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Vol 14, No 3 (2016)

Articles
Ischemia, reperfusion and preconditioning: traditional and new approaches for treatment of myocardial infarction
Lyubimov A.V., Shabanov P.D.
Abstract

The review is devoted to the questions of improvement of the efficacy of myocardial infarction treatment by means of pharmacological drugs possessing pre- or postconditioning effect. The proofs of clinical efficacy of reperfusional therapy of the myocardial infarction are observed using examples of adenosine, activators of KATP channels (diazoxide and nicorandil), opiates (fentanyl, morphine) and some other drugs. The data are analyzed from the point of modern view of molecular mechanisms of hypoxia, the findings of objective laboratory and instrumental control in therapy of myocardial infarction in differend known clinical trials. It is concluded that pharmacological preconditioning is perspective approach in therapy of the acute myocardial infarction both in animal models and in humans.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(3):3-11
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Cortisol and BDNF levels in depression within schizophrenia structure: approach to treating
Nikiforova Y.S., Mazo G.E.
Abstract
To evaluate the effect of depression on the level of cortisol and BDNF in patients with schizophrenia 25 inpatients, who met the diagnostic criteria for ICD-10 schizophrenia (F20), were examined. The examination included clinical, psychopathological, laboratory and psychometric methods. Patients were examined twice: at admission and after 6 weeks of treatment. It was found that the level of BDNF in schizophrenic patients with depressive symptoms was significantly lower than that of non-depressed patients, and the level of cortisol in patients with depression was significantly higher.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(3):12-17
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Spiral computed tomography in the solving of diagnostic and therapeutic problems in respiratory tuberculosis
Kondakova M.N., Elkin A.V., Gavrilov P.V., Sukhanov D.S., Evseev P.Y.
Abstract

The authors analyze the data of modern national literature about the importance of spiral computed tomography (SCT) and its role in solving diagnostic and therapeutic problems in respiratory tuberculosis. The most frequently discussed aspects at the present stage include questions of activity of tuberculosis process, thedifferential diagnosis of rounded formations, disseminated lesions of the lung tissue. The application of the currently proposed contrasting techniques of SCT improves the quality of diagnosis from the syndrome to the nosological level. The results presented show that the inclusion of SCT of the chest in standards of the examination of a patient with suspected tuberculosis will improve the quality of care for the discussed patients.

 

