Vol 55, No 1 (2019)

Diffusion-rotational parameterization of eddy fluxes of potential vorticity: barotropic flow in the zonal channel
Ivchenko V.O., Zalesny V.B.

The problem of parametrization of the eddy fluxes of a potential vorticity is discussed. Traditional diffusion parameterization is complemented by the inclusion of a rotational component. For the analysis of the new scheme, a quasi-geostrophic model of the dynamics of the barotropic flow in a zonal channel with a non-uniform bottom is used. An analytical solution of the problem is found and the influence of topography on the flow disturbances is discussed. It is shown that the equation for the eddy potential enstrophy allows to relate diffusion and «rotational» coefficients.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):3-16
Methods for assimilation of observational data in problems of the physics of the atmosphere and the ocean
Shutyaev V.P.

In this paper we review and analyze approaches to data assimilation in geophysical hydrodynamics problems, starting with the simplest successive schemes of assimilation and ending with modern variational methods. Special attention is paid to the the study of the problem of variational assimilation in the weak formulation and construction of covariance error matrices of the optimal solution. This is a new direction, to which the author made a contribution: an optimality system is formulated for the problem of variational data assimilation in a weak formulation and algorithms for deriving the covariance error matrices of the optimal solution are developed.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):17-34
On one technique of the analysis of oscillation processes for the geophysical problems
Volodin E.M.

A technique is proposed for evolution equation that estimates the impact of different terms in phase change for oscillations with different frequencies. The impact is normalized in such way that sum of impacts for all terms equals 1. Proposed technique is applied for study of quasibiannual oscillation of zonal wind in equatorial stratosphere produced in 500 year preindustrial run with climate model of Institute of Numerical Mathematics RAS. The impact of nonorographic and orographic gravity wave drag and advection by zonal mean vertical wind to the phase change of model quasibiannual oscillation. It is shown that nonorographic wave drag is main mechanism responsible for phase change (the impact equals 1.58), vertical advection slows down phase change (impact is –0.74), and the impacts of other terms are small.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):35-40
Impact of sulphur dioxide on the terrestrial carbon cycle
Eliseev A.V., Zhang M., Gizatullin R.D., Altukhova A.V., Perevedentsev Y.P., Skorokhod A.I.

In this paper, the earlier results, which were obtained with the climate model developed at the A.M. Obu khov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM) and related to the impact of the atmospheric sulphur dioxide on terrestrial carbon cycle, are elucidated. Because of the unavailability of the global data for near surface SO2 concentration, it was reconstructed by using statistical model which was fitted employing the output of the atmospheric chemistry-transport model RAMS-CMAQ. The obtained results are in general agreement with those reported earlier. In particular, the most significant SO2 impact on terrestrial carbon cycle is simulated for south-east North America and for Europe. However, such impact for south-east Asia is markedly weaker in comparison to that reported earlier, which is related to excessive moisture content in the atmosphere of this region.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):41-53
Transformation of aeolian relief forms under wind influence
Malinovskaya E.A.

The interaction of the air flow with the surface consisting of sandy disjoint particles is considered. Taking into account their mobility on the surface in the calculations allows us to describe the reasons for increasing the stability of the layer of particles bordering the air environment. The value of the threshold wind speed required for the removal of the particle increases due to the change in the pressure difference above and below the particle relative to the same value at a stationary state. The number of surface particles to be torn off when the wind reaches the threshold values increases. This circumstance allows to explain one of the possible reasons for the appearance of the known effective change of gravity acting on the layer, with the growth of eolian forms of relief. For inclined surfaces, the balance for the flows of falling and torn off by the wind particles is disturbed due to the difference in resistance to the effects of air flow. The differentiation of the eolian form of relief on the area with different intensities of wind removal makes it possible to estimate the relative increase in mass, which determines the optimal distance between the two structures for sustainable growth.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):54-64
Spatial-temporal CO2 variations near St. Petersburg based on satellite and ground-based measurements
Timofeyev Y.M., Berezin I.A., Virolainen Y.A., Makarova M.V., Polyakov A.V., Poberovsky A.V., Filippov N.N., Foka S.C.

