Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Access granted  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Vol 22, No 3 (2022)

Cover Page

Full Issue

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Analytical reviews

Renal artery denervation: unsolved questions about mechanisms of changes of systemic hemodynamics

Azovtsev R.A., Evlakhov V.I.


In the review we discussed the clinical and physiological aspects of the use of renal artery denervation as an interventional method of treatment of refractory essential arterial hypertension. The application of radiofrequency denervation may be considered as an additional treatment to drug therapy in patients with arterial hypertension. At the same time, the main emphasis in the performed experimental and clinical studies was made on the assessment of changes in blood pressure, cardiac output and the calculated index of total peripheral resistance. However, there is no satisfactory data in the literature about changes of the venous return, as well as superior and inferior venae cavae flows. To assess the effectiveness of renal artery denervation on arterial and venous vessels resistance shifts, it is necessary to carry out experimental studies with perfusion of isolated organs in the conditions of modeling arterial hypertension in animals. The question of the extent to which denervation of the renal arteries leads to shifts in the reactions of organ venous vessels in response to pressor reflex stimuli also requires further studies on experimental models. There are practically no data in the literature on the degree of influence of renal artery denervation on orthostatic tolerance. To understand the mechanisms of changes in systemic hemodynamics in response to denervation of the renal arteries, it is also necessary to perform further research on the mechanisms of shifts in the capacitive and resistive functions of the pulmonary circulation with an assessment of pulmonary microcirculation.

Medical academic journal. 2022;22(3):5-14
pages 5-14 views

Metabolic precursors of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and the potential for their clinical use

Sutsko I.P., Shlyahtun A.G., Semenenya I.N.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is present in all living cells and is a central signaling molecule and enzyme cofactor that is involved in many fundamental biological processes, including energy production, DNA repair, gene expression, and calcium-dependent signaling. It is known that NAD+ levels decrease in many pathological conditions, as well as with age in many tissues of rodents and humans, which contributes to the development of age-related pathology. There is evidence that an increase in intracellular NAD+ levels prevents the development of various pathological conditions. The review presents an analysis of modern data on the possibility of using precursors of NAD+ biosynthesis to provide the required level in body tissues in order to correct various disorders of vital functions.

Medical academic journal. 2022;22(3):15-25
pages 15-25 views

Coumarins as a base for the drug development: yes or no?

Litasova E.V., Iljin V.V., Myznikov L.V., Brusina M.A., Piotrovskiy L.B.


It is well known that coumarin derivatives are widely distributed in nature and have a wide spectrum of biological activity. At the same time, only a few compounds containing a coumarin fragment are used in the clinics. These compounds include for example the anticoagulant warfarin and the anthelmintic drug haloxon. In the present article is discussed the few examples of biological activity of coumarin derivatives, the mechanisms of action of these compounds and the problems that arise in the development of new drugs, as well as the prospects for using coumarins as leader compounds.

Medical academic journal. 2022;22(3):27-36
pages 27-36 views

Original research

Changes in the content of fucoglycoproteins in the mucous membranes and walls of the stomach and small intestine of alcoholized rats under immobilization stress

Oksuzyan A.V., Butolin E.G., Ivanov G.V.


The article highlights the features of the metabolism of fucoglycoproteins in liver homogenates, the wall and mucous membrane of the stomach and small intestine in experimental models: alcoholic liver disease and prolonged alcoholization of rats under immobilization stress. Fucoglycoprotein metabolism was assessed for 90 days by the level of total fucose and fucosidase activity. To evaluate the implementation of the experiments, a biochemical analysis of markers of liver pathology was carried out. In the dynamics of experiments, there was an increase in transaminases and dyslipidemia in the blood serum of rats, as well as an increase in the level of corticosterone, especially in rats against the background of immobilization stress. In the exchange of fucose-containing glycoproteins in the blood serum, in the tissues of the liver, stomach and small intestine of experimental animals, multidirectional metabolic changes were monitored, namely, an increase in catabolism processes in the first days of observations in alcoholized rodents, which may be associated with the cytolytic effect of ethanol in the studied tissues. In these organs, the total amount of fucose is higher in the mucosa layer than in the organ wall. At the same time, in a series of experiments with immobilization stress against the background of ethanol administration, activation of anabolism of oligosaccharide fragments for the synthesis of fucoglycoproteins was noted in the second half of the experiment, associated with compensatory adaptive mechanisms.