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(3):18-23
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About the influence of metal oxide nanoparticles on living organisms physiology
Zeinalov O.А., Kombarova S.P., Bagrov D.V., Petrosyan M.A., Tolibova G.H., Feofanov A.V., Shaitan K.V.
Abstract
Recently the number of materials and goods produced by nanotechnology has been growing rapidly, leading to an increased penetration of nanoparticles into biosystems. To assess the risks associated with the production and circulation of nanoproducts should be developed methods for the rapid diagnostics of nanopathology. In this work, it has been experimentally shown that the introduction of metal oxides nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, CeO2) to laboratory mice leads to changes some profiles of specific hematological and biochemical blood parameters. Therefore for the purpose of early detection of symptoms of intoxication as benchmarks of the influence of metal oxide nanoparticles on living organisms can recommend express monitoring of peripheral blood (red blood parameters) and biochemical parameters of blood serum (activity of aminotransferases and indicators of nitrogen metabolism). The chosen indicators of blood can serve as diagnostic biomarkers in the development of rapid tests of primary monitoring of the impact of metal oxide nanoparticles on biological systems.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(3):24-33
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A new approach to understanding structure, functions and classificasion of GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex, a molecular target for creation of new anticonvulsants on the base of inhibitory amino acids
Shilov G.N., Bubel O.N., Shabanov P.D.
Abstract
The GABA molecule was shown to the methods of quantum mechanic characteristics and molecular geometry has three conformational states: linear (GABA-1 conformer), cyclic (GABA-2 comformer) and bucket-like (GABA-3 conformer). The play different functions in the brain neurons: cyclic and bucket-like conformers play role of endogenous transmitters, and linear conformer participates in neuronal metabolism. The theoretical conformational analysis shows there are two types of GABA receptors in the CNS neurons: GABA-2 receptors, agonists of which are cyclic conformer of GABA, glycine and β-alanine and antagonists are bemegride, pentilentetrazol and strychnine; and GABA-3 receptors, agonists of which is bucket-like conformer of GABA and antagonists are picrotoxin and bicuculline. Anticonvulsive and other behavioral effects of derivatives of barbituric acid, benzazepine, benzodiazepine, gidantoine, succinimide and oxasolidindione are realized probably via GABA-2 receptors to switch on them the following functional centers of their structure are nessesary: α, γ and [δ-ε] for barbitirates; β, [δ-ε] and γ for carbamazepine; β and [δ-ε] for benzodiazepine derivatives, gabapentine and vigabatrine; α, β, γ and [δ-ε] for gidantoine and oxasolidindione derivatives; α, β, γ for succinimide derivatives. The power of any behavioral effect of anticonvulsants and inhibitory amino acids depends on power, location and numbers of hydrogen bounds developed between active centers of pharmacophore of anticonvulsant or inhibitory amino acids and active centers of functional skeleton of GABA-2 receptor complex, these properties determine absense of nootropic activity in anticonvulsive drugs and presense of them in inhibitory amino acids. It is concluded there are perspectives of synthesis of conpounds, pharmacophore of which should be like as cyclic conformer of GABA, glycine and β-alanine on their quantum mechanic characteristics and molecular geometry
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(3):34-45
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Effect of amphetamine on behavioral patterns of obsessive-compulsive and addictive gambling in a rat marble test
Shabanov P.D., Lebedev A.A., Yakushina N.D., Pshenichnaya A.G., Bychkov E.R.
Abstract
A rodent marble test can be qualified as the most informative test of evaluation of obsessive-compulsive disorder as a neurobiological component of pathological gambling. Several behavioral components of obsession (obsessive and anxious ideas) and compulsions (obsessive actions) directed to anxiety reduction are modeled in this test. The effect of psychostimulant amphetamine on the rat behavior was studied in a marble test, anxiety-phobic model (scale), open field (evaluation of motor and emotional activity) and resident-intruder test (Intraspecies behavior). Amphetamine 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg increased a number of burying bolls and elevated anxiety level in dose dependent manner. This accompanied with reduction of explorative activity, elevation of motor activity and number of individual behavioral patterns. Therefore, dopaminergic system of the brain activated with amphetamine is involved in obsessive-compulsive behavior and pathological gambling.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(3):46-52
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Safety study of fentanyl and dexmedetomidine combination in an experimental model of respiratory failure
Vengerovich N.G., Judin M.A., Kon’shakov Y.O., Sherbasov K.A., Gadzikovskiy S.V., Vladimirova O.O., Alekseeva I.I.
Abstract
In an experimental model of respiratory failure induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 1 LD50 of paraquat (24 mg/kg) the changes of physical activity tolerance, respiratory function parameters were studied and histomorphologic validation of experimental results was confirmed. In a model of respiratory failure the assessment of analgesic activity and toxicity of fentanyl, dexmedetomidine and their combination was made and compared with intact animals. The integral tolerance rates (therapeutic action width) were also estimated. It was shown that on the background of pulmonary pathology for each of the drugs 13-28% decrease of average lethal doses was observed. At the same time when administered in combination an average effective dose of the drugs wasn’t changed in contrast with single-drug analgesia.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(3):53-57
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Efficacy of selective agonist V2 vasopressin receptor, 1-dezamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin, in the treatment of pain in patients with degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the spine
Belokoskova S.G., Tsikunov S.G.
Abstract
Pain is the leading symptom with degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the vertebral column. Now for the treatment of vertebral pain using pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments. However, in some cases, the application of these techniques is contraindicated or ineffective. In this regard, relevant search for new methods of therapy of pain syndrome. It is known that arginine-vasopressin (AVP), along with the hormonal effects shows properties of neuromodulator. The experiment shows that AVP showed analgetic properties. AVP reduced the severity of pain in patients with renal colic, with migraine, pains due to cancer [24, 36, 37]. There is not data on the impact of AVP on vertebrogenic pain syndrome. In this context, the aim of the research was to assess the effectiveness of the agonist V2-receptors, 1-dezamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin, DDAVP, in correction of pain syndrome in patients with degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the vertebral column. Treatment received 23 patients. DDAVP is injected intranasal drip in a daily dose of 1•10 -7 g. The control group consisted of 10 patients with vertebral pain who received traditional therapy. Therapeutic effect of DDAVP was in 87 % of cases. Pain decreased after 2.5-3 hours from the beginning of treatment in patients with moderate and mild pain. Along with reduction of pain regressed fatigue-depressive disorders. Thus, it was shown that the DDAVP was effective and safe in the treatment of vertebral pain.
Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2016;14(3):58-65
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