The results of studying spatial-temporal CO2 variations near St. Petersburg during 2014–2017 based on satellite measurements (OSO-2 satellite), ground-based spectroscopic and local measurements are presented. According to satellite data the full amplitude of the spatial-temporal variations for the average CO2 mixing ratio (XCO2) amounted to 57.7 ppm (over 14%). The maximal XCO2 spatial variations during one day of observations (17.03.2015) were 46.8 ppm (more than 10%). Comparison of CO2 satellite and ground-based spectroscopic measurements has shown that ground-based measurements in the NDACC observing system after correction of systematic differences from the TCCON system can be used for validation of satellite measurements. Ground-based local measurements of the near-surface CO2 mixing ratio at Peterhof do not correlate with either spectroscopic ground-based or satellite measurements due to both mesoscale CO2 variations and significantly different spatial averaging kernels of direct and remote measurements.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):65-72
Аccounting for autocorrelation in a linear regression problem on an example of analysis of atmospheric column NO2 content
Gruzdev A.N.

A method is proposed for taking into account a serial correlation (an autocorrelation) of data in a linear regression problem, which allows accounting for the autocorrelation on long scales. A residual series is presented as an autoregressive process of an order, k, that can be much larger than 1, and the autocorrelation function of the processes is calculated by solving the system of the Yule–Walker equations. Given the autocorrelation function, the autocorrelation matrix is constructed which enters the formulas for estimates of regression coefficients and their errors. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated on the base of the multiple regression analysis of data of 26-year measurements of the column NO2 contents at the Zvenigorod Research Station of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics. Estimates of regression coefficients and their errors depend on the autoregression order k. At first the error increases with increasing k. Then it approaches its maximum and thereafter begins to decrease. In the case of NO2 at the Zvenigorod Station the error more than doubled in its maximum compared to the beginning value. The decrease in the error after approaching the maximum stops if k approaches the value such that the autoregressive process of this order allows accounting for important features of the autocorrelation function of the residual series. Estimates have been obtained of seasonally dependent linear trends and effects on NO2 of nature factors such that the 11-year solar cycle, the quasi-biennial oscillation, the North Atlantic Oscillation and other.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):73-82
Analysis of the conditions for the occurrence of "the voice of the sea" using infrasound observations in marine waters
Perepelkin V.G., Chunchuzov I.P., Kulichkov S.N., Popov O.E., Repina I.A.

We study the conditions for the occurrence of "the voice of the sea" in the infrasound range can occur and determine its parameters from infrasound measurements in the Black Sea water area conducted in 2011 and 2016 and in the water area of the Sea of Okhotsk in 2017. To this end, we compared the observations of different parameters (mean correlation, spectra of acoustic arrivals, direction and phase velocity) of the high-frequency infrasound (1–10 Hz), recorded in Katsiveli (Crimea) in 2011 and 2016. We performed a detailed study of the wind conditions in the Black Sea water area during the measurement period, as well as the conditions for the propagation of acoustic waves along the direction of their arrivals.

In both cases the atmospheric vortices in the direction of the arrival of infrasound were detected, which caused changes in wind velocity vector above the sea surface. The infrasound recorded in 2011 was caused by the interaction of two differently rotating atmospheric vortices over the sea. In 2016, a vortex was observed to the West from the registration point. The possibility of generating "the voice of the sea" due to the rotation of the wind velocity, which causes a nonlinear interaction of surface waves propagating in opposite directions to each other, and the formation of their 2nd harmonic in the form of a standing surface wave is discussed.

From the analysis of the wind speed and wind direction profiles along the infrasound arrival path, as well as the acoustic pressure fields calculated by the parabolic equation method for the effective sound speed profiles in the direction of infrasound propagation, the most probable areas of infrasound generation were determined. In both cases these areas coincided with the zones in which the wind speed drops to zero, and the direction of the wind changes to the opposite.

