Vol 55, No 6 (2019)

ARTICLES
Russian studies in atmospheric sciences and meteorology in 2015–2018
Mokhov I.I.
Abstract

Russian studies in atmospheric sciences and meteorology in 2015–2018

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):3-5
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Research in dynamic meteorology in Russia in 2015–2018
Kurgansky M.V., Krupchatnikov V.N.
Abstract

This review outlines the most significant results of research in dynamic meteorology performed by Russian scientists in 2015–2018. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences submitted to the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). The review is supplemented by a list of main publications of Russian scientists on dynamic meteorology in 2015–2018.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):6-47
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Results of Russian studies of the middle atmosphere (2015–2018)
Krivolutsky A.A., Repnev A.I., Mironova I.A., Gruzdev A.N., Tuniyants T.I.
Abstract

An overview of the results of Russian studies of the average atmosphere in 2015–2018, prepared by the Commission on the average atmosphere of the Section of meteorology and atmospheric Sciences of the National geophysical Committee for the National report on meteorology and atmospheric Sciences to the XXVII General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (Canada, 2019 ).

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):48-65
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Russian studies in the field of atmospheric chemistry in 2015–2018
Larin I.K.
Abstract

A brief overview of the work of Russian scientists in the field of atmospheric chemistry in 2015–2018, including work on the chemistry of the troposphere, the chemistry of the ozone layer and on the role of chemistry in climate change is presented. Review has been prepared in the Commission on atmospheric chemistry of the meteorology and atmospheric sciences section of the national Geophysics Committee. The report was presented and approved at the XXVII General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) 1.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):66-78
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Russian studies of atmospheric electricity in 2015–2018
Mareev E.A., Stasenko V.N., Shatalina M.V., Dementyeva S.O., Evtushenko A.A., Svechnikova E.K., Slyunyaev N.N.
Abstract

This review contains the most significant results of Russian studies in the field of atmospheric electricity in 2015–2018. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciencesto the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). The report was presented and approved at the XXVII General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) 1. The review is followed by a list of the main published works on the studies of atmospheric electricity of Russian scientists in 2015–2018.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):79-93
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Anthropogenic meso-meteorological feedbacks: a review of recent research
Ginzburg A.S., Demchenko P.F.
Abstract

The anthropogenic impact on the Earth’s climate system is currently one of the main factors determining climate change on all spatial scales, from local to global. A lot of scientific research is devoted to the direct and indirect influence of various types of human activity on the state of the Earth’s climate system. Using different climate models, feedbacks that enhance or weaken anthropogenic effects in the process of global warming have been studied in enough detail. Developed in recent years regional models of climatic and meteorological processes are allowing to describe in detail the climate features in urban agglomerations and the role of feedback in the development of mesoscale atmospheric processes. This review is devoted to the description and analysis of mesoscale feedbacks in the climate system, including the energy consumption of an urban economy that depends on climatic and weather conditions, and the role of these feedbacks in the formation and dynamics of urban climate and the needs of the urban economy in energy supply.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):94-113
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Estimating the influence of thermal inertia and feedbacks in the atmosphere–ocean system on the variability of global surface temperature
Soldatenko S.A., Yusupov R.M.
Abstract

The present climate is characterized not only by the trend due to the increase in the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, but also by fluctuations covering a wide range of frequencies and scales. The global climate variability, calculated via the computational results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 of the World Climate Research Program, show significant inter-model differences. In particular, inter-model distinctions in decadal anomalies of the global and hemispheric temperatures reach four times the value. However, unlike the inter-model differences in climate sensitivity, the reasons for a wide range of estimates of climate variability are still unclear. Based on the two-component energy-balance stochastic model, the paper analyzes the inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of the mean global surface temperature (GST) to feedback and the thermal inertia of the atmosphere-ocean system, assuming that the external forcing is random fluctu-ations of the radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere. Using the obtained ab-solute and relative sensitivity functions, the influence of thermal inertia and feed-backs in the climate system on the inter-annual and inter-decimal variability (variance) of the GST and its spectrum is estimated.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):114-126
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Non-stationary vortex streets in shear flows
Кalashnik М.V., Chkhetiani О.G.
Abstract

