Vol 46, No 4 (2019)

Water resources and water objects regime
Physical-mathematical modeling of multiyear dynamics of water-balance and snow-reserve components in Ob-Irtysh river basin
Gusev E.M., Nasonova O.N., Shkurko E.A., Dzhogan L.Y., Ayzel G.V.

The possibility of use of the previously developed calculation technique of the North Rivers flow hydraulic records for the Ob River, the largest river in Russia by basin area, flowing under severe conditions in West Siberia was examined. The calculation technique is based on the model of heat and moisture exchange of the geological substrate with the Earth’s atmosphere, the Soil−Water–Atmosphere–Plants (SWAP) model, in conjunction with information support based on global databases of geological-substrate parameters and information obtained from observational data collected by weather stations within the Ob River basin. Uncertainty of the Ob River flow was assessed. Additionally, the ability of the SWAP model to reproduce multiyear dynamics from average values of snow reserves in the Ob-Irtysh basin was examined.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):347-358
Space and time differentiation of snow cover in the Kasmala river basin, Altai krai
Chernykh D.V., Zolotov D.V., Pershin D.K., Biryukov R.Y.

Results of the 2011–2014 snow-course survey in the Kasmaly River basin, which is typical of the southern forest-steppe in Altai Territory, Russia, were analyzed. The interannual differential snow cover, major properties, and main factors affecting the amount of snow accumulation within different types of geological systems in the basin were examined.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):359-369
Hydrophysical processes
Structure of alongshore mobilization of sediments, eastern part of gulf of Danzig
Babakov A.N., Chubarenko B.V.

Systematization of analyzed schemes of alongshore mobilization of sediments off the east coast of the Gulf of Danzig was conducted. Significant differences in the structure and localization of the countercurrent flows in convergence zones were detected. The results of near-bottom steady-state measurements of currents in the vicinity of the Baltic Canal in the depth range 6–16 m demonstrated that >6-m/s winds cause the alongshore currents to be reoriented in the direction of the alongshore wind component. The morphodynamic accumulative criterion (the filling of the re-entrant angle and abrasion in the obstacle-shadow zone) and “abrasive” criterion (the orientation of abrasion kettle holes at the ends of breakwalls) were examined. The abrasive criterion is apparently preferred over the accumulative one during transportation of sediments along segments of the coast where waves approach the coast at normal or near-normal angles. Peculiarities of the mechanism of the northward transportation of sediments, bypassing Baltiysk backwalls and changing from abrasive to accumulative criteria for different segments of the coast, are demonstrated. Two schema representing the opposite Vistula and Sambiysky alongshore flows of sediments are proposed: prior to construction of the backwalls facing Baltic Canal incoming waters with the vast area of migration at the north end of the Vistula bar, and the post-construction backwalls with the resulting narrowing of the area and displacement of its south boundary on the north side to the level of these backwalls.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):370-384
Hydrochemistry. Hydrobiology, environmental aspects
Assessment of important environmental factors in formation of spatial structure of phytoplankton in large subarctic rivers (Eastern Siberia)
Gabyshev V.A., Gabysheva O.I.

On the basis of data-array analysis (2000–2011) of phytoplankton in large subarctic rivers; the rivers’ hydrochemical, hydrological, and morphological parameters; and climatic properties of the catchment-basin areas and by using stepwise discriminant analysis and clustering, it was determined that formation of phytoplankton spatial structure is mostly affected by climate rather than by physical-chemical properties of the river waters in northeastern Siberia. Floristic structure of phytoplankton is mostly connected to abiotic factors among phytoplankton-development indicators. The duration of vegetation-growth period is another important environmental factor.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):385-392
Basic ecological-hydrogeological examination of european part of Russia that suffered from Chernobyl nuclear power plant emergency
Belousova A.P., Rudenko E.E.

A technique for assessment of confined groundwater security against contamination has been evaluated and developed to forecast changes in ecological-hydrogeological conditions in the part of the Kaluga region that was contaminated with Chernobyl radionuclides. This new technique is also useful for resolution of various ecological issues other than just radionuclide contamination.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):393-404
Factors affecting chemical composition of lake water of specially protected areas in Altai mountains, Russia, based on Multa river basin study
Borodina E.V., Borodina U.O.

Mass-spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma was applied to determine the dissolved forms of 26 elements in the water of lakes of the Mul’tinskii Basin. Specific features were identified in the formation of water chemistry in the water bodies of high-mountain Altai territories which suffer little anthropogenic impact. Water quality and the effect of natural factors on it were assessed.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):405-416
Long-term dynamics of the concentrations of organochlorine compounds and mercury in the sediments of the Сhernorechenskoe reservoir
Malakhova L.V., Egorov V.N., Gulin S.B., Malakhova T.V., Moseychenko I.N.

