Vol 89, No 12 (2019)

Report
Biophysics for ecology
Gitelson J.I.
Abstract

The paper presents some new opportunities for biophysics to solve the fundamental challenge of global ecology—to decode the mechanism maintaining the steady state of the biosphere. The Institute of Biophysics (SB RAS) develops two mutually supportive lines in ecological biophysics: first, to monitor by optical methods vital activity of natural and constructed ecosystem by example of marine bioluminescence and closed ecosystem; second, to study regularities of parametric control of biosynthesis and creation of bioengineering systems to control these processes to construct no sphere-like ecosystems for human life support under extreme conditions on Earth and in space, in particular.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1185-1197
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On the Rostrum of the RAS Presidium
The humanities and problems of preserving the historical and cultural heritage of Russia
 
Abstract

On May 28, 2019, at the next meeting of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which was held jointly with the Russian Historical Society and the History of the Fatherland Foundation, the problems of preserving the historical and cultural heritage of Russia were discussed.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1198-1198
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Speech by the Chairman of the Russian Historical Society S.E. Naryshkina
Naryshkin S.E.
Abstract

The presentation will be devoted to the issues of historical education.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1199-1200
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Report by the deputy minister of culture of Russia N.P. Ovsienko
Ovsienko N.P.
Abstract

Report by the deputy minister of culture of Russia N.P. Ovsienko

 
Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1201-1202
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Preserving the archaeological heritage in the 2010s: The new realities
Makarov N.A.
Abstract

The paper examines the issue of preserving archaeological heritage in Russia and also looks at the current state of the field and the role that the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and research institutes play in providing expertise, methodological improvement, and practical work to preserve antiquities. There have been a number of positive developments in this area: the overall volume of archaeological work has seen a 5%–15% annual increase, and mandatory archaeological inspection of land plots and rescue excavations at 17th–19th century sites have been introduced. Of special importance were the amendments to Federal Law №73-FZ "On objects of cultural heritage (monuments of history and culture) of the peoples of the Russian Federation." Adopted in 2013–2014, these amendments, together with similar changes to related documents, included norms formulated and suggestions advanced by professional archaeologists. The amended regulations make provisions for the scholarly basis of excavations and for the control researchers have over archaeological fieldwork, as well as for mandatory access for archaeologists to sites currently in private hands. It is noted that research institutions of the RAS in the field of archaeology are deeply involved in many aspects of work dealing with heritage preservation.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1203-1209
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Museums: keepers of memory and records
Piotrovsky M.B.
Abstract

The museum is the main keeper of cultural memory. It generates scientific knowledge and cultural meanings. Moreover, museum science can turn a monument into an instrument for a dialog between cultures in societies cultivating hatred. In the past 25 years, the public role of museums has risen dramatically. This has inspired in them a renewed interest in power and money, but weakened the museum as a scientific institution. The report outlines proposals, the implementation of which, in cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), can restore research activities at museums, making them one of the leading areas of work.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1210-1213
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Archives of the academy of sciences as repository of the historical memory of Russia
Tunkina I.V.
Abstract

The paper presents a brief history and description of collections of the oldest archives formed by the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) in St. Petersburg for almost 300 years of its history. Attention is focused on the main problems of the archives, which emerged after the reform of the RAS in 2013, and prospects for their solution are outlined.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1214-1221
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Cultural heritage of russia in the context of modern problems
Halizeva M.E.
Abstract

Discussion of scientific reports

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1222-1227
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Point of view
Economic assessment of the impact of permafrost degradation induced by climate change the road infrastructure resilience in the Russian Arctic
Porfiriev B.N., Elisseev D.O., Streletskiy D.A.
Abstract

