Current diagnostics of the childhood urolithiasis

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Abstract


The review considers diagnostic aspects of renal stone disease, or urolithiasis (UL) in children. Population prevalence and clinical features of pediatric UL are under discussion, along with most effective visualization approaches. Different risk factors of the kidney stone disease are considered, including various metabolic, climatic and ecological disorders, e. c., hyperoxaluria, hypercalciuria, certain local microbial infections, such as Proteus mirabilis, Corynebacterium urealytica, Ureaplasma urealytica etc.) Some specific features of clinical symptomatology in childhood urolytiasis are also under consideration. Protective mechanisms of the local Tamm-Horsfall protein and high citrate production are discussed. This protein performs some antiinfectious functions, as well stabilizes a complex salt balance in the urine, thus increasing solubility threshold for the salts. We have noted that prevalence of the high-molecular-weight 28 MDa isoform of the Tamm-Horsfall protein over the 7-MDa form seems to be an important protective factor in potential development of urolytiasis. We mention here a number of rare genetic syndromes is listed which cause specific inherited disorders of calcium, hyperoxaluria, or uric acid salts accumulation. In summary, we postulate a need of individualized diagnostics of urinary metabolic markers in the UL patients, in order to arrange metaphylactic measures, in order to prevent recurrent formation of kidney stones and possible urolythiasis episodes in future.

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About the authors

Vladimir Leonidovich Emanuel

State Budget Educational Institution “The First St. Petersburg State Medical University”

Email: vladimirem1@gmail.com
MD, PhD, Dr Med Sci, Professor, Chief, Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics with a Course of Molecular Medicine

Aleksey Borisovich Chukhlovin

Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University

Email: alexei.chukh@mail.ru
MD, PhD, Dr Med Sci Professor, Head, Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics with a group for Ecogenetics, Research Center

Anna Timofeevna Tretjak

Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University

Email: a.t.tretiak@gmail.com
Research Associate, Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics with a group for Ecogenetics, Research Center

Lubov Pavlovna Vostokova

Saint Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University

Email: vostokova50@mail.ru
Research Associate, Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics with a group for Ecogenetics, Research Center

Maria Yurievna Sevostianova

State Budget Educational Institution “The First St. Petersburg State Medical University”

Email: mari-svn@yandex.ru
Department Resident Doctor, Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics with a Course of Molecular Medicine

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Copyright (c) 2014 Emanuel V.L., Chukhlovin A.B., Tretjak A.T., Vostokova L.P., Sevostianova M.Y.

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