Vol 19, No 2 (2019)

Review
The role of cell proliferation in atherogenesis and in the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaque in human
Pigarevsky P.V., Yakovleva O.G., Maltseva S.V., Guseva V.A.
Abstract

The review examined of the processes of cell proliferation in human vascular wall and experimental animals during the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Shows the types of actively proliferating cells: lymphocytes, macrophages, endotheliocytes and zones identified in the vascular wall, where this proliferation occurs. The factors that promote and hinder cell proliferation during the growth of atherosclerotic plaque are identified. The survey shows all the stages of the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, ranging from normal plots and lipid stains to pronounced fibrous plaques. Establishes a link between the cell proliferation and inflammation in the vascular wall man. Separately considered the role of cell proliferation in the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaque. If atherosclerosis this process still poorly studied, in the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaques in humans it is completely unknown. Based on your own original data was finally on the important role of the processes of cell proliferation in the formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaques in humans.

Medical academic journal. 2019;19(2):7-12
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Modern conceptions about the pathogenesis of tumor-related epilepsy
Tolstykh N.V., Gurchin A.F., Koroleva N.Y., Stolyarov I.D.
Abstract

Tumor-related epilepsy is of interest among the symptomatic epilepsy, that develops in 75% of patients with gliomas low-grade (astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas — Gr II) and more than 95% of patients with glioneuronal tumors (ganglioglioma — Gr I). Currently, the nature of epileptogenic activity in brain tumors is still controversial, and the search for epileptogenic foci that are part of the tumor zone presents certain difficulties. The authors described the structural changes and metabolism in the tumor and peritumoral zone, immunological status, and molecular genetic features of the tumor, which may explain the pathogenesis of tumor-related epilepsy. In turn, the clarification of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis is a prerequisite for the development of therapeutically effective anticonvulsants, and to improve the strategies of complex treatment of tumors associated with epilepsy.

Medical academic journal. 2019;19(2):13-25
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Role of pancreatic amyloidosis in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Gudkova A.Y., Antimonova O.I., Shavlovsky M.M.
Abstract

The occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in developed countries is currently becoming epidemic primarily due to the changes in quality of life. This disease typically makes progress for a long time, and its clinical pattern is mostly related to various micro- and macrovascular complications. In addition to said complications the pancreas itself often undergoes damage associated with amyloid formation in islets of Langerhans which results in a toxic effect on the hormone-producing islet cells. Ultimately, hormone overproduction in T2DM shifts to hormone deficiency. The crucial causative factor of the development of pancreatic amyloidosis in T2DM is а short peptide hormone, amylin (IAPP), which is cosecreted with insulin and considered to be a kind of insulin antagonist. The present review reports structure, functions and amyloidogenic properties of human IAPP. The basic concepts of molecular and cellular aspects concerning pathogenesis of pancreatic amyloidosis have been provided. Patterns of the development of pancreatic amyloid lesions and possible approaches for early diagnosis and treatment of this significant complication of T2DM have been discussed.

Medical academic journal. 2019;19(2):27-36
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Basic studies
The specific activity of proteins involved in iron metabolism depends on compensation of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Voynova I.V., Kostevich V.A., Elizarova A.Y., Karpenko M.N., Sokolov A.V.
Abstract

Objective. We aimed to analyze the alterations of activity of iron metabolism members i.e. ceruloplasmin (Cp) and transferrin (Tf), in relation to the percentage of glycated hemoglobin. The latter is one of biochemical criteria of chronic hyperglycemia compensation in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Materials and methods. Concentration and activity of Cp and Tf, concentration of iron, copper and lipoprotein cholesterol were measured by biochemical methods in blood serum samples obtained from healthy donors and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus divided in three groups according to glycated hemoglobin level.

Results. The significant decrease in serum copper, ferroxidase activity of Cp and iron-binding capacity of Tf, as well as an increase of Tf concentration, in groups with compensated and uncompensated type 2 diabetes mellitus was found.

Conclusion. Our data demonstrate a statistical link between the degree of type 2 diabetes mellitus compensation and alteration of iron metabolism members’ activity. Thus, an increase of hyperglycemia is associated with a decrease of both Cp ferroxidase activity and the degree of Tf saturation with iron. These alterations may explain the efficiency of treatment with iron chelators of such type 2 diabetes mellitus complications as trophic ulcers. The said disease condition is directly connected with the changes in iron efflux.

Medical academic journal. 2019;19(2):37-42
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The effect of military-training experience on psychophysiological and cardiovascular characteristics of cognitive functions
Pavlov K.I., Petrenko M.I., Syrtsev A.V., Archimuk A.N., Mikheeva E.A., Nikolaeva S.V., Andieva N.M., Mukhin V.N., Sysoev V.N.
Abstract

The aim of our research is to studying the effect of military-training experience on physical development, cognitive functions and their electrophysiological and cardiovascular characteristics. The object was cadets of the first course of the Naval institute (n = 125). All cadets have been divided into two groups: cadets of the 1st group had no of military-professional experience (n = 81), cadets of the 2nd group was graduated from Suvorov Military (Nakhimov Naval) High Schools (n = 44). We used anthropometrical measurements, physiological and psychophysiological tests, methods of electroencephalography, photoplethysmography and analysis of heart rate variability. To confirm significance of differences between groups ANOVA was used. Cadets of the investigated groups had many distinctive features in physical development, cognitive functions and their electrophysiological and cardiovascular characteristics witch demonstrated the effect of military-training experience.

