No 3 (2019)

Использование космической информации о Земле
Quantitative estimates of the impact of the most important factors on global climate change over the past 150 years
Pokrovsky O.M.
Abstract

We proposed the implementation of the multiple regression to create a statistical model for description of the climate change under the influence of specified climate-impacting factors. This model provides not only estimates of the temporal evolution of global temperature, but also a set of corresponding confidence intervals with a given level of statistical significance (probability). The elimination of the linear trend of climatic temperature series (CRUTEM) and atmospheric CO2 concentration allows objectively and quantitatively assess the impact of natural climate change factors. The global CRUTEM temperature responds quasi-synchronously to fluctuations in the average surface temperature of the North Atlantic (AMO index), but with a delay of about 15 years – on changes in solar activity (Wolf numbers). The linear trend of increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere explains almost all the interannual variability and reflects the linear trend of global temperature, but it covers a part of its interannual variability.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(3):3-12
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Satellite monitoring of wildfire impacts on the conditions of various types of vegetation cover in the federal districts of the Russian Federation
Bondur V.G., Tsidilina M.N., Cherepanova E.V.
Abstract

Here we present the results of the analysis of multi-year satellite data series collected by Terra/Aqua (6 collections of MCD64A1 “Burned Area” monthly product) and Landsat satellites to assess the dynamics of vegetation affected by wildfires for the whole territory of Russia and its regions. An approach to use remote sensing and geoinformatic methods to monitor wildfire impacts on the conditions of various types of vegetation without involving in-situ data has been suggested. The capability to apply the normalized burned area index for the assessment of vegetation damage degree and recovering character using low-resolution satellite data has been demonstrated. It was established that between 2002 and 2017, 68.40 to 234.46 thousand km2 of vegetation cover had been burned out in Russia annually. Seasonal peaks of fire activity, laws of spatial distribution of fire sites, and main types of burned out vegetation for each of 8 Russian federal districts have been revealed. The accuracy of determination of burned out areas based on low-resolution (500 m) data using mid-resolution (30 m) data was 75–81% depending on the used data product.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(3):13-32
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On the changes in the sea surface temperature in the Benguela upwelling region. Part 1: season cycle
Polonsky A.B., Serebrennikov A.N.
Abstract

Based on daily ocean surface temperature values for 1982–2017, near-surface wind for 1988–2017. and sea level anomalies for 1993–2017, obtained from satellite data, the seasonal variability of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the upper water layer in the vicinity of the Benguela upwelling is investigated. It is shown that the thermal upwelling index averaged over the entire area with lower temperature values does not give a correct idea on the seasonal course of the water lifting rate in the upwelling zone due to the significant horizontal advection of waters of upwelling origin. The seasonal variations of the vertical velocity of wind origin in the Benguela upwelling zone are characterized by the presence of two extremes from October to March, which is manifested in the predominance of the semiannual harmonic. At the same time, the thermal upwelling index in the zone of distribution of upwelling waters is subject to seasonal variability with an annual period.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(3):33-44
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Application of the data of space decoding for the study of ore-controlling structures of the Lebedinsky ore-placer cluster, South Yakutia
Kuprikov D.N., Vikentyev I.V.
Abstract

New data about the ore-controlling structures of the Lebedinsky ore-pleaser cluster have been obtained on the basis of space decoding. A stadial analysis of the territory from the ore cluster scale to the ore body (the Myatezhnaya zone) was carried out, as a result of which the position of this zone was clarified. The major ore-hosting structures were identified by space images decoding, and the local structures were revealed by detailed study, and these latter were certified in the course of geological routes with sampling identified for detailed study. Based on the positive results of testing and identification of the mineralization accompanying metasomatic zones were laid mine workings – a trench and several drill holes. As a result of the mining operations, the presence of the ore zone was confirmed; the forecast gold resources for the categories P1 and P2 were tested.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(3):45-54
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Application of remote sensing for detection of tectonic structures and localisation of ore deposits within Biryusinsky and Krepsky-Tumanshetsky ore clusters (Eastern Sayan)
Milovsky G.A., Belyakov A.A.
Abstract

