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Vol 12, No 1 (2014)

Oxidized form of 5-methylcytosine - 5-hydroxymethylcytosine: a new insight into the biological significance in the mammalian genome
Efimova O.A., Pendina A.A., Tikhonov A.V., Kuznetzova T.V., Baranov V.S.
The present review summarizes data on 5-hydroxymethylcytosine - a modification of cytosine with a recently discovered epigenetic effect. The biochemical mechanisms of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation and further modification in the mammalian genome are discussed; the role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the epigenetic reprogramming during mammalian gametogenesis and early embryogenesis as well as in the regulation of gene expression is analyzed; data on the diseases and the adverse environmental factors, linked to the DNA hydroxymethyaltion disruptions is shown.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(1):3-13
Reducing of LXRβ and PPARγ mRNA in M-CSF stimulated macrophages in patients with levels atherosclerosis
Demina Y.P., Miroshnikova V.V., Mayorov N.V., Davydenko V.V., Schwarzman A.L.
Nuclear receptors LXRα/β and PPARγ play an important role in lipid metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. However, the influence of LXRα/β and PPARγ mRNA levels in macrophages on atherosclerosis remains unexplored. Using real time PCR, we determined LXRα mRNA, LXRβ mRNA and PPARγ mRNA levels in macrophages cultured for 5 days with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Levels of LXRβ mRNA and PPARγ mRNA in patients with arterial stenosis were reduced when compared with the control group, p < 0.001. LXRa gene mRNA level in macrophages was not changed in the study groups, (p = 0.17). Thus, our study shows that the LXRβ and PPARγ genes expression levels in macrophages may be significant factors associated with the development of atherosclerosis.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(1):14-18
Cytokine gene polymorphisms and early pregnancy loss
Mashkina Y.V., Kovalenko K.A., Fomina N.V., Shkurat T.P.
Background: A disbalance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines can negatively affect early stages of human embryogenesis. The association between polymorphism of cytokine genes (-31С-Т IL1B, -174G-C IL6, -308G-A TNFα and -592С-A, -819C-T IL10) and a pregnancy loss was studied. Materials and method: Study was performed on DNA samples from two groups of women with pregnancy loss: those with a missed abortion (MA) (n = 62) and those with a spontaneous abortion (SA) (n = 62). The control group included 114 women with normal pregnancy. Cytokine genotyping was performed using PCR with sequence-specific primers, with the “SNP-express” kit (Lytech, Russian Federation). Results: Increase in the frequency of heterozygotes for -31С-Т polymorphism of the IL1β gene among women with MA (58.1) if compared with those with SA (36.7%) was found. In the SA group the frequency of heterozygotes for -592С-Т of the IL10 gene was higher (56.7%) than in the control group) (32.5%). The frequency of the -819Т allele of IL10 gene among women with SA was higher than in the control group (0.33 vs 0.23). The -308A allele of the TNFα gene featured the lowest frequency in the SA group if compared with those in the MA and the control group). Conclusion: Our data show that the risk of spontaneous abortion increases if -592A and -819T IL-10, and -308G TNFα genes` alleles are present in the genotype.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(1):19-27
Influence of DNA repair genes polymorphism on karyology of buccal epithelium cells in humans exposed to radon
Meyer A.V., Tolochko T.A., Minina V.I., Timofeyeva A.A.
Were investigated samples from 318 children and adolescents (174 males, 144 females), who were exposed to radon at home, and 65 people (23 males, 42 females) in the control group. Using micronucleus test on buccal epithelial cells we identified a significant increase in the number of cells with cytogenetic and proliferative abnormalities in the exposed group. Were investigated the association NBS1 (rs1805794), ATM (rs1801516), ADPRT (rs1136410) genes polymorphism with karyological abnormalities in buccal epithelial cells. For the exposed group, an association of NBS1 Glu185Gln polymorphism with increasing frequency of identification of “broken egg”-type protrusions and apoptotic bodies was established. NBS1 185Glu/Gln & ATM1853Asp/Asp genotypes were associated with an elevated levels of cytogenetic damage, while the NBS1 185Glu/Glu & ATM 1853Asp/Asn allelic variant plays a protective role. In the control group, no significant associations were found.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(1):28-38
Identification of new genes of nodule bacteria sinorhizobium meliloti involved in the control of efficiency of symbiosis with alfalfa medicago sativa
Onishchuk O.P., Kurchak O.N., Chizhevskaya E.P., Andronov E.Y., Simarov B.V.
