sea of Japan. The species of the first group, together with eurybathic Sea of Japan endemics (8 species) are classified as pseudoabyssal. The term “pseudoabyssal species” is used here for eurybathic (sublittoral-abyssal or bathyal-abyssal) species, the distribution of which is restricted to a relatively small area in the abyssal, in present case, to the abyssal within the Sea of Japan. The share of pseudoabyssal species in the abyssal basin of the Sea of Japan (64%) is larger than in any other abyssal region. It is suggested that the large share of pseudoabyssal species is the result of local submergence of the sublittoral-bathyal fauna into the abyssal zone of the Sea of Japan. The abyssal basin of the Sea of Japan is distinguished as a biogeographic province within the abyssal biotic zone.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):1016-1027
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Benthic fauna of the Oga Bay (Novaya Zemlya, Kara Sea)

Udalov A.A., Vedenin A.A., Chava A.I., Schuka S.A.


Benthic fauna of the Oga Bay (the Kara Sea, Novaya Zemlya) was studied in 2015–2016 during the IO RAS expeditions on RV "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh". 5 grab stations (15 samples) at depths of 70–140 m were sampled. Three macrobenthic communities consecutively replaced each others from the inner near-glacier part of the gulf towards the outher slope. The main factor determining the distribution of macrobenthic communities in the Oga Bay is the concentration of suspended matter in the water column and in the near-bottom layer, that caused by a very powerful level of sedimentation from the Goluboy (Oga) glacier. The depletion of benthic communities (qualitative and quantitative) which is typical for Arctic fjords with glacial inflow was shown. The specific community with the dominance of bivalve Portlandia arctica inhabits the main part of the bay. The peculiarities of the benthos of Arctic glacial bays are discussed.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):1028-1038
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Marine Geology

Hydrothermal mineral associations on 71° n of Mid-Atlantic ridge (first results)

Kravchishina M.D., Lein A.Y., Boev A.G., Prokofiev V.Y., Starodymova D.P., Dara O.M., Novigatsky A.N., Lisitzin A.P.


We discuss the preliminary results of the plume and bottom sediments studies of the Trollveggen hydrothermal vent field based on data from the 68th cruise of the RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. The hydrothermal vent field is located to the east of the axial zone of the slow-spreading Mohn Ridge close to the Jan Mayen hotspot at a depth of about 550 m (71°18 'N, Norwegian-Greenland Basin). The plume of the hydrothermal vent field was characterized by a weak distribution in the water column, anomalies of temperature, density and salinity, a moderate concentration of methane and a low concentration of suspended particulate matter near the bottom. The enrichment of bottom sediments with barium, strontium and some sulfide forming elements (zinc, lead, copper, molybdenum) was shown. Two mineral associations of hydrothermally modified bottom sediments were revealed: pyrite and barite-marcasite. The temperature of hydrothermal fluids was established by the method of thermal and cryometric studies of gas-liquid fluid inclusions in barite (128–260°C) and using the FeS–ZnS equilibrium diagram of sulfide minerals (130–290°C). Our data were close to the data of direct measurements of fluid temperature [28]. We made a comparison of the hydrothermal mineralization of the Trollveggen vent field and the previously studied fields of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge located near the Azores hotspot. As a result we confirmed the influence of ocean depth and PT-conditions on the formation of hydrothermal deposits.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):1039-1057
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Incorrect discoasters of the end of the pliocene in the sediments of the South-West Atlantic

Dmitrenko О.В.


Nanofossilia from the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments collected at st. 3316 on the 46th cruise of the R/V “Akademik Ioffe” north of the Rio Grande Plateau of the SW Atlantic was studied. The presence of irregular forms of discoasters in a narrow horizon at the end of the formation of the Discoaster brouweri zone of the Upper Pliocene indicates sharp changes in the living conditions of these organisms, which led to deviations in the correct structure of their skeletons and subsequent extinction at the end of the Pliocene.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):1058-1052
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Morphostructures and the sedimentary cover structure of the Western Crimea inner shelf

Myslivets V.I., Rimsky-Korsakov N.A., Korotaev V.N., Porotov A.V., Pronin A.A., Ivanov V.V.


The results of geophysical and geomorphological works on the Western shelf of the Crimea peninsula (Evpatoria-Balaklava) are presented. The structure of the sedimentary sequence, the bottom topography and paleogeographic reconstructions of the conditions of the western shelf formation in the Late Pleistocene–Holocene are considered. Based on the analysis of geoacoustic profiles, the main morphostructures of the shelf are identified and their brief characteristic is given. An abrasion-accumulative complex consisting of an abrasion platform and an associated accumulative clinoform, the formation of which is associated with the coastal line of the Late Pleistocene Black Sea regression to depths of about -90 m, traced from Yevpatoria to Yalta, was selected. On the shelf of the Kalamitsky Bay, fragments of the flooded river network and coastal accumulative forms such as bars were investigated.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):1063-1073
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The crucial boundaries in the development of the late cretaceous biota of plankton foraminifers in the southern part of the Indian ocean

Sokolova E.A.


The article analyzes own data on the species composition of shells of planktonic foraminifera from the Upper Cretaceous sediments of the Indian Oceans, as well as from the sections of the offshore seas of Australia. The species of planktonic foraminifera are grouped and arranged in a climatic series. An analysis of the change in the systematic composition of foraminifers made it possible to distinguish periods of extreme and intermediate climatic states in the Late Cretaceous.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):1074-1085
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Multidisciplinary program of field studies of ecosystem in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (december 2019 – march 2020)

Morozov E.G., Flint M.V., Spiridonov V.A., Tarakanov R.Y.


The scientific basis for the research program of the dynamics and ecosystem of the Drake Passage region and the Scotia Sea is given. Measurements will be carried out in an interdisciplinary expedition of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the participation of 9 institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the R/V "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh". The basis of the research will be the study of the functioning of the Antarctic marine ecosystem and measurement in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):1086-1088
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Hydrological and hydrochemical research of the mouths of the small rivers flowing to the White sea in the winter low water season of 2019

Miskevich I.V., Leshchev A.V., Moseev D.S., Lokhov A.S.


In the winter low water season in March and the first week of April 2019, complex hydrological and hydrochemical studies were carried out at the mouths of two small rivers of the White Sea catchment basin (the Mudyuga river, which flows into the Dvina Bay, and the Tamitsa river, which flows into the Onega Bay). The results indicate significant differences in the short-period variability of hydrological and hydrochemical parameters in the winter in the studied river mouths compared with the characteristics observed in the tidal estuaries of large and medium rivers, as well as in the mouths of small rivers of the southern seas.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):1089-1092
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Oceanological studies in the northwest Pacific, Japan and Okhotsk seas in the 73th cruise of the RV Professor Gagarinskiy and 53th cruise of the RV Academic Oparin

Karnaukh V.N., Sergeev A.F., Lobanov V.B., Tishcenko P.Y.


During the the 73th cruise of the RV Professor Gagarinskiy and 53th cruise of the RV Academic Oparin oceanological studies of the north-western Pacific, Japan and Okhotsk Seas were conducted. New data on the structure sea bottom, water composition as well as slope convection of the Japan Sea.

Океанология. 2019;59(6):1093-1096
pages 1093-1096 views

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