Spatially periodic vortex systems that form due to unstable shear flows are called vortex streets. A number of exact and asymptotic solutions of two-dimensional hydrodynamic equations describing nonstationary vortex streets have been constructed. It is shown that the superposition of the flow with a constant horizontal shear and its perturbations in the form of a nonmodal wave provides an exact solution that describes a nonstationary vortex street with rotating elliptic current lines. The width of the zone occupied by such a vortex street has been determined. The equation of separatrix separating vortex cells with closed current lines from an external meandering flow has been obtained. The influence of the quasi-two-dimensional compressibility and beta effect on the dynamics of vortex streets has been studied based on the potential vorticity transport equation. The solutions describing the formation of vortex streets during the development of an unstable zonal periodic flow and a free shear layer have been constructed using a longwave approximation.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):127-138
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On the connection of the kinematic characteristics of the wind in tropical cyclones and anomalies of force of gravity
Makosko А.А., Nabokova Е.V., Yaroshevich M.I.
Abstract

The existence of connections between the kinematic characteristics of wind (maximum speed and its acceleration) in a tropical cyclone and the values of gravity anomalies (vertical and horizontal components, respectively, VGA and GGA) along the paths of movement of tropical cyclones. It is shown that the change in VGA values is generally close in antiphase to changes in velocity and, to a certain extent, correlates qualitatively. Analysis of wind accelerations and the corresponding values of VGA did not reveal a clear match in their comparison. Changes in GGA values are close to changes in wind speed and at a qualitative level they correlate well except for the emergence of a shopping center on land and the movement of a shopping center in a highly anomalous region. Comparison of changes in maximum speed and acceleration of wind with changes in GGA values is performed for the first time.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):139-146
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Variation of carboneceous atmospheric aerosol near Saint Petersburg
Vlasenko S.S., Volkova K.A., Ionov D.V., Ryshkevich T.I., Ivanova O.A., Mikhailov E.F.
Abstract

The results of 5-year (2013–2017) measurements of organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon aerosol fractions observed at the atmospheric monitoring station near St. Petersburg (Petergof, 59.88° N, 29.83° E) are presented. It is shown that the site of observations is under the influence of local pollution sources most of the time (~74%). The median values of carbonaceous aerosol in polluted conditions are 0.46 μg/m3 for ЕС and 2.62 μg/m3 for ОС. On average, the maximum excess of the EC background level is achieved in winter (2.4 times in January). The analysis of the ratio between the OC and the EC in the total carbon indicates the predominantly anthropogenic origin of the aerosol under study. In comparison with the data of similar measurements in Central Siberia, the background summer concentrations of carbonaceous aerosol in Peterhof are significantly lower. Some episodes of increased concentrations of OC and EC are attributed to the intensive accumulation of air pollution coming from the nearby megalopolis.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):147-156
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The thermohaline structure of the North Atlantic waters in different phases of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation
Diansky N.A., Bagatinsky V.A.
Abstract

The meridional structure of climatic trends and anomalies of potential temperature and salinity in the North Atlantic waters in different periods of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) in 1948–2017 are studied based on the EN4 and WOA2013 objective analyses data. An analysis of these different data sets allowed us to reveal almost identical patterns of variability of the thermohaline fields of the North Atlantic, which increases the reliability of the results. Long-term temperature and salinity trends simulated over the period 1948–2017 show that warming and salinization of water occur in the upper ~1 km layer of the North Atlantic. On the contrary, cooling and freshening of deep waters are observed, which is associated with the melting of the Greenland ice sheet, transport of fresher waters from the Arctic Ocean, and deepening of these cold and fresher waters into the deeper layers. Composite analysis of the zonally averaged temperature and salinity anomalies of the North Atlantic waters after removing the trends showed that in the warm AMO periods warming and salinization of waters are observed in the upper 1-km layer of the North Atlantic when compared to the cold periods based both on the EN4 and WOA2013 data. Below the 1-km layer, significant regions of cooling and freshening are observed; this distribution is more pronounced in the EN4 data. Analysis of the dynamics of zonally averaged temperature and salinity anomalies in the successive periods associated with the temporal variability of the AMO index revealed that these anomalies propagate along the zonally averaged meridional thermohaline circulation. To show this using the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model (INMOM), the stream function of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) was simulated. It is shown that positive and negative anomalies of both temperature and salinity circulate along the water motion in the AMOC around its core, descending down into the deep ocean layers approximately at 60° N and ascending to the surface at 25° N, replacing each other with a period of about 60 years. It can be assumed that due to this process both the warm and cold phases of the AMO are formed.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):157-170
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On the mechanism of a positive feedback in long-term variations of the convergence of oceanic and atmospheric heat fluxes, and the ice cover in the Barents sea
Kalavichchi K.A., Bashmachnikov I.L.
Abstract

