Cutaneous manifestations of endocrine diseases in children

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Abstract

Endocrine diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, Cushing’s syndrome, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, acromegaly and hyperandrogenism in children and adolescents are often manifested by changes in the skin. Moreover, skin symptoms can be a marker of systemic, in this case, endocrine and metabolic diseases. Obesity and diabetes are chronic diseases that affect people all over the world, and their incidence is increasing in both children and adults. Clinically, they affect a number of organs, including the skin. The cutaneous manifestations caused or aggravated by obesity and diabetes are varied and usually bear some relation to the time that has elapsed since the onset of the disease. They include acrochordons, acanthosis nigricans, striae, xerosis, keratosis pilaris, plantar hyperkeratosis, fungal and bacterial skin infections, granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica. In obese patients, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are more common than in the control group. With the pathology of the thyroid gland, diseases such as alopecia, pretibial myxedema, urticaria, and some others develop. Hyperandrogenism (polycystic ovary syndrome) is accompanied by skin lesions such as acne vulgaris, hirsutism, androgenic alopecia, acanthosis nigricans. This literature review focuses on the main skin syndromes accompanying endocrine pathology in children and adolescents. Information about such clinical associations can make it easier for pediatricians and endocrinologists to diagnose and treat endocrine diseases in a timely manner and, thereby, prevent long-term adverse consequences.

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About the authors

Igor A. Gorlanov

St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.
Email: Gorlanon53@mail.ru

MD, PhD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor, Head of the Department of Dermatovenerology

Russian Federation, Sаint Petersburg

Larisa M. Leina

St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation

Email: larisa.leina@mail.ru

MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Dermatovenerology

Russian Federation, Sаint Petersburg

Yulia L. Skorodok

St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation

Email: julia_skorodok@mail.ru

MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology and Abilitologii AF and DPO

Russian Federation, Sаint Petersburg

Irina R. Milyavskaya

St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation

Email: imilyavskaya@yandex.ru

MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Dermatovenerology

Russian Federation, Sаint Petersburg

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Supplementary files

Supplementary Files
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1. Fig. 1. Acanthosis nigricans in an obese patient

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2. Fig. 2. Striae in a 14-year-old obese girl

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3. Fig. 3. Psoriasis in a 14-year-old obese girl

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