No 2 (2019)

Физические основы исследования Земли из космоса
On evaluation of depth of soil freezing based on Smos satellite data
Boyarskii D.A., Romanov A.N., Khvostov I.V., Tikhonov V.V., Sharkov E.A.

Abstract

The results of a comparative analysis of the brightness temperatures determined from the SMOS satellite and the corresponding depths of soil freezing, measured at weather stations located at the test sites of the Kulunda Plain, are presented. Based on the daily satellite measurement of brightness temperature, the effect of soil freezing on the microwave radiation of the underlying surface was studied. A theoretical calculation of the dependence of soil brightness temperature on the depth of freezing is performed with the model of microwave radiation of a plane-layered inhomogeneous non-isothermal medium. The real parameters of the Kulunda plain soil as well as the climatic characteristics of the sites under study, obtained from the weather stations for the same period, were used as the input parameters of the model. The analysis of satellite, field and model data showed that the evaluation of the depth of soil freezing with satellite microwave radiometry is limited by the need to conduct the contact measurements of physical properties of soil in the areas, for which the SMOS product on the brightness temperature is given.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):3-13
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Relationship of the brightness temperature anomalies of the lower troposphere with the climate indices on the Southern Urals
Vasil’ev D.Y., Velikanov N.V., Vodopyanov V.V., Krasnogorskaya N.N., Semenov V.A., Christodulo O.I.

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of the average monthly temperature of the lower troposphere (TLT) according to satellite sensing data for the period 1979–2017 in the Southern Urals. In order to study the space-time structure of TLT, the method of decomposition of the temperature series into empirical orthogonal components (EOC) was used. A correlation analysis of the link between the identified EOC for winter and summer seasons and indices of large-scale modes of natural climate variability in the Northern hemisphere was carried out. The first leading EOC, which describes a negative temperature trend, makes the major contribution to the overall variability. For winter, the leading mode is associated with the North Atlantic oscillation. For summer, a significant contribution of the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation and the index of the Arctic sea ice concentration anomalies is revealed, which can be used to improve the reliability of the future scenarios of the regional climate change. The results suggest a significant impact of natural climatic variability on the temperature regime and a possible difficulty in identifying the anthropogenic component of climate change in the studied region.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):14-28
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Methods and Means of Space Data Processing and Interpretation
Selection of informative features to highlight areas of waste disposal on high spatial resolution satellite imagery
Murynin A.B., Richter A.A., Shakhramanyan M.A.

Abstract

The paper deals with the problem of integrated interpretation of waste disposal facilities according to satellite imagery and ground truth monitoring, features of space images of landfills from various points of view: texture analysis, statistical properties, fractal analysis, color features, and the possibility of using machine learning methods. The main visual interpretive signs of landfills on optical and radar images of high spatial resolution are given. The fractal dimension of landfills was calculated for high resolution images using two models.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):29-44
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Application of aviation video-spectral survey to search for fragments of separating parts of launch vehicles on the ground
Ostrikov V.N., Plakhotnikov O.V., Kirienko A.V.

Abstract

The possibility of detecting debris fragments of separating parts of launch vehicles on the ground on the basis of video spectral (hyperspectral) aerial survey data processing in the range of 0.4-1.0 µm is considered. Evaluation of the quality of special methods pre-correction when comparing, during thematic processing, measures the spectral vicinity – the special delta-vector metric, modified metric Terebizh, factor correlations, and sub-pixel method.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):45-54
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Использование космической информации о Земле
Dynamic modeling for the morphological pattern of thermokarst plains with fluvial erosion on the base of remote sensing data
Viktorov A.S., Kapralova V.N., Arkhipova M.V.

Abstract

The paper deals with the results of the analysis of the dynamic mathematical model for the morphological pattern of thermokarst plains with fluvial erosion basing on the mathematical morphology of landscape approach and remote sensing data. The theoretical analysis resulted in the dynamic mathematical model for the morphological pattern of thermokarst plains with fluvial erosion, which was empirically tested at a set of the key sites. The empirical testing confirms the theoretical results about the exponential distribution of khasyrei areas in different natural environments with a broad geological and geocryological spectrums. Moreover, the area distribution of thermokarst lakes obeys both gamma and lognormal distributions. We have found that the average radius and diameter distributions should be the Raleigh one. The analysis shows that the variant of the thermokarst synchronous start is the most common for the taken key sites. Besides, the model allows us to assess certain dynamic parameters of the processes using landscape metrics from a single time slice.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):55-64
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Using of NDVI in digital mapping of phosphorus content in soils and assessment of it's availability by plants
Gopp N.V., Savenkov O.A., Nechaeva T.V., Smirnova N.V., Smirnov A.V.