Medical academic journal. 2022;22(3):37-48
pages 37-48 views

Sex features of the circadian rhythmicity of some biochemical parameters in wistar rats under constant lighting and chronic alcohol intoxication

Areshidze D.A., Kozlova M.A., Makartseva L.A., Kirillov Y.A.


BACKGROUND: Biological systems of all levels of organization are characterized by the rhythm of functioning processes, which are one of the fundamental properties of living matter. The complex of circadian rhythms of mammals, being genetically determined, is quite plastically modulated by the action of periodic factors of the external and internal environment. Significant factors in the disorganization of biorhythms in the modern world include a violation of the light-dark regime, so-called light pollution. Alcohol abuse remains one of the most important medical and social problems of modern society. One of the important effects of alcohol is its destructive effect on the circadian rhythms of many physiological processes.

AIM: The aim of the research was to study the influence of constant lighting, chronic alcohol intoxication and joint effect of these factors on the diurnal dynamics of several biochemical parameters in Wistar rats of both sexes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 200 and 160 female outbred Wistar rats at the age of 6 months, weighing 350 ± 15 g. Rats were divided into 8 groups. 1st group (control ♂) is kept at fixed light regime (light/dark 10:14 hours with lights on at 8:00 and off at 18:00). 2nd group, males (n = 50) is kept under the same conditions as the control, but receives a 15 % aqueous solution of ethanol ad libitum as a drink instead of water, i.e. is subjected to chronic alcohol intoxication. Group 3, males (n = 50) are kept under constant light. The 4th group, males (n = 50) are also kept under constant illumination and receive 15 % aqueous ethanol solution ad libitum as a drink. Group 5 (control ♀) females (n = 40), are kept at a fixed light regime (light/dark 10:14 am with lights on at 8:00 and off at 18:00). The 6th group, females (n = 40) are kept under the same conditions as the control, but receive 15 % aqueous ethanol solution ad libitum instead of water as a drink, i.e. subjected to chronic alcohol intoxication. Group 7, females (n = 40) are kept under constant light. The 8th group, females (n = 40) are also kept under constant light and receive 15 % aqueous ethanol solution ad libitum as a drink. In the blood samples taken at 9:00, 15:00, 21:00 and 3:00 hours the content of AST, ALT, glucose, total protein, albumin, total and direct bilirubin was measured. The reliability of circadian rhythmicity of studied parameters was assessed with use of cosinor analysis.

RESULTS: It is established that the chronic alcohol intoxication, constant illumination and joint action of this factors lead to similar changes in biochemical parameters in rats of both sexes, but in female rats the level of AST, total and direct bilirubin changes as a result of three weeks of intoxication, which is not observed in males. In turn, both individual and joint effects of chronic alcohol intoxication and dark deprivation lead to significant changes in rhythmostasis in rats, however, circadian rhythms of total protein, as well as both types of bilirubin, are more resistant to dark deprivation in females than in males.

CONCLUSIONS: The conducted study testifies that a three-week chronic alcohol intoxication causes more significant changes in the biochemical profile in female rats compared to males. At the same time, the studied circadian rhythms of the biochemical parameters of the organism of females turn out to be more resistant to dark deprivation than those of males, being destroyed only under the combined action of chronic alcohol intoxication and constant illumination.

Medical academic journal. 2022;22(3):49-60
pages 49-60 views

The first and the second types of diabetes mellitus, autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroiditis differential diagnosis possibility using the calculated index based on plasma butyrylcholinesterase isoforms activity

Kozlova D.I., Khizha V.V., Anosova L.V., Korolkova A.A., Benevolenskaya S.S., Vasilev D.S., Rybakov A.V., Yureva K.A., Shevaldina M.E., Ballyzek M.F.