An example of simultaneous detection from one direction of the microbaroms with frequencies 0.2–0.3 Hz and "the voice of the sea" with a higher frequency of 5.5 Hz is given.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):83-97
Influence of ocean on dynamic of polar stratosphere and ozone layer
Jakovlev A.R., Smyshlyaev S.P.

Influence of the tropical oceanic processes (the El-Niño – La-Niña phenomenon) on structure and composition of a polar stratosphere is considered. Data of the reanalysis on sea surface temperature, a potential vorticity, temperatures of air, ozone mixing ratio and total ozone column per 1980–2016 are analyzed. Influence the El-Niño and La-Niña on circumpolar vorticity, temperature of air in a stratosphere and an ozone layer is studied. It is shown that the El-Niño leads to instability of circumpolar vorticity, causes sudden stratospheric warming and increase the content of ozone.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):98-113
Intensive internal waves having anomalous heights in the Black Sea shelf area
Bondur V.G., Serebryany A.N., Zamshin V.V., Tarasov L.L., Khimchenko E.E.

Приведены результаты исследования цуга аномально больших для Черного моря внутренних волн с высотами ~16 м и длинами 101–131 м. Измерения проводились в акватории вблизи г. Геленджик с помощью буксируемого акустического доплеровского профилометра течений (ADCP), гидрологического мини-зонда «RBR concerto», заякоренной термисторной цепочки, а также путем пространственного спектрального анализа космического радиолокационного изображения, полученного во время проведения подспутниковых измерений. Зарегистрированные внутренние волны имели нелинейный характер (солитоноподобная форма волновых профилей, дисперсия амплитуд, изменяющееся расстояние между гребнями и др.). Вертикальные компоненты скоростей орбитальных течений во внутренних волнах достигали 0.20 м/с. По пространственным спектрам космического радиолокационного изображения зарегистрированы квазимонохроматические спектральные максимумы, обусловленные поверхностными проявлениями внутренних волн с длинами, соответствующими измеренным по данным ADCP. Источником генерации этого аномального по высоте цуга внутренних волн являлись атмосферный фронт и связанная с ним область пониженного давления.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):114-127
Review of methods to retrieve sea ice parameters from satellite microwave radiometer data
Zabolotskikh E.V.

Sea ice monitoring using long-term data of satellite passive microwave instruments enables climate change estimates. These numerical estimates depend on the methods used for sea ice parameter retrievals. This work presents a review of methods to retrieve sea ice parameters from the data of satellite microwave radiometers. Physical modeling of the sea ice–ocean–atmosphere microwave radiation provides the means to identify the general sources of the retrieval errors and to classify the methods by used approach. The basics of the algorithms are formulated along with assumptions and approximations as well as the data used for the algorithm verification. Weather filters are considered to identify the areas of open water. A comparative analysis of method advantages and limitations is given related to sea ice concentration retrievals from such satellite instruments as the series of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR). A review of the basic satellite sea ice products based on SSM/I, AMSR-E and AMSR2 data is complemented by the list of the essential internet resources for operational and historical sea ice data.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):128-151
Numerical simulation of ice cover of saline lakes
Stepanenko V.M., Repina I.A., Ganbat G., Davaa G.

A new version of 1D thermodynamic and hydrodynamic model LAKE 2.1 is presented. The model is supplemented with description of dynamics and vertical distribution of salinity in ice layer. Simulation results are compared to in situ and satellite data on water temperature and ice cover at Lake Uvs (Mongolia) from 2000 to 2015. We demonstrate that underestimation of mixed-layer depth by the model with standard k–ε closure during summer and autumn leads to significant shift of ice-on to earlier dates. If the effects of water salinity are neglected in the model, ice cover establishes 16–17 before the observed dates. This error is removed, if influence of salinity on water density and freezing point is included, still assuming the fresh ice. However, in this case, LAKE model underestimates the maximal winter ice thickness on average by 0.2 m. In turn, this discrepancy decreases an order of magnitude if dynamics and vertical distribution of salinity in ice are reproduced. Such an effect does not take place when using constant salinity value in ice.

Известия Российской академии наук. Физика атмосферы и океана. 2019;55(1):152-163

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