Abstract

It was developed а method of digital mapping of phosphorus content (total, organic, available) in soils using spatially distributed NDVI values calculated from Landsat 8 (30 m resolution). It was carried out comparative analysis of content of phosphorus of soils differing in soil humus content: with high and medium humus content. In medium-humus soils (agrochernozems, agro-dark-grey) compared to high- humus agrochernozems discovered lower contents of total phosphorus in 1.1 times, and organic phosphorus in 1.5–1.7 times. The reverse trend was found for available phosphorus — in all medium- humus soils its content was more in 2 times as compared with high-humus agrochernozems. The provision of plants with phosphorus was sufficient, since its content in the above-ground phytomass of the oat-pea mixture was in the optimal range of 0.23–0.5% for a completely dry mass. According to the visual diagnostics of external signs of phosphorus deficiency in plants was not revealed. It was not found correlation between the content of phosphorus in plants, the reserves of above-ground phytomass of oat-pea mixture and NDVI.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):65-73
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Distribution of suspended matter off the western coast of the crimea under impact of the strong winds of various directions
Aleskerovа A.A., Kubryakov A.A., Goryachkin Y.N., Stanichny S.V., Garmashov A.V.

Abstract

The mechanisms of formation and distribution of total suspended matter (tsm) off the West Coast of Crimea under the influence of strong winds of various directions were investigated on the base of satellite data of medium and high resolution. The maximum tsm reaching the values of 200 mg / l was is observed during strong southern winds. In this case, the zone of high tsm is located at the western shelf of the Crimea limited by a 50 m isobath. The wave impact on resuspension of bottom sediments and the erosion of clay cliffs located on the west coast of Crimea lead to the formation of a large amount of tsm. After the storm, a northern alongshore current transfers tsm to the north. During northeast winds, the highest tsm are observed not near the coast, but in the seaward part of the shelf between 30 and 50 m isobaths. It is likely that turbulent mixing during such winds resuspense bottom sediments in shallow areas, which are further transported from the coast due to the offshore winds. The wind surge in this case leads to the formation of a band of clean cold water near the coast. A specific feature of the action of the northern and northwestern storms is the formation of a longshore jet stream along the western coast. The current occurs at the front of the upwelling zone. The stream transports the suspended matter offshore southward. The concentration of the suspended matter in this case is also much lower than when exposed to the southern winds, but it can reach a value of 3 mg/l.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):74-88
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The distribution of the desalinated waters of the amur estuary in the okhotsk sea according to satellite observations
Andreev A.G.

Abstract

The distribution of the desalinated waters of the Amur Estuary in the Northwestern ​​Okhotsk Sea during the summer period was analyzed using satellite data on sea level, salinity, temperature and concentrations of suspended organic carbon. There is good agreement between the spatial distribution of surface water salinity (data from the SMAP satellite) and the sea level (AVISO data) in the study area. The identification of the waters of the Amur Estuary by the surface water temperature and the concentration of suspended organic carbon is limited to the Sakhalin Bay and the coastal waters of Sakhalin Island. An increase (decrease) in the flow of the Amur River during the spring-summer flood leads to an increase (decrease) in sea level in the northern part of the Sakhalin Bay in July. Strengthening of the northwestern (southeastern) winds in September reduces (increases) the inflow of waters with low salinity and elevated sea level to the area north of the Sakhalin Bay.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):89-96
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Variations of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere of Antarctica according to ground-based and satellite measurements
Ustinov V.P., Baranova E.L., Visheratin K.N., Grachev M.I., Kalsin A.V.

Abstract

The results of systematic (2003–2017) measurements of the total content and the volume mixing ratio of CO at Novolazarevskaya station with a spectrometer with a resolution of 0.2 cm– 1 are presented. The inverse problem of determining the total CO content, as well as interfering gases (H2O and N2O), was solved using the SFIT4 software package. Data analysis showed that over the measurement period the average total CO content at Novolazarevskaya amounted to (8 ± 2) 1017 molec/cm2, and the average volume mixing ratio amounted to (37 ± 8) ppb. The obtained data are compared with variations in the total content of CO in Arrival-Heights station, with MOPITT satellite data, as well as with surface values of CO concentration at Syova station. The maximum values of CO are observed in September, the minimum — in January–February. For all the considered series, the trends are insignificant, while there are periods of increased CO content (2010). In recent years (2014–2017) there is a tendency towards an increase in the minimum values of CO. For  Novolazarevskaya and  Arrival-Heights satellite data are characterized by the excess of over ground data, amounting to 19% and 14%, respectively, while there is a seasonal dependence of the deviation with the minimum in December–January. Surface measurements of the total CO content are in fairly good agreement at Novolazarevskaya and Arrival-Heights, and since 2010 the average deviation is 2.4%. The average value of the concentration of CO on Syova 51 ppb is higher than the average volume mixing ratio at Novolazarevskaya. According to the spectral, wavelet and composite analyzes, in all the considered series there are oscillations in the range of 6–45 months with closely coinciding periods and phases.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):97-106
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ARTICLES
In memory of A.S. Selivanov
«Earth observation and remote Sensing» B.

Abstract

In memory of A.S. Selivanov

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):107-107
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Correction to article “Alekseeva T.A, et al. comparing the satellite microwave and visual shipborne sea ice concentration
Alekseeva T.A., Tikhonov V.V., Frolov S.V., Raev M.D., Repina I.A., Sokolova Y.V., Afanasieva E.V., Sharkov E.A., Serovetnikov S.S.

Abstract

This publication contains the correct version of Figure 2.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(2):108-108
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