BACKGROUND: The possibility of using a diagnostic index based on the use of blood plasma objective indicators to differentiate the diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroiditis is an urgent task for timely decision-making on the use of a particular type of therapy, taking into account the etiology of a particular pathology. Changing the ratio of blood plasma butyrylcholinesterase isoforms activity makes it possible to identify increased excitability, to separate them among themselves depending on the genesis, and during treatment, to assess the activity of diseases and the effectiveness of therapeutic measures.

AIM: To develop a calculated diagnostic index for the differential diagnosis of diabetes and thyroiditis autoimmune type from symptomatically similar non-autoimmune pathologies, using the ratio of the plasma pseudocholinesterase isoforms activities.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 188 people: 45 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes; 60 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes; 25 patients diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis; 25 patients with non-autoimmune thyroiditis; the control group consisted of 33 healthy volunteers. The groups were aligned by gender and age. Patients of all groups were examined by an endocrinologist and a therapeutist. The diagnoses were made in accordance with the Clinical Guidelines of the Russian Endocrinologists Association for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Autoimmune Thyroiditis in Adults, as well as the Clinical Guidelines “Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults”. In the blood plasma of all patients’ groups, the activity of pseudocholinesterase (butyrylcholinesterase) forms was determined by analysis using a modification of the Ellman’s method in combination with inhibitory analysis. The index was calculated based on the ratio of the studied enzyme typical and atypical forms activities. Based on the results of data analysis for all examined groups, diagnostic intervals were determined that are characteristic for each diagnosis, as well as for conditionally healthy people. Comparison of the patients distribution by categories of diagnosis was carried out using the Χ-square test with Yates correction in the SPSS 22 statistical software package.

RESULTS: The results of the blood plasma analysis determined that in the diagnoses of autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus, there was an increase in the activity of increased activity of the butyrylcholinesterase isoform, while the activity of the atypical form remains more stable. The ratio of these forms was taken as the basis for the development of the calculated diagnostic index. Diagnostic index for the control group in the range of 1–2; for patients with non-autoimmune thyroiditis — 2,1–2,9; autoimmune thyroiditis — 3–3,5; type 1 diabetes mellitus — 3,6–5; type 2 diabetes — 0–1. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the diagnosis based on the index obtained in this way does not inferior to the diagnostic scales in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The findings are consistent with the evolution of data supporting each diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS: The calculated index on the basis of butyrylcholinesterase activity is a promising, minimally invasive, fast and budgetary method, revealing a pronounced severity of occurrence in terms of symptoms, but different in etiology, type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroiditis of a non-autoimmune nature, which is of critical importance when choosing a therapeutic strategy and improving the quality of life of patients.

Medical academic journal. 2022;22(3):61-72
pages 61-72 views

Wobbling passive dynamic postural impacts as a promising method of increasing adaptive potential and improving cardiorespiratory system function

Novikova T.V., Agapova E.A., Sergeev T.V., Shabrov A.V., Anisimov A.A., Kuropatenko M.V.


BACKGROUND: Passive postural exertions are used to assess orthostatic tolerance, adaptation to antiorthostatic stress and to identify the physiological effects of prolonged supine. As it was shown earlier, Wobbling Passive Dynamic Postural impacts influence on the state of functional reserves, activating long-term regulatory systems.

AIM: The purpose of paper is comparative study of the dynamics of functional indices and calculated physiological indices before and after Wobbling Passive Dynamic Postural exertions and experimental hypokinesia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 50 conditionally healthy subjects randomly divided into two groups at a ratio of 3 to 1. The first group (38 of participants) was exposed to the Wobbling Passive Dynamic Postural impacts. The subjects were in supine position for 5 minutes and then were rotated using an automatic turntable for 10 minutes, after which they were to horizontal position for 5 minutes. The angle deflection of the turntable during the Wobbling Passive Dynamic Postural impacts was from 5 to 15 degrees above or below from the base line. The subjects of the second group (12 of participants) were supine on the turntable fixed in the horizontal position for 20 minutes, thus being exposed to voluntary experimental hypokinesia. Anthropometric indices of subjects were measured before the study; functional indices were recorded continuously throughout the test. The entire study was divided into three stages, for which the values of the calculated physiological indices were presented as averages. Statistical analysis of the differences between the measured and calculated indices was performed using nonparametric statistical tests.