As a result of decoding of the materials of the Russian space survey “Resource-P” (ShMSA) on Biryusinskaya area, the features of the tectonic structure of the horst-anticlinal uplifts and the graben-synclines separating them were determined, the large role of sublatitudinal disjunctions was shown in the structural diagram of the area under study, ore prospective sites were isolated. The study of the Krepsko-Tumanshetskaya area was carried out using space multispectral and panchromatic high-resolution surveys “Resource-P” (Geoton), which made it possible to determine the structural position of the ore deposits. On the Krepsko-Tumanshetskaya area, the ore-controlling structures are small along the length of sublatitudinal strike faults and the nodes of their intersection with the northwestern and northeastern disjunctions.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(3):55-65
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Geological position and structural control of ore mineralization of the Toupugol-Khanmeyshorsky district (the Polar Urals) as a result of remote sensing
Ivanova J.N., Vyhristenko R.I., Vikentyev I.V.
Abstract

Large ring, arc and radial structures were identified based on complex processing of the multispectral satellite imagery of the Landsat apparatus. These structures control the position of gold mineralization of the Toupugol-Khanmeyshorsky ore district (Novogodnenskoe ore cluster, the Polar Urals). The comparative characteristic of this territory with the Turinsk-Auerbakh ore district (Auerbach ore cluster, the Northern Urals) was held. Similar geological features, regularity of the structures and location of gold mineralization in the system of morphostructures were revealed. For the first time, the depths of the formation of magmatic chambers were determined for the Novogodnensky and Auerbach paleovolcanic structures. These chambers were located at depths of ~4 km and ~20 km, respectively in the upper and middle parts of the earth's crust. These are sitting. The Novogodnensky structure is a monogenic structure. It formed under the influence of one leading geological process. The Auerbach structure is larger and more complex structure; it is characterized by a long and multi-stage development. The paleovolcanic reconstruction showed that the root (focal) part of the Auerbach structure plunges from the southeast to the northwest during of the magmatic process evolution. Gold mineralization within the studied areas of the Northern Urals is confined to the intersections of radial faults near the centers of large concentric morphostructures.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(3):66-79
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Use by polar bear (ursus maritimus) of the habitat along coastline throughout the year according to satellite monitoring data
Platonov N.G., Mizin I.A., Ivanov E.A., Mordvintsev I.N., Naydenko S.V., Rozhnov V.V.
Abstract

A polar bear female (Ursus maritimus) was captured and marked by satellite collar of the Argos system on Vaygach Island. Data of location relative to the coastline in the Kara Gate from April 2016 to September 2017 was analyzed. An analysis of the polar bear trajectory revealed periods of its greater (when on ice) and less (on land) mobility and directed of movement. The largest area of the polar bear habitat on an average monthly scale was in May 2016, when moving on small-hit ice, the smallest – in January 2017, when on land with no ice. We estimated the distance to the coast to analysis for resource use (27% of the time on the coast, 33% on land, 40% in the water area). Comparison with our previous studies has shown, there is a commitment to land, even during the season of sea ice presence.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(3):80-91
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Физические основы исследования Земли из космоса
Spatial anisotropy assessment of the forest vegetation heterogeneity at various azimuth angles of the radar polarimetric sensing
Bondur V.G., Chimitdorzhiev T.N., Dmitriev A.V., Dagurov P.N.
Abstract

The results of studies to assess the texture of L- and C-band radar polarimetric images obtained from SIR-C and ALOS PALSAR-1 satellites for the analysis of forest vegetation characteristics using different signatures are summarized. A fractal polarization signature is proposed for the study, which allows to estimate the spatial anisotropy of forest vegetation inhomogeneities at different azimuthal angles of radar sensing. In addition, the signature of lacunarity is suggested as a tool for qualitative evaluation of the angular distribution of tree branches. The heterogeneities of forest vegetation at the test site near the Baikal Lake have been estimated based on the results of the analysis of fractal dimension and lacunarity at different states of the polarization ellipse.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(3):92-103
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Comparison of various models of supercooled water loss factor with experimental data at microwaves
Bordonskiy G.S., Orlov A.O.
Abstract

An improved formula for the supercooled water loss factor at frequencies 10…180 GHz in the temperature range 0 ... –70 °C is presented. The formula based on the experimental data obtained by the authors on measurements of attenuation in the pore water of silicate materials. The formula contains two terms connected the Debye dependence of the loss factor on frequency and temperature, and non-Debye, determined by the influence of the second critical point of water. Comparison of the proposed formula and the model formulas of other authors is carried out. A significant discrepancy between the calculation results (at several times) of the loss factor at frequencies above 100 GHz and temperatures below –30 °C has been founded. The model based on the measurements provides the most adequate representation of the behavior of the loss factor with an error of ~ 30% in the area of deep supercooling of water and in the upper part of the studied frequency band.

Исследования Земли из Космоса. 2019;(3):104-112
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