This paper presents a study the interannual variability of the convergence oceanic and atmospheric advective heat fluxes in the Barents Sea region for 1993–2014, using combined in situ, satellite and numerical model-based oceanic and atmospheric data-sets: ARMOR-3D and ERA-Interim. On inter-decadal scales, the leading role of convergence of the oceanic heat flux, and on interannual scale – of atmospheric heat flux are demonstrated to play the leading role in variations of the sea-ice area of the Barents Sea. The inter-decadal and the interannual variations of the oceanic heat flux are found to be mainly shaped by variations of the current velocity. In the long-term tendencies the current velocity is responsible for about 70% of the increase in the oceanic heat flux, mainly due to a higher transport in the North Cape Current. Variations in transport of the North Cape current and of the Return current are governed by variations in the meridional gradients of the zonal wind speed, in turn, caused by the stronger oceanic heat transport into the Barents sea and by the consequent melting of the sea-ice. The in situ observations supports the effectiveness of the previously suggested positive feedback between variations in the oceanic heat flux into the Barents Sea, and changes of the sea-ice area and of the atmospheric circulation in the Barents Sea region on the decadal time scales.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):171-181
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Transformation of first mode breather of internal waves above the bottom step in a three-layer fluid
Lobovikov P.V., Kurkina O.E., Kurkin A.A., Kokoulina M.V.
Abstract

In the present study we consider propagation of a localized internal perturbation in the form of an oscillating wave packet (breather) of the first mode in a three-layer fluid with an uneven bottom shaped as a smoothed step. The study is carried out by methods of numerical simulation within a fully nonlinear two-dimensional (vertical plane) set of Navier–Stokes equations. A set of calculations was carried out for different widths and heights of the bottom step. Inhomogeneity of the medium leads to transformation of the internal wave field with the formation of weak reflected waves and one or two first-mode breathers passed to the shallow zone. By analyzing linear stability in terms of Richardson and Froude numbers, it was revealed that potentially unstable regions arise at the smallest values of the step width. An amplitude and energy analysis of secondary reflected nonlinear waves was performed. The vertical mode composition of the fully nonlinear wave field is analyzed. It is shown that the first mode makes the largest contribution to the vertical structure of the full-nonlinear packet, though the fourth, second and the third modes also contribute noticeably.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):182-193
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Vertical transport of momentum by internal waves in a shift current
Slepyshev A.A., Laktionova N.V.
Abstract

In Boussinesq approximation free internal waves are considered at the account of rotation of the Earth and a plane-parallel current, perpendicular to a direction to wave propagation. For homogeneous stratification and at constant shift of speed of a current the boundary-value problem for amplitude of vertical velocity analytically solved and the dispersive parity is defined. Vertical wave fluxes of momentum and two components of Stokes drift speed are defined. Stokes drift speed, cross-section to a direction a wave propagation, is distinct from zero in the presence of the specified shift current. Similar calculations are executed for two-layer model. The vertical wave flux of momentum can exceed a corresponding turbulent flux.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):194-200
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Unsteady chains of wave structures and anomalous transport of а passive scalar in a barotropic jet flow
Reutov V.P., Rybushkina G.V.
Abstract

The onset of anomalous transport of a passive scalar at the excitation of unsteady chains of wave structures with closed streamlines in a barotropic jet flow modeling zonal flows in the Earth’s atmosphere and ocean and in laboratory experiments is investigated. The analysis is performed within a dynamical model describing saturation of the barotropic instability in a plane-parallel channel flow with allowance for the beta-effect and external friction. The equations of a quasi-two-dimensional flow are solved numerically with the aid of a pseudospectral method. It is found that the generation of high modes in a jet with a “two-hump” velocity profile leads to accelerated transition to the complex dynamics, at which an increase in supercriticality first gives rise to а multiharmonic regime with a discrete spectrum. The exponents of the power dependence on the time of the averaged (over the ensemble) tracer particle displacement and its variance are computed for the basic generation regimes, which confirms the occurrence of anomalous diffusion of the scalar. A self-similar probability density function of tracer displacements is obtained and the dependence of the transition to complex dynamics on the number of vortices in the chain and on the strength of the beta-effect is elucidated. Numerical estimates are presented, which confirm the possibility of generation of unsteady vortex chains and the related anomalous transport of the scalar.barotropic flow; chains of wave structures; dynamical chaos; anomalous advection and diffusion

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(6):201-210
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