RESULTS: Application of both types of exertions leads to decrease of the experienced stress and more effective blood circulation, but there are expressed differences. Thus, Wobbling Passive Dynamic Postural impacts are accompanied by a decrease in heart rate, an increase in the adaptive potential, an increase in endurance, which is confirmed by statistically significant changes in the analyzed indices. On the contrary, in the voluntary experimental hypokinesia group, by the end of the 20-minute motionless lying there was a gradual increase in heart rate, decrease in endurance indices and weakening of the adaptive potential.

CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained with the use of available, previously tested, physiological techniques permit to recommend wobbling passive dynamic postural impacts as a promising method for preventing the harmful effect of hypokinesia. An advanced study of changes in the microvasculature using modern equipment based on Laser Doppler flowmetry will allow verifying the obtained results.

Medical academic journal. 2022;22(3):73-89
pages 73-89 views

Clinical research

Comprehensive assessment of the morpho-functional state of the back skin integument in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis

Gorbach A.P., Shurova Е.N., Gorbach E.N., Kononovich N.A., Ochirova P.V.


BACKGROUND: In the formation of scoliotic deformity of the spinal column, the skin of the back on the protruding parts of the body is a vulnerable area. However, the study of the characteristics of the skin condition of the back of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis has not been given due attention.

AIM: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of the morphological and functional properties of the skin of the back of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and to determine the information content of the research methods used.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 20 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, the skin of the back was examined. The following methods were used: visual clinical examination, local thermometry, laser Doppler flowmetry, esthesiometry, elastometry, histological methods.

RESULTS: Visually, in 70% of cases, a change in the skin was revealed. In the region of the spinal deformity apex, the skin temperature was higher on the convex side than on the concave side. In the skin of the paravertebral region, capillary blood flow from the convex side and in the distal spine was more intense than on the concave side. In the dermatomes corresponding to the apex of the deformity, hyperesthesia, hypesthesia, and the absence of thermal sensitivity were noted. In the paravertebral and scapular projections, in the region of the deformity apex, the lowest indicators of skin elasticity were recorded, compared with the areas located above and below. Histostructural differences in the skin were revealed in the area of the convex and concave sides of the apex of the deformity. On the convex side, a significant decrease in the thickness of the epidermis and dermis, an increase in the thickness of the subcutaneous fat, a greater severity of reactive-destructive changes in the fibrous, vascular and innervating components of the dermis were determined.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of an integrated approach in the study of the skin of the back of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis made it possible to identify the features of structural and functional changes, which indicates the information content of the selected methods. The results obtained must be taken into account when planning the treatment and rehabilitation process of patients with this pathology.

Medical academic journal. 2022;22(3):91-104
pages 91-104 views

History of medicine

The evolution of non-reconstructive methods of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms

Bobinov V.V., Rozhchenko L.V., Goroshchenko S.A., Kolomin E.G., Samochernykh K.A., Petrov A.E.


The evolution of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms has logically developed in the direction from non-constructive methods (treatment of aneurysms using detachable balloons, using liquid embolizing agents, occlusion of aneurysms with detachable coils, occlusion of aneurysms with balloon-assisted coils, implantation of various types of intradaccular devises) to reconstruction of the artery segment carrying the aneurysm (occlusion of aneurysms with stent-assisted coils and the use of flow-diverters). The effectiveness of these methods, including in the treatment of patients in the acute period of aneurysm rupture, in the immediate postoperative period has been proven by a variety of randomized studies, at the same time, in the long-term period, there are cases of aneurysm recurrence, including those accompanied by its rupture and the need for repeated surgical treatment. It should be noted that the development and modernization of various devices for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms is aimed at reducing the risk of operational complications and achieving greater radicality not only in the near, but also in the long-term postoperative period. The purpose of this review is to describe the stages of development of endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. In this work, we describe the most well-known non-constructive methods of treatment.

Medical academic journal. 2022;22(3):105-114
pages 105-114 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies