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Vol 9, No 1 (2011)

Articles
Noncoding RNA participation in gene expression regulation in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Kochenova O.V.

Abstract

Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacks the main components of RNAi-dependent gene silencing. Nevertheless, regulation of gene expression in S. cerevisiae could be accomplished via some other types of noncoding RNA, particularly via antisense RNA. Although, there is a high percent of untranslated RNA in yeast genome only few evidences of noncoding RNA gene regulation exist in yeast S. cerevisiae, some of them are reviewed in the present paper. 
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):3-14
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THE ROLE OF POLYPLOIDY IN ADAPTATION AND SETTLING OF STEPPE SHRUBS IN CENTRAL ASIA
Ekimova N.V., Muratova E.N., Silkin P.P.

Abstract

Chromosome numbers for some species of Central Asia steppe shrubs are given: Rhamnus erythroxylon Pall. (Rhamnaceae), Caragana buriatica Peschk. (Fabaceae), Amygdalus pedunculata Pall., Armeniaca sibirica (L.) Lam. (Rosaceae), Atraphaxis pungens (Bieb.) Jaub. et Spach. and A. frutescens (L.) C. Koch (Polygonaceae). Chromosome numbers of some species were determined for the first time. Comparative analysis of adaptive properties of polyploid and diploid species has been conducted. It was established that natural polyploids are more adaptive to existence in extreme conditions. They possess by high potential for survival and characterized by more high level of intraspecific polymorphism, abundant flowering and fruitification, ability of propagate both generative and vegetative means, high seed germination. 
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):15-20
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POPULATION ANTAGONISM IN THE YEASTS SCHIZOSACCHAROMYCES POMBE
Kondrateva V.I., Naumov G.I.

Abstract

Using the new yeast Schizosaccharomyces kambucha nom. nud. and genetic lines, widely explored in different laboratories, we continue the investigation of the phenomenon of ascospore death in interstrain hybrids of Sch. pombe. All interstrain hybrids were sterile when analyzed by a micromanipulator. However random spore analysis revealed recombination of control markers, suggesting assignment of the strains studied to the same biological species Sch. pombe. Possible causes of hybrid ascospores death are discussed. The population antagonism of the yeast Sch. pombe should be taken into account in taxonomic studies.
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):21-26
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Polymorphism of mtDNA in St Petersburg population of Adalia bipunctata and its relation with infection by symbiotic bacterium Spiroplasma
Zakharov-Gezekhus I.A., Shaikevich E.V.

Abstract

Polymorphism of the mtDNA gene COI was studied in a St. Petersburg population of two spot ladybird Adalia bipunctata and analyzed in relation with the presence of a symbiotic bacterium Spiroplasma. Variable nucleotide sequences in the middle part of the gene COI formed 13 mitotypes. 84 ladybirds were studied, 21 of these were found to be infected by Spiroplasma. Mean pairwise difference of nucleotides in the COI sequence was 0.001 for uninfected and 0.020 for infected individuals, thus mtDNA polymorphism was considerably higher among uninfected ladybirds compared with infected ones. 
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):27-31
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Molecular markers for plant species identification and phylogenetics
Matveeva T.V., Pavlova O.A., Bogomaz D.I., Demkovich A.E., Lutova L.A.

Abstract

 In this review we summarized the information on application of molecular markers for plant species identification and phylogenetics: positive sides and limitations of main markers, representing sequencing data of taxonomically important chloroplast and nuclear DNA regions. Markers, based on polymorphism of PCR and restriction products, are also discussed as accessorial markers in phylogenetic studies. 
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):32-43
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Y CHROMOSOME HAPLOGROUP R1a1a7 (М458) OF MODERN BELARUSIANS AND MIGRATIONS OF SLAV’S PREDECESSORS ON BELARUS TERRITORY
Kushnerevich E.I., Sivitskaya L.N., Bogacheva A.V., Kotova S.A., Tsybovsky I.S., Davydenko O.G.

Abstract

Investigation of Y chromosome haplogroup R1a1a7 (М458) in ethnic Belarusians from six historic and ethnographic regions has shown that its frequency makes up 14% out of total Y chromosome gene pool diversity. Bearers of R1a1a7 (М458) are concentrated in Pripiat and Neman river basins which is in south and west of Belarus respectively. Expansion of R1a1a7 (М458) on the territory of present day Belarus was most probable associated with the distribution of agriculture in Eastern Europe. In addition, obtained data point to presence of later migration wave, Polab Slavs, for example, from Elba and Oder interfluves in Neman river basin at the border of I–II Millennia. 
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):44-52
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Analysis haemostatic system gene polymorphism in pregnant women without complications from Russia and Ukraine
Vashukova E.S., Glotov A.S., Kanaeva M.D., Polushkina L.B., Shabanova N.A., Tatarsky P.F., Nosenko E.N., Mertil B., Zhabchenko I.A., Pokhitun M.V., Livshits L.A., Zainulina M.S., Baranov V.S.

Abstract

Polymorphism of F5 1691G>A, F2 20210G>A, FGB –455G>A, ITGB3 1565Т>С, PAI1 –675 5G>4G, MTHFR 677C>Т genes in pregnant women from Russia and Ukraine was studied by biochip methods. No differences in distribution of F5, F2 and ITGβ3 gene polymorphism were detected. Higher rates of –455G/A FGB and –675 5G/4G PAI1 genotypes in ukrainians compared to pregnant women from Russia were found. Also variable distribution of MTHFR gene polymorphism in women from different countries was registered. The complex approach based on the calculation of relative “score” as a sum of relevant genetic polymorphisms has detected somewhat elevated risk of trombophilia for pregnant women from Ukraine compared to this one from Russia. 
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):70-80
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The role of DNA polymerase alpha in the control of mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells starved for nutrients
Babudri N., Achilli A., Martinelli C., Moore E., Lancioni H., Pavlov Y.I.

Abstract

In nature, microorganisms experience numerous environmental stresses and generally grow poorly most of the time. In the last two decades it has become evident that mutations arise not only in actively dividing cells but also in nonreplicating or slowly replicating cells starved for nutrients. In yeast, precise base selection and proofreading by replicative DNA polymerases δ and ε keep starvation-associated mutagenesis (SAM) at basal levels. Less is known about the role of replicative DNA polymerase α (Pol α). Here we provide evidence that Pol α is involved in the control of SAM in yeast cells starved for adenine by participation in sporadic replication and/or DNA repair under these conditions. 
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):53-61
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DNA Repeats in Bacterial Genome and Intracellular Activity of Homologous Recombinase
Ilatovsky A.V., Lanzov V.A.

Abstract

In present work distribution of perfect direct and inverted repeats in a set of bacterial genomes was analysed. Complementary cumulative distribution functions of repeat frequency for 36 bacterial strains are nonrandom and have certain characteristic features. Inverse relation of direct repeats frequency to recombinogenic activity is shown for reference E. сoli К-12 strain and P. aeruginosa strain with hyperrecombinogenic RecA protein. In general, direct repeat frequency is higher in nonpathogenic strains than that in pathogens. 
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):62-69
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Biological control of environment: genetic monitoring. Book review
Boudarkov V.A., Ponomarev V.N., Kurenkov D.V.
Ecological genetics. 2011;9(1):81-83
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