Background. Alfalfa root nodule bacteria (Sinorhizobium meliloti) are among the most active symbiotic N2-fixers. Their symbiotic efficiency (SE) defined as an ability to enhance the productivity of inoculated host plants is the polygenic trait controlled by a complicated system of genes, inactivation of which can result in either decrease or increase of SE. Analysis of previously identified eff-genes, whose mutations result in SE increase, revealed their location in different parts of genome (chromosome or megaplasmids) and demonstrated that these genes are not involved in operation of nitrogenase system. Mutations in these genes have pleiotropic effects, changing various cultural-biochemical properties of bacteria. Materials and methods. The object of research were the laboratory S. meliloti strain CXM1-105 and its Tn5-mutants with Eff++ phenotype, which are able to grow in diagnostic media containing indicator of cell redox potential ТТC, herbicide 2М-4ХМ or the Congo Red dye. New eff-genes were identified using the modified method of “inverted” PCR. Results. We obtained three Tn5 mutants with an increased SE in which the symbiotic phenotypes are dependent on the host. Two-factor analysis of variance demonstrated that the genotypic difference between mutants is most pronounced under the salt stress, while in its absence SE is determined mostly by the host genotype. Molecular-biological analysis revealed that the T4 mutant harbours the Tn5 insertion in the mtaD gene, T795 - in the thiC gene, and M3 - in the gene which encodes a protein belonging to the GntR family of transcription regulators. Conclusion. We demonstrated firstly that mutations in genes involved in transcription regulation, phosphonate metabolism and thiamine biosynthesis may result in a SE increase. The “inverted” PCR method enabled us to rapidly extract DNA fragments flanking the transposon, which suggests applicability of this method for identification of new rhizobia genes marked by Tn5.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(1):39-47
Genetic diversity and differentiation of siberian stone pine populations at the southern edge in lowland part of West Siberia
Petrova Y.A., Velisevich S.N., Belokon M.M., Belokon Y.S., Politov D.V., Goroshkevich S.N.
Background. Siberian Stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) is one of the major forest-forming species at West Siberia. Climate change and anthropogenic impact lead to reduction of Siberian stone pine forests at the southern limit of distribution in lowland part of the species range. Materials and methods. Five Siberian Stone pine stands from the trailing edge in transit zone between southern taiga and forest-steppe in West Siberia were studied. Genotypes of 104 trees on 25 allozyme loci coding for 15 enzymes were determined using starch gel electrophoresis. Results. We evaluated genetic diversity, differentiation and population subdivision of Siberian Stone pine from the trailing edge in West Siberia. About 2 % of total genetic diversity was related with differences between populations (FST = 0,021). Conclusions. In our study at the southern limit of distribution in lowland part of Siberian Stone pine range there is no indication of genetic depauperation and increased differentiation in small isolated stands due to recent climate change and anthropogenic impact.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(1):48-61
Ni hyperaccumulators among North Caucasian plant species of the tribe Alysseae, Brassicaceae
Terent'eva L.Y., Krapivskaya E.E., Machs E.M., Rodionov A.V.
Background. Heavy metals are dangerous industrial pollutants. Phytoremediation technology is a promising way to detoxificate polluted territories. Heavy metals hyperaccumulating plants present the base for development of these technologies. Many hyperaccumulators belong to the family Brassicaceae (mostly to the Alysseae tribe). Results. Analysis of molecular phylogeny and distribution of hyperaccumulation ability within the tribe Alysseae has been performed using sequences of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region. Neighbor-joining tree has been reconstructed to investigate affinity within Alysseae species. For the first time molecular characters (variable region of the ITS2 structures and compensatory nucleotide substitutions availability) have been used to analyze phylogenetic structure of the tribe. Conclusion. Most of the known hyperaccumulators among species of the Alysseae tribe belong to the Odontarrhena section. ITS2 primary and secondary structure analysis results in the partition of the tribe Alysseae into five clades.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(1):62-72
Population genetic structure and influence of MSTN gene polymorphism on economic and biological characteristics of rabbits
Kopylov K.V., Kopylova Y.V., Shelov A.V., Shevchenko Y.A., Berezovskiy A.V.
Genetic structure of a population of New Zealand White rabbits was studied using myostatin C34T gene polymorphism. Following allele frequencies of this gene were determined: C - 0.530 and T - 0.470. Using the linear mixed model we found a connection between rabbit genotype (a polymorphic variant of myostatin gene) and economically important traits such as average daily gain and differential adaptability to coccidiosis. Our data demonstrate that genotype, gender and season of birth had a statistically significant influence on the average daily weight gain (25 %, 6 %, and 7 %, respectively) but not on the carcass weight. It was found that heterozygous CT animals had a higher daily average gain than CC by 2.3 % and than TT homozygotes by 2,6 %. Analysis of genotype distribution in the second phenotypic trait, carcass weight, revealed that animals with the CT genotype had index higher by 35.3 than the average of the herd. We suggest that molecular genetic analysis of rabbits would make it possible to select «desirable» allelic variants of the myostatin gene in the early stages of postnatal ontogenesis. This in turn would allow to complete the herd of the best animals to improve the economic and biological indicators in modern rabbit breeding industry.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(1):73-78

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