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Vol 14, No 4 (2016)

Articles
Use of morphoj soft package for phenotypic and genotypic variety testing (English oak case study)
Baranov S.G.
Abstract

Summary: Background. Some special characters in asymmetry of shape were studied in leaf plate English oak. Materials and methods. In 6 random populations generalized Procrustes analysis showed the mix of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and directional asymmetry (DA). Results. One population showed pure FA. Covariance symmetric matrix reveals more variance in comparison to matrix asymmetry showed variation bilaterally symmetrical landmarks. Correlation analysis of covariance symmetric matrix and matrix asymmetry containing the coordinates of landmarks after the permutation showed a weak positive correlation coefficient (0.25, p < 0.01). Conclusion. The coefficients of variation of the factors “side”and “side × population” among 6 populations were respectively 48.24% and 44.93% that evidenced on equal variance of both types of asymmetry or slightly increased directional asymmetry. It is noted that the cluster analysis the matrix asymmetry can be used to search genotypic variability.

Ecological genetics. 2016;14(4):3-13
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The evolution of ideas on the biological role of 5-methylcytosine oxidative derivatives in the mammalian genome
Efimova O.A., Pendina A.A., Tikhonov A.V., Baranov V.S.
Abstract

Summary: In this review, we summarize data on 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine – cytosine modifications which are produced by TET-mediated oxidation of 5-methylcytosine in DNA. We show the biochemistry of modified cytosine as well as methods for its global and location analysis. We also highlight the milestones in the evolution of ideas on the biological role of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine in the mammalian genome since their discovery in 2009 till present.

Ecological genetics. 2016;14(4):14-25
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Functional analysis of cT-DNAs in naturally transformed plants, recent findings and general considerations
Otten L.
Abstract
Several cases have been reported of naturally transformed plant species. These plants contain cellular T-DNAs (cT-DNAs) derived from ancient infections by Agrobacterium. We have determined the structure of 4 different cT-DNAs in N. tomentosiformis, the paternal ancestor of N. tabacum, and found several intact open reading frames. Among these, TB-mas2’ and TA-rolC were tested for activity. TB-mas2’ encodes desoxyfructosylglutamine (DFG) synthesis. Some N. tabacum cultivars show very high TB-mas2’ expression and produce DFG in their roots. The TA-rolC gene is biologically active and when expressed under strong constitutive promoter control, generates growth changes in N. tabacum. Based on these first data on the structure and function of cT-DNAs I present a theoretical model on the origin and evolution of naturally transformed plants, which may serve as a basis for further research in this field.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(4):26-31
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Genetically modified organisms authorized for cultivation and breeding in Russia
Matveeva T.V., Azarakhsh M.
Abstract

Summary: In July 2016 the State Duma adopted the Federal Law “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in terms of improving the state regulation in the field of genetic engineering” (03.07.2016 N 358-FL). This review is devoted to the analysis of Article 4 of the Act, namely the discussion of what GMOs may be authorized for cultivation and breeding in Russia.

Ecological genetics. 2016;14(4):32-40
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Karyotype and inversion polymorphism of natural populations Glyptotendipes glaucus (meigen), 1818 (diptera, chironomidae) from the small reservoirs of Kaliningrad
Vinokurova N.V., Kalinina E.A., Stol’ E.E.
Abstract
Background. A larvae of family Chironomidae are the most mass and widespread species of macrozoobenthos and play an important role in the lives of almost all types of reservoirs. They constitute a convenient model in the analysis of anthropogenic influences. Besides, chironomids have the largest polytene chromosomes in nature that allow carrying out cytogenetic analysis of the impact of various toxic substances on chromosomal aberrations. Materials and methods. The karyotype and chromosomal inversion polymorphism one of the species phytophilic chironomids Glyptotendipes glaucus (Meigen, 1818) from five reservoirs of Kaliningrad (ponds Chistyi and Mel’nichnyi, system of ponds Karasevka, lakes Pen’kovoe and Shkol’noe) was studied. Cytological mapping of chromosomes was performed by system of Belyanina and Durnova (1998). Results. The levels of natural inversion polymorphism for each populations were determined. Comparison of inversion polymorphism with early data for Saratov, Bryansk and Kaliningrad regions was carried. The preservation of tendencies of distribution and prevalence gomo-and heterozygotic inversions of glaB1.2, glaB2.2 and also consolidation in the karyofund of populations sequence glaA2 in the heterozygous state in ponds Karasevka and Chistyi was observed. The characteristic for an earlier research of populations Glyptotendipes glaucus of Kaliningrad the presence inversion sequences glaG4 and glaD2 is retained. The level of inversion polymorphism for reservoirs of Kaliningrad has decreased and has approached nearer to data for Bryansk and Saratov regions. Conclusion. Based on these results we can offer a working hypothesis of a direct dependence of value of chromosomal polymorphism on the level of pollution of reservoirs ions of heavy metals (Kaliningrad), long-living radionuclides (Bryansk region), nitrates and ions of ammoniac nitrogen (Saratov region).
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(4):41-51
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Lux-biosensors: screening biologically active compounds for genotoxicity
Igonina E.V., Marsova M.V., Abilev S.K.
Abstract
To study the ability of metal salts and pharmacologically active drugs to induce the oxidative stress and SOS response in bacteria, a set of lux-biosensors was used. The sensors were based on three E. coli strains carrying recombinant plasmids with lux-operon fused to the promoters of SoxS (superoxide dismutase), KatG (catalase-peroxidase) and ColD (colicin D) genes. The created biosensors were used to analyze the activity of 47 substances, with 16 of them identified to induce SOS-response and 6 - to induce oxidative stress. The results observed were compared to the previously published data on the mutagenic activity of the same 47 substances evaluated using Ames test. The comparison had shown full coincidence for 42 from 47 substances analyzed. We discuss the possibility to use the lux-based biosensors for the screening of the genetic activity of chemical compounds.
Ecological genetics. 2016;14(4):52-62
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