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Vol 13, No 3 (2015)

Articles
The evaluation of genetic material stability of male patients with paranoid schizophrenia at different stages of treatment using the micronucleus test in buccal epithelium
Kalaev V.N., Skamrova G.B., Ignatova I.V.
Abstract
Background. It has been studied the genome stability of male patients with paranoid schizophrenia at different stages of treatment by means of micronucleus test in buccal epithelium. Materials and methods. Buccal epithelium of the oral mucosa was collected from 20 male patients in age 20-40 years with paranoid schizophrenia at the beginning, middle and end of treatment; 10 healthy male volunteers aged 20-40 years were in the control group. Patients were treated with drugs: amitriptyline (Amitriptylinum), haloperidol (Haloperidolum), neuleptil (Periciazinum), azaleptin (Clozapinum), finlepsin (Carbamazepinum). Cells with micronuclei, protrusions “language” and “broken egg”, notches perinuclear vacuoles were conducted by means of light microscopy method. Statistical data processing was performed using software package «Stadia». Results. It has been shown that the disease influences on the stability of human genetic apparatus. It has been detected the decreasing of occurrence frequency of micronuclei, central circular notches, protrusions “broken egg”, the increasing of frequency of cells with karyorhexis, and nonlinear changing of occurrence frequency of binuclear cells, cells with karyolysis, protrusions “language” and perinuclear vacuoles during the treatment. The fraction of cells with micronuclei, binuclear cells, cells with central circular notches, protrusions “broken egg” decreased as a result of treatment. The fraction of cells with perinuclear vacuoles increased during the treatment. Patients with schizophrenia were divided into 3 groups with different responses to treatment. Conclusion. Stability of the genome of patients with schizophrenia increased due to expressed anti-stress action of drugs used for combined therapy.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(3):3-14
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The association between no-synthases gene polymorphisms and post-traumatic knee ostearthritis development among Rostov region residents
Vnukov V.V., Krolevets I.V., Panina S.B., Milyutina N.P., Ananyan A.A., Plotnikov A.A., Zabrodin M.A.
Abstract
Background. Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic degenerative disease. The risk factors for the development of knee OA are joint trauma and genetic predisposition. The aim of the present work was to study the associations between gene polymorphisms -84G > A nNOS and -786T > C eNOS and the risk of post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTOA) development among Rostov region residents and to define the interactions between these polymorphisms and nitrite level in the plasma and synovial fluid (SF) and chondrocyte apoptosis in patients with PTOA. Materials and Methods. Case-control study involved 117 post-traumatic knee OA patients and 94 healthy controls. The nNOS and eNOS polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction. The nitrite concentrations in the plasma and synovial fluid were defined using Griess reaction. Chondrocyte apoptosis in cartilage sections was assessed morphologically by electron microscopy. Results. The G-84A nNOS genotype showed statistical differences between groups. The A allele is associated with PTOA development (OR 2,02, CI 1,08-3,76, p = 0,02). The eNOS genotype did not show statistical difference between groups. The NOx- concentration was higher both in plasma (p = 0,022) and synovial fluid (p = 0,014) of PTOA patients compared with plasma of healthy subjects. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the nitrite level in the SF is linked with -786T > C NOS3 genotype; the -786С allele leaded to the decreasing in NOx- concentration. The electron microscopy confirmed the presence of early and late apoptotic chondrocytes in PTOA cartilage tissue. Conclusion. The G-84A nNOS polymorphism may be associated with PTOA development and chondrocyte apoptosis intensification. The -786С allele of -786T > C NOS3 is associated with reduced NOx- concentration in the synovial fluid.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(3):15-22
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First data on genetic variability of the siberian wood frog rana amurensis in western siberia and its differentiation from the moor frog rana arvalis
Zhigileva O.N., Kirina I.Y.
Abstract
The article presents data on genetic variability in populations of two brown frog species: the moor frog Rana arvalis and the siberian wood frog R. amurensis, in Western Siberia, Russia. Persentage of polymorphic ISSR-PCR-bands in R. arvalis was 63-93 %, in R. amurensis - 90 %, genetic diversity indices were 0.18-0.20 and 0.31, respectively. The high level of genetic variability in the siberian wood frog is contrary to its low population size, restricted distribution in the study area and the boundary position of the population. Some ISSR-PCR-bands were species-specific, they can be used for fast genotyping and further population genetic studies of the siberian wood and the moor frog in their areas of cohabitation.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(3):23-27
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Assessment of the state population gene pool of specially protected species Helicopsis striata (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) using DNA-markers
Snegin E.A.
Abstract
With the use of DNA-markers (RAPD and ISSR) the gene pool of nineteen populations of specially protected relict species Helicopsis striata (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in Southern Mid-Russian Upland was studied. These results demonstrate a high degree of subdivision of populations (Фst = 0,404, Gst = 0,358) and increased levels of homozygosity in a number of groups that live in the industrial zone and the steppe habitats. The significant correlation between the level of gene flow and geographic distances between populations (R = 0,571 ± 0,052) was found, this corresponds to isolation by distance model. The values of the effective number was calculated on the basis of index units. They were significantly lower than the effective number of not protected species of snail.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(3):28-39
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Obtaining of interspecific hybrids for pea introgressive breeding
Bobkov S.V., Selikhova T.N.
