Vol 89, No 10 (2019)

Science and Society
Russian capital investment dynamics as an economic transformation factor
Alekseev A.V., Kuznetsova N.N.

Abstract

By comparing Russian and American capital investment programs according to gross and per capita indexes, this article analyzes capital investment’s long-term dynamics in economic activities in general and manufacturing in particular. Results showed that Russian economic growth’s quality, determined by its 2000 capital investment structure did not correspond with the national economy’s long-term development aims. Moreover, investment activity’s current fading appears consequent to that period’s inappropriate investment politics. The existing Russian investment system aims to incorporate its economy into the global economy as a supplier of natural and, partly, agricultural resources, thus dooming manufacturing to stagnation at best. The authors reveal that activation of industrial politics, established on a fundamental power-of-the-state approach in the investment process, based on long-term strategic interests and the potential of market forces (namely, efficiency use of resources) allows launching large-scale investment projects to provide favorable conditions for creating an innovative national economy.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):981-992
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Organization of Research
Using scientometrics to estimate publication activity in modern Russia
Grinev A.V.

Abstract

This article analyzes how state and administrative structures solve the problem of assessment by scientometric indicators specifically of the work of the faculty of Russian universities and specialists of research institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences: how it is solved by. Past decades’ attitudinal evolution in Russia toward scientometric indicators is shown, the main drawbacks of using scientometric criteria are identified, and possible solutions to those drawbacks are proposed.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):993-1002
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Problem of uncopyrightable content of a scientific paper, or is there a need for a property right on ideas
Salitskaya E.A.

Abstract

This article tackles the legal problem of scientific authorship by analyzing a scientific work as an object of copyright protection. The problem of a research paper’s uncopyrightable content is pointed out, and concepts of authorship and plagiarism are revealed. The article’s author analyzes suggestions on providing legal protection for elements of scientific work content, as represented in the doctrine, as well as historical attempts to work out a bill for protection of scientific property. In conclusion, the author provides suggestions on the advisability of legal protection for elements of scientific works’ content and on the nature of corresponding rights.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):1003-1011
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Point of view
Geopolitical meridians of world-class universities
Balatsky E.V., Ekimova N.A.

Abstract

This article discusses results from two waves (2017, 2019) of world-class universities’ identification, thus allowing provision of a geopolitical snapshot of advanced universities’ global market. Results show that United Europe is becoming a leader, while Asia and the United States’ positions have worsened. Economic and cultural factors are based on different countries’ foundations of success in formation of global universities. The quality of the economic prerequisite involves the existence of global high-tech companies in the country; their number and strength determine the number and strength of world-class universities. The quality of the cultural prerequisite involves wide dissemination of the “philosophy of cooperation,” that is, intensive national and international exchange experience among universities through creation of numerous collaborations, for example, international leagues and unions, regional consortia and groups, and professional associations and alliances.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):1012-1023
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Russian agricultural development: import substitution
Maslova V.V., Chekalin V.S., Avdeev M.V.

Abstract

This article describes trends in Russian agricultural development, results of import substitution in the economy’s agricultural sector, and food security. The authors analyzed consumption levels of the main agricultural products and food, depending on the population’s level of income. The study associates the problem of import substitution with provision of domestic material and technical resources. The authors noted that the duration of the import substitution process for different agricultural products depends on the effectiveness of agriculture’s organizational and economic mechanisms. Growth opportunities are limited in the economy’s agricultural sector due to replacement of imports’ market share. Developing import substitution will create conditions for increasing exports of agricultural products and food and for transitioning from import dependence to development of export potential.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):1024-1032
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Problems of Ecology
The lake fund’s current status and problems in asian Russia
Rumyantsev V.A., Izmailova A.V.