This paper evaluates three model scenarios of road infrastructure resilience variation resulting from the climate change-induced degradation and thawing of permafrost in nine regions of the Russian Arctic. To provide economic assessment of climate change implications for development of the regions above by mid-21st century model estimates of the permafrost a physic-geographic basis for conditions have been used. These estimates are obtained using the IPCC six key scenarios of climate change including the most negative RCP 8.5 scenario considered as the most similar to Russian Arctic environments. The upgraded data from the Transportation Strategy of the Russian Federation served a basis for forecasting the road infrastructure development by 2035. It is argued that the “business as usual” (conservative) scenario of the road infrastructure development in the explored nine regions of the Russian Arctic from 2020 to 2050 implies annual investments of 14 billion rubles to maintain resilience and reduce the risks of destruction of the infrastructure following permafrost thawing and degradation. The investments for the moderate and modernization scenarios will exceed 21 billion and 28 billion rubles, respectively, with the maximal numbers expected in the Yakutia, Magadan, and Chukotka regions. Implementation of the modernization scenario assumes reconsideration of the existing standards, technologies, and the road infrastructure and capital construction economics as a whole. Priority areas include innovation standards and construction technologies development as well as improvement of the methodology and procedures of respective investments assessments considered in this paper.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1228-1239
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Trust of russians to the banking system
Yurevich A.V.
Abstract

According to the data presented in the article, the level of confidence in the banking system in modern Russia is lower than in most countries of the world and has been falling in recent years due to the financial crisis and other factors. These circumstances may be caused by the shortcomings in the domestic banks’ activities and organization as well as the psychological aftereffects of the performance of the banking sector in the 1990s and peculiarities of the behavior of Russian bankers. These factors all contribute to the negative image in mass consciousness. The problem of low levels of trust in modern Russian society, which is projected on the banking sector, is analyzed. The layered structure of trust to banks is revealed, including main levels: trust within the society as a whole, credibility of its social institutions, confidence in business, confidence in big business, confidence in the banking sector of the economy, and credibility of particular financial and credit institutions. Recommendations to Russian banks are formulated to increase public confidence in them.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1240-1247
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Problems of Ecology
Аssessment of modern approaches to surface water quality management and protection
Danilov-Danilyan V.I., Venitsianov E.V., Adzhienko G.V., Kozlova M.A.
Abstract

This study analyzes the current state of the quality of surface waters in Russia. The main problems of quality management are identified. One out of every two residents of the Russian Federation is forced to use drinking water that does not meet the established standards for a number of indicators. The economic mechanism of natural water quality management is not aimed at solving the problem of its steady improvement, its outdated and controversial legislative and regulatory framework for governance, its low efficiency of supervisory activities, the imperfection of the monitoring and statistics system, or insufficient attention to the scientific and methodological base of quality management. Methods of regulation in Russia were formed more than 50 years ago. Modern approaches to monitoring the quality of surface waters, which have been intensively developed in developed countries in recent years, are not used. These include the analysis of xenobiotic content, the assessment of the influence of diffuse sources of water bodies’ pollution, and the use of modern mathematical models in regulating water quality. The necessity of the transition to a risk-based approach in the regulation of water quality is substantiated, proving the zero-risk concept currently in use does not achieve water quality targets.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1248-1259
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Profiles
Founder of the school of the shooting and artillery weapons design The 125th anniversary of the birth of academician A.A. Blagonravov
Ganiev R.F., Glazunov V.A., Kovaleva N.L., Yudkin V.F.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the life and work of the outstanding Soviet scientist, academic, and a major organizer of science: A.A. Blagonravov (1894–1975). Blagonravov made a large contribution to the creation of a domestic school of researchers and engineers of machine guns and artillery weapons, to the development of machines and mechanisms for various purposes for the needs of industry, to the development of machine science, and to the study and exploration of outer space.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1260-1267
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Scientifical life
Science and the future of the Angaro-Yenisei macroregion
Zaikina G.A.
Abstract

On September 10, 2019, a meeting of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences was held, at which the issue of scientific support for the rapid development of the Angara-Yenisei macroregion, including the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Irkutsk Region, Tyva and Khakassia, was discussed.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1268-1273
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Official section
Decisions of the ras presidium (February–April 2019)
 
Abstract

Scientific Coordinating Council of the RAS Members

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1274-1275
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On contests for gold medals and awards named after outstanding scientists held by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2020
 
Abstract

On contests for gold medals and awards named after outstanding scientists held by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2020

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1276-1278
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Awards and prizes
 
Abstract

Awards and Prizes of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1279-1281
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Index of articles published in the "Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences", 2019, No. 1–12
 
Abstract

Index of articles published in the "Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences", 2019, No. 1–12

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(12):1282-1290
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