The accumulation of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and mercury in the sediments of the Chernorechenskoe Reservoir since the mid-1960s to 2008 has been studied. Sedimentation rate and accumulation chronology of recovered sediments were reconstructed by the method of radioisotope dating . The sedimentation rate in the reservoir has been found to vary because of changes in reservoir volume and area in the late 1980s. Historical reconstruction of the input of OCs and mercury into the reservoir sediments in the recent 50 years has been performed. The period of 1950–1960 has been found to show considerable pollution of reservoir sediment by DDT and mercury. The spatial distribution of OCs and mercury has been determined in the top 5-cm layer of sediments in the Chernorechenskoe Reservoir. The deposition rates of OCs and total mercury into sediments in 2008 have been evaluated.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):417-423
Hydrochemical mode in riverine aquatic complexes, based on a small river Ild in Rybinsk reservoir basin, Russia
Otyukova N.G.

Results of examination of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the hydrochemical mode on discrete aquatic areas of the riverine aquatic complex of a small river during 2001–2010 are presented. Each discrete area examined individually has its own hydrochemical peculiarities.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):424-427
Analysis of fluorophores of organic substances dissolved in Suvani river water using reversed-phase liquid chromatography
Trubetskoy O.A., Trubetskaya O.E.

Reversed-phase high-efficiency liquid chromatography was used in combination with detection by multiwave fluorescence for analysis of organic substances dissolved in natural water of the Suwannee River. Also analyzed were the stable electrophoretic fractions А, В, and C+D, obtained by a combination of preparative size-exclusion chromatography and analytical electrophoresis in a polyacrylamide gel. Fraction А has the largest molecular size, and fraction C+D, the smallest. Using 3D fluorescent analysis, humic-like fluorescence was detected both in the original sample and in all fractions; protein-like fluorescence is almost fully localized in fractions А and В of the largest and middle molecular sizes. The wide peak of humic-like fluorescence is split into several groups of fluorophores with different emissions maxima (435, 455, 460, and 465 nm) and degrees of hydrophobicity. The obtained results were analyzed in relation to contemporary theories of formation of humic-like fluorescence of dissolved organic substances. The low-molecular free aromatic amino acids tyrosine and tryptophan were identified in fractions А and В of the highest molecular size and constitute >50% of the protein-like fluorescence of the organic substances dissolved in the Suwannee River water. The data obtained ensure better understanding of the molecular nature of protein-like and humic-like fluorescence of organic substance dissolved in natural water.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):428-437
The interaction of land waters with the environment
Assessment of parameters and distribution of extremely heavy-rainfall events that occur several times per year
Klimenko D.E., Cherepanova E.S., Kuzminykh A.Y.

Applied analyses of a number of datasets containing several highwater-forming storm rainfall events (intense rain for short time periods) per year are examined. The use of data containing several events per year is demonstrated as justified for reliable determination of statistical properties of time series derived from short observation periods. The statistics of time series containing one to several events per year in the Ural Mountains are shown to be well correlated with the frequency of the observed events. Recommendations for recalculation of the time-series statistics containing several events per year versus statistics for one event per year were developed, and a brief comparative analysis of the methods used in Russia is provided.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):438-446
Environmental changes in last 200 years from results of bottom-sediments analysis of lake Oron (Kodar ridge, Eastern Siberia, Russia)
Enushchenko I.V.

Records of bottom sediments accumulated in Lake Oron over the last 200 years were analyzed. Chironomidological and palynological examinations of Lake Oron bottom sediments, based on a 10-cm-thick sample from drilling, were conducted. The dynamic climate effect on fauna was studied by examination of Chironomidae larvae from the lake. The lake’s hydrological status and the local and regional landscape and vegetation were also determined. As a result of these environmental studies, the effect of Lake Oron’s nearshore conversion to bog on the process of the lake water’s acidification was assumed, and the approximate dates of the process were defined as beginning in the 1940s.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):447-456
Aleksandr Naumovich Gel'fan (On His 60th Birthday)
Water Resources B.

This paper is dedicated to the anniversary of Alexander Naumovich Gelfan, doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, director of the Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The most prominent scientific achievements of A.N. Gelfan in mathematical modeling of the hydrological cycle of river basins are presented, as well as the results of application of the geoinformational modeling complexes. The results of organizational activity of A.N. Gelfan and his participation in international organizations are reviewed.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(4):457-460

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