Abstract

This paper presents results of the Asian part of Russia’s (APR) quantitative assessment of the lake fund, with its uneven territorial distribution taken into account. Within the APR, about 3.2 million water bodies exist, enclosing 25,175 km3. More than half of all water bodies are in the Ural Federal District, while the bulk of the water is concentrated in the lakes of the Far Eastern and Siberian Federal Districts. At the current population level, most of Russian Asia is well supplied with water resources; only in three Federation districts does water availability not exceed 10 thousand m3 per person, per year. However, in conditions of insufficient moisture, even increased water availability does not guarantee absence of water resources shortage, especially during years of low water content. The low quality of waters available for use further complicates the situation. The authors analyzed information on environmental changes occurring in lakes’ water resources during the latter 20th and early 21st centuries, presenting assessment results of trophicity and of quality of lakes’ water masses in three federal districts. The main problems associated with negative changes in the APR lake ecosystems, influenced by anthropogenic activities and requiring quick solutions, are described.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):1033-1043
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The new agroforestry paradigm’s formation
Rulev A.S., Pugacheva A.M.

Abstract

From acceptance of the 1948 Plan of Field-Protective Afforestation to the present (2019), this article considers the new agroforestry paradigm’s protracted formation. Scientific achievements from the 1940s, introduced into practice, served as the basis for decisions on nature’s global transformation. Pilot facilities from the beginning of the 20th century (the Bogdinsky agroforestry stronghold, the Stone-steppe oasis) still serve as reference objects for agroforest reclamation of territories, with a scientific approach that allows them to function productively today. The plan’s main idea is to combat drought and desertification of steppe lands, erosion processes, and to prevent sand and dust storms. Creation of 5709 thousand hectares of protective forests, afforestation of 1106 thousand hectares of ravines, fixing and afforestation of sand on an area of 322 thousand hectares, and implementation of many planned activities during a short period locate this plan among other ambitious international projects.

The authors draw attention to the time of creation and the volume of plantings of paramount importance, that is, state protective forest belts and protective forest plantations. Understanding the importance of agroforestry for modern agricultural landscapes led to formation of sustainable and durable agroforestry systems in subarid landscapes based on a combination of agricultural and landscape-ecological ideologies. Allegedly, considering terrain ecotopes, three-dimensional evaluation of the agrolandscape and a non-linear approach make it possible to create multifunctional, highly productive agroforestry systems in critical agriculture zones.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):1044-1051
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From the workbook of the researcher
Plants of first terrestrial ecosystems
Naugolnykh S.V.

Abstract

The article deals with the ecosystem conditions and main phases of colonization of the terrestrial environment by higher plants. The most important finds of the higher plants in pre-Silurian deposits are discussed. A plant attributed to a new genus and species Volkhoviella primitiva Naug., Gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Middle Ordovician deposits of the Leningrad region, Russia. General questions of early evolution of terrestrial plants are reviewed.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):1052-1061
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Profiles
Gleb Yuryevich Vereshchagin – distinguished investigator of lake Baikal
Takhteev V.V., Rusinek O.T.

Abstract

This article presents significant biographical information about Gleb Vereshchagin, the founder of Russian and Soviet limnology, the organizer of complex scientific research on Lake Baikal, which is the world’s deepest and oldest freshwater lake. The authors describes Vereshchagin’s developmental milestones as an outstanding researcher of lakes. He began work on Lake Baikal simply as a participant and then became head of the expedition of the Academy of Sciences’ Commission for the Study of Lake Baikal and the scientific Secretary of the Commission. In 1928, the Baikal expedition was transformed into the Baikal Limnological Station of the USSR Academy of Sciences, which Vereshchagin headed until 1944. His multi-faceted scientific heritage includes fundamental works on lakes’ hydrology and hydrophysics, plankton studies, the problem of the origin of Lake Baikal’s endemic fauna and flora, the first methodological guide to field hydrochemical analysis of natural waters, and extensive bibliographical reports on limnology.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):1062-1071
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Official section
Decisions of the RAS presidium
Russian academy of science H.

Abstract

(may - june 2019)

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):1072-1078
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Awards and prizes
Russian academy of sciences H.

Abstract

On awarding medals of the Russian Academy of Sciences with prizes for young scientists of Russia and for students of higher educational institutions of Russia following the results of the 2018 competition

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(10):1079-1082
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