Vol 14, No 3 (2016)

Articles
Biological and social aspects of human sexual orientation: chemocommunicative hypothesis
Daev E.V.
Abstract

Failure to understand the role of biological and social factors in the formation of some socially important traits in humans can lead to the appearance of undue tension in interpersonal relationships. This is due to a distorted perception of man often unreliable information, its ambiguity due to the uncertainty of the terminology used and, as a consequence, the impossibility of its correct analysis. Using of term “sexual orientation” shows as a genetic understanding of the trait’s formation and data on sex formation control mechanisms may clarify and complement our knowledge on the subject. Under the theme chemocommunicative model is considered and its contribution to the formation of “sexual orientation” in humans.

Ecological genetics. 2016;14(3):3-12
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The genetic structure of populations of specially protected mollusk Cepaea vindobonensis (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in a north-eastern part of the modern area
Snegin E.A., Snegina E.A.
Abstract

Background. The population structure of relict and protected species Cepaea vindobonensis Fer. (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata) in a north-eastern part of the modern area has been studied. State population gene pools (11 populations) for environmental activities need to be assessed. 

Materials and Methods. Using allozymes (esterases) and DNA markers (RAPD, ISSR) analysis was performed. The methods polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the DNA in the agarose gel were used. 

Results. The populations with a low level of heterozygosity and high heterozygosity were identified. Group located in the east, did not differ in allelic diversity of the western groups. The average expected heterozygosity for allozyme He = 0,217 ± 0,080 and DNA markers He = 0,164 ± 0,024. However, the population of the Austrian snail in the study area is strongly separated from each other (Fst = 0,231, Gst = 0,265, Фst = 0,261-0,263, Nm = 0,630-0,832). The effective population size (Ne), calculated on the basis of the inbreeding coefficient, was level 0,868 ± 0,028 of the total population. The effective population size, calculated on the basis of the linear regression equation between genetic and geographic distance (Ne = 0,36-2,6) and calculated by a factor of subdivision of populations (Ne = 6,3 ± 0,1), in comparison with the effective size of the populations of common species of terrestrial mollusks was the same. 

Conclusion. Thus, on the basis of these data, in general, we can say, the Austrian population snails have a higher potential for life. However, the reduction of allelic diversity, the increase in the coefficient of inbreeding in some groups and a high level of isolation of populations of C. vindobonensis in the north-eastern part of the range is a concern and requires an adjustment in respect of environmental protection measures of this species.

Ecological genetics. 2016;14(3):13-27
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Assotiation of total carotenoid level in maize grain (Zea mays L.) with polimorphic site InDel1 in PSY1 gene
Orlovskaya O.A., Vakula S.I., Khotyleva L.V., Kilchevsky A.V.
Abstract

Background. The Maize is the only major cereal crop that can naturally accumulate appreciable levels of carotenoids which are the source of provitamin A. The estimation of assotiation of total carotenoid level in maize grain with polimorphism PSY1 InDel1 was made. 

Materials and Methods. We used collection of 54 maize genotypes of different eco-geographical origin, methods of PCR analysis, spectrophotometry, statistical analysis in this study. 

Results. Total carotenoid content of genotypes with favorable allele of InDel1 was 0,60 mg/100 g, which was significantly higher than that of the samples with unfavorable allele (0,43 mg/100 g). 

Conclusion. Thus, the use of PCR-based markers for the PSY1 InDel1 polymorphism is a reliable method for the identification of genotypes with high carotenoid accumulation in maize grain.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(3):28-34
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About approaches to studying of the microevolutionary phenomena in connatural chironomids populations. nonequilibrium of populations as stable state
Zhirov S.V., Mylnikov S.V.
Abstract
Frequencies of disk sequences in polytene chromosomes from sialadens of larvae of three chironomids spesies are analysed. Cases of a deflection of population frame from expected under Hardy-Vajnberg law are statistically confirmed. Allo-cation of frequencies of individuals with different level of heterozygosity in popu-lation of Camptochironomus tentans is investigated. Influence of driving and stabi-lising selection on population is shown. The mean of an assessment of influence of different disk sequences on fitness on the basis of single assemblies is offered. Sta-bility of nonequilibrium of the investigated populations as a homeostasis sign is noted.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(3):35-46
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Morphological and genetic features of cisco (coregonidae: coregonus sp.) from lake Sobachye (Putorana plateau)
Borovikova E.A., Romanov V.I., Nikulina J.S.
Abstract

Background. Recently was revealed that cisco from Lake Sobachye (Putorana Plateau) is more similar to Coregonus albula Linnaeuas than C. sardinella Valenciennes according to number of vertebrae [13]. The aim of this work was to investigate molecular genetic features of this population. 

Materials and methods. For morphological analysis were used 60 specimens of cisco from Lake Sobachye. For nine specimens molecular genetic analysis was performed. The sequences of two fragments of the mitochondrial DNA (ND1 and COI) were defined. 

Results. The cisco of the Lake Sobachye significantly differed from riverine cisco of this region by meristic features (namely from cisco of the River Pyasina). Sequencing results showed the minimal divergence of the ND1 and COI sequences of the cisco from Lake Sobachye and vendace. 

Conclusion. Morphological analysis and analysis of the mitochondrial DNA polymorphism of cisco from Lake Sobachye revealed close relationship of this population to C. albula.

Ecological genetics. 2016;14(3):47-55
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Transcription activity of genes taking part in Colorado potato beetle diapause regulation and its changes under the fipronil impact
Nikonorov Y.M., Syrtlanova L.A., Kitaev K.A., Benkovskaya G.V.
Abstract

Background. The peculiarities of transcription activity of genes taking part in Colorado potato beetle diapause regulation have been investigated under the laboratory conditions in winter diapause initiation phase and in the middle of winter. 

Materials and Methods. Excerpt of summer generation (2015 year.) adults divided in active and inactive individuals in groups treated or untreated by fipronil in sublethal concentration (0.0001% a.i.) in the diapause initiation and maintenance phases. Quantitative real-time PCR used for comparing evaluation of transcription activity in muscles and gonads tissues for genes DP1, fer, DAT1, DAT2, EcR, Ldace-1 and rdl. 
Results. In gonads of active adults unlike the quiescent ones detected presence of rdl subunit of GABA-А receptor mRNA. In the middle of diapause maintenance phase in fipronil-treated adults revealed the increasing of mRNA content in muscles and gonads for genes of reserve proteins DP1, defensive proteins DAT1, DAT2, ferritin fer, gene of ecdysone receptor EcR and gene coding the acetylcholinesterase Ldace-1. 

Conclusion. The assumption advanced about the fipronil blocking the GABA-receptor binding thereby has significant impact to regulation processes accompanying the development of diapause states.

Ecological genetics. 2016;14(3):56-63
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