Abstract
Background. Overcoming of reproductive isolation, identification and transfer of agronomic value genes from wild relatives into cultivated pea genomes is an important task for pea introgressive breeding. Materials and methods. Reciprocal hybridization of cultivated pea with wide set of P. fulvum accessions was conducted. Identification of hybrids was carried out with use of biochemical and morphological markers. Identification of unique protein was conducted with use of electrophoretic spectra of mature seeds. Results. Pea interspecific hybrids were obtained in two reciprocal directions of crosses. Cross efficiency in Р. sativum × P. fulvum and P. fulvum × Р. sativum combinations was 36 % and 7 %, respectively. All tested seeds in crosses Р. sativum × P. fulvum were hybrids. Crosses in direction P. fulvum × Р. sativum led to formation of puny seeds restricted in embryo growth. Protein markers of one seed derived in cross P. fulvum × Р. sativum proved its hybrid nature. Morphological markers demonstrated that plant derived from another cross was also a hybrid. Culture of immature embryos was developed for recovering plants in interspecific crosses. Morphogenic calli and regenerated plants were obtained in culture of immature embryos P. fulvum (И592589) × Р. sativum (Aest). Identification of unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was conducted. Inheritance of that protein was proved as monogenic dominant. Conclusion. Efficiency of hybridization in combination P. fulvum × Р. sativum was significantly less in compare to reciprocal one. All products of that cross combination were tested as hybrids. Unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was revealed as a result of mature seed electrophoretic spectra analysis. Inheritance of that protein was determined as monogenic dominant.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(3):40-49
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Evolution of virulence in population of flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini (Pers.) Lev. in conditions of Russia
Kutuzova S.N., Porokhovinova E.A., Brutch N.B.
Abstract
Background. Rust is a dangerous flax disease, which reduces the yield and quality of products. The choice of methods of breeding for resistance should be based on knowledge of the processes occurring in the fungi population, and leading to changes in its virulence. Materials and methods. The article describes the results of over then 40 years observation of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini (Pers.) Lev. populations’ virulence during the study of resistance of accessions from VIR world flax collection on artificial infectious background. Late sparse sowings were infected by last year’s infected with fungi straw. The method of this background creation allows one to maintain a natural flow of race-forming process. Results. Susceptibility of 45 relatively resistant accessions from 1978 to 2011 is presented. The significant narrowing of the fungi populations’ virulence, caused by the spread in flax sowing zone cultivars with polygenic resistance, providing a calm epidemiological situation for several decades, was shown. Now under the influence of the distribution of varieties with different types of resistance, fungi turned into depression. Conclusion. The modern trend of breeding, mainly aimed at the creation of varieties with vertical resistance, and in the absence of control over the originality of their R-genes can lead to a new round of the disease development.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(3):50-61
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Identification of complementary genes of hybrid lethality in crosses of bread wheat and rye. Results and perspectives
Tikhenko N.D., Tsvetkova N.V., Lyholay A.N., Voylokov A.V.
Abstract
Numerous genes were found in crop plants, leading to death or sterility of distant hybrids. However, the evolutionary role of concrete genes in the reproductive isolation of the species remains unclear. The article summarizes the own data for identification of hybrid lethality genes that were detected in wheat -rye crosses. Seeds with the dead, undifferentiated embryo and normal endosperm were found in crosses of bread wheat with four out of a hundred studied inbred lines of rye. It is shown that the hybrid lethality is a consequence of the negative complementary interaction of genes of wheat and rye. Rye gene Eml-1R is represented by two alleles - dominant incompatible and recessive compatible. It was mapped on chromosome 6R relative microsatellite and isozyme loci. Complementary wheat gene Eml-1A is located on chromosome 6A. Location of interacting genes on syntenic fragments of chromosomes 6R and 6A may indicate gomeology of hybrid lethality genes in wheat and rye. However, embryonic lethality observed in individual wheat-rye hybrids, cannot be attributed to the evolutionary developed intergeneric incompatibility, like a well-studied prezygotic incompatibility of wheat and related genera.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(3):62-69
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Mutagenic potential of some heavy metals
Reutova N.V.
Abstract
Heavy metals are drastically different group from the point of view of its mutagenic properties. The mutagenic potential of eight heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, W) was investigated using plant test-system Crepis capillaris L. Ag and Cr were mutagens at the lowest concentrations (up to 10-8M), Cu and W were not mutagens. Analysis of the results obtained with other plant test-systems was done and good correlations were established. Toxic and mutagenic sequences of these metals were made up.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(3):70-75
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Manifestations of resistance to acaricides in inbred lines of two-spotted spider mite in the process of disruptive selection
Sundukov O.V., Tulaeva I.A., Zubanov E.A.
Abstract
Background: Information about genetic and biochemical mechanisms of arthropods resistance to pesticide obtained with resistant and susceptible genotypes is more correct than that of population-based samples. Materials and methods: The disruptively selection of two-spotted spider mites was carried out on the basis of the presence or absence of resistance to four acaricides - dimethoate, bifenthrin, abamectin and bromopropylate. A possible resistance mechanisms of mite to abamectin and bromopropylate was detected when testing the diagnostic` concentrations of acaricides which toxic action is known. Synergetic effect of resistant genotypes treated with monooxygenase inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) was studied. Carboxylesterase isoenzymes were determined with use of poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis in individual genotypes of spider mite. Results: Statistical analysis of genotypes selection results demonstrated 30 % of females with no traits of resistance to the toxicant in all resistant lines of each generation. The reason this is arrhenotokous reproduction spider mites and dominant status of alleles determining the traits of resistance. Abamectin and bromopropylate resistant mites were synergized by PBO. Resistance was positively correlated with increased carboxylesterase activity in resistant genotypes. Conclusion: Reduced sensitivity to pesticides in resistant arthropods was found in alteration recordings sensory receptivity and through elevated levels of carboxylesterase and monooxygenase activity. This is universal adaptive response of the arthropods organism to intoxication by any pesticides.
Ecological genetics. 2015;13(3):76-84
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