Medical academic journal. 2019;19(2):43-52
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Bupropion effect depends on rats’ coping style
Zhukov D.A., Nemez V.V., Vinogradova E.P.
Abstract

Objective. The effect of antidepressant bupropion on the behavior of rats subjected to chronic mild unpredictable stress was investigated. Rats with opposite coping styles — active and passive — were subjected to stress.

Materials and methods. In the population of outbred animals Wistar were isolated individuals with the opposite coping styles on the basis of the acquisition of active avoidance. The animals of these two groups were tested in the Porsolt’s test and in the elevated plus-maze, and then subjected to chronic stress.

Results. Behavioral deficits were more pronounced in rats with initial active coping style. After administration of bupropion behavior in the Porsolt’s test was restored only in rats with initially active coping style. On the behavior of animals with an initially passive coping style, bupropion had no impact.

Conclusion. Our findings suggest the different nature of post-stress disorders in animals with different active and passive coping styles.

Medical academic journal. 2019;19(2):53-56
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The influence of acizol into effects of picrotoxin, injected in rat’s neostriatum
Yakimovskii А.F.
Abstract

The aim of the article. The article is devoted to investigation of of zinc donator acizol influence to rat’s behavior, broken by intrastriatal injection of GABA-A receptor antagonist picrotoxin.

Materials and methods. Adult male Wistar rats with avoidance conditioning reflexes in “shuttle box” and free locomotor activity in “open field” were used. Daily microinjection of picrotoxin (2 mcg/1 mcl) bilateral into rostral neostriatum in term of 15 days were made. Zinc donator acizol was injected intraperitoneal (24 mg/kg).

Results. Steady losses of avoidance conditioning and choreo-mioclonic hyperkinesis of limbs and body, similar with human Huntington’s chorea by picrotoxin were produced. Acizol is contribute to restore avoidance conditioning and to prevent the development of hyperkinesis or essentially extend latency and lover duration of it.

Conclusion. With the early data obtained, there is reason to propose, that acizol, to increasing the zinc content in the body, especially in the brain, is recover damaged cognitive function and to prevent the picrotoxin-induced hyperkinesis. Acizol should be proposed as perspective drug in extrapyramidal hyperkinetic deviation treatment in human.

Medical academic journal. 2019;19(2):57-62
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Novel technologies
Celestine blue B as a sensor for hypochlorous acid and HOCL-modified proteins registration
Lutsenko V.E., Grigorieva D.V., Gorudko I.V., Cherenkevich S.N., Gorbunov N.N., Kostevich V.A., Panasenko O.M., Sokolov A.V.
Abstract

Objective — the study of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and its derivatives production, which catalyzed by human neutrophil myeloperoxidase, using “turn-on” fluorescent sensor — celestine blue B.

Materials and methods. Neutrophils were isolated from the venous blood of healthy donors. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, plant lectins, HOCl-modified proteins were used as agonists. N-acetylcysteine, 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, isoniazid and ceruloplasmin were used as regulators of neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity and/or HOCl scavengers.

Results. Using a wide range of agonists and inhibitors, it has been shown that celestine blue B is oxidized in vitro by HOCl and its derivatives as a result of neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity. The oxidation of celestine blue B by HOCl-modified human serum albumin (HSA-Cl) and inhibition of this process by monoclonal antibody against HSA-Cl (IgM class) was also found.

Conclusion. Based on the developed method using celestine blue B, it is possible to conduct a sensitive analysis for the presence of HOCl-modified proteins (chloramines, etc.), to investigate the effect of various agonists and drugs on myeloperoxidase activity and exocytosis from the neutrophil granules.

Medical academic journal. 2019;19(2):63-71
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Clinical research
Features of atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary and peripheral arteries among patients with various forms of ischemic heart disease
Prudnikov A.R.
Abstract

The aim of the article. To determine the features of atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary and peripheral arteries in patients with various forms of coronary heart disease.

Material and methods. Male patients with verified IHD diagnoses: stable angina pectoris of 2 FC and patients with myocardial infarction of different localization and severity were investigated. All of the examined patients were underwent ultrasound examination of peripheral arteries with assessment of vessel wall, intima-media complex and description of atherosclerotic plaques if they were presented in vessels.

Results. The predominance of non-concentric atherosclerotic plaques of type 3 according to the classification of Gray-Weal and Geroulakos in peripheral arteries is noted. It was found that atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries, combined with the thickening of the intima-media complex were more common in the group of patients with myocardial infarction. The amount of Syntax score I points, reflecting the severity of atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries, did not differ significantly in the studied groups. The presence of direct correlation relationships of average force (p < 0,05) between the parameters of peripheral artery atherosclerosis severity and Syntax score I points, as well as the number of affected coronary arteries in the study groups was noted.

Conclusion. The results indicate a close relationship between carotid and coronary atherosclerosis, which determines the importance of using ultrasound examination of peripheral arteries (in particular, brachiocephalic) to assess the risk of recurrent acute coronary events.

Medical academic journal. 2019;19(2):73-80
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