Vol 88, No 6 (2021)

Hystory articles

The first steps to create domestic neutralizers of exhaust gases for automobiles and tractors

Ignatovich I.V.


The article describes the history of the development and creation of the first domestic neutralizers of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, which began with testing and research of foreign neutralizers. Sequential stages of design, study and testing of domestic converters for gasoline and diesel engines are considered. There are described the following processes: the process of developing methods for testing engines for toxicity and the process of creating estimated indicators and developing normative and technical documents in the field of toxicity of engines and vehicles.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):6-14
pages 6-14 views

New machines and equipment

Method for predicting the technical appearance of grain and forage harvesters of new generations with a substantiation of the structure of their vibration protection system

Sirotin P.V.


The work is devoted to the development of a method for predicting the technical progress of self-propelled grain and forage harvesters and the substantiation of systems for their implementation. The necessity of improving the existing and developing new methods for predicting the properties of machinery, taking into account the existing features of the agro-industrial enterprises operation, were substantiated. A new technique for the synthesis of the technical appearance of products is proposed with the possibility of identifying the nomenclature of defining parameters based on the actual change in their values, ranking indicators with highlighting the most important of them for each category of business entities, forecasting using fuzzy logic methods, as well as justification of required machine systems of new generations using object-oriented design methods. A description of each of the stages of the forecasting process is given. On the basis of mass-produced grain and forage harvesters in Russia, an analysis of their constructive evolution with the allocation of stable and inherited development criteria has been carried out. A comparative analysis of the actual change in the defining parameters for machinery of the current and previous generations is shown. The technique and the results of forecasting the selected defining parameters are presented. It is shown that the predicted level of properties forms multidirectional requirements, which, from the point of view of implementation on the basis of existing design approaches, are contradictory. Taking into account the existing problems of motion dynamics and vibration loading of the workplace of operators of machinery of the current generation, it is stated that those multidirectional requirements are unattainable. Using the methods of object-oriented analysis, an object-target diagram of classes of possible options for constructing a vibration protection system for machinery of a new generation has been compiled. The relations of inheritance, which established the hierarchical decomposition of goals, were determined. It is shown that it is more expedient to control the selected vibration processes of combines without significant changes in their design and layout by means of systems for dynamic stabilization of the body and vibration isolation of the operator's workplace.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):15-28
pages 15-28 views

Theory, designing, testing

Method of controlling the slipping of a wheel propeller of automobile and tractor

Gazizullin R.L., Chzhen K., Kotiyev G.O., Kositsyn B.B.


An increase in the slipping of a wheel propeller leads both to the energy loss and, up to a certain limit, the traction force increase. In this regard, in order to reduce energy losses for the movement of the vehicle, it is necessary to limit wheel slip at a level sufficient to create the required traction. Most of the existing algorithms aimed at implementing this constraint require information about the vehicle's linear speed. However, measuring the latter with a given accuracy outside laboratory conditions is difficult, which in some cases leads to a malfunction of the control algorithm. Therefore, it is relevant to develop a control method for the traction control system; in particular, for the case of acceleration, which will make it possible to estimate and limit wheel slip within specified limits with unknown characteristics of the supporting surface and the vehicle speed.

The article is devoted to the development of a method for assessing and limiting slipping of a wheeled engine at a level sufficient to realize the required tractive forces without using data on the vehicle's linear speed and adhesion properties of the supporting surface.

The article describes the mathematical model of the dynamics of the rectilinear movement of the “quarter” of the vehicle on a solid flat horizontal support surface. Through virtual experiments simulating the acceleration of a “quarter” of the vehicle with low slip, there was established a relationship between the traction force on the wheel axle and the kinematic parameters of the rotational motion, which are measurable and can be controlled during the movement of the vehicle, for example, using dynamometric wheels. On the basis of the obtained criterion, a regulator was developed to limit wheel slip during vehicle acceleration. The effectiveness of the developed regulator is proved by mathematical modeling of the acceleration of a “quarter” of the vehicle with different intensities on two types of supporting surfaces. It is also substantiated analytically provided that the wheel slip is constant within the measurement interval.

The paper presents an approach to assessing and limiting the slip of the wheels of a vehicle during acceleration using a regulator based on fuzzy logic. A theoretical justification of the proposed method is given. It does not require information about the linear speed of the vehicle and the adhesion properties of a wheel with a supporting surface.

An algorithm for the operation of the traction control system was developed. It allows to limit wheel slip at a given level while maintaining a sufficient margin of traction, which leads to a decrease in tire wear, a decrease in the likelihood of loss of mobility and an increase in the energy efficiency of the vehicle.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):29-44
pages 29-44 views

Prediction of cyclic durability and risk analysis of inconsistencies in the supporting structures of mobile vehicles

Panov A.N.


The reliability and safety of mobile vehicles is determined by their carrier system. Achieving a low probability of failure of structures and reducing the cost of equipment is possible by changing the traditional methods of predicting reliability and applying risk analysis, as well as using risk-based design. The aim of the work is to develop methods for predicting the cyclic durability of elements, fastening prefabricated load-bearing structures and analysis to achieve acceptable risks of mobile vehicles at the stages of risk-oriented design. The methods and standards were developed in order to provide methodological support of risk-based design. Those allow designers and engineers to use new methods of design and calculation of tractor and agricultural machinery. It is proposed to introduce into the existing notation system of design and technological documentation the identifiers for parameters as the priority indicators and to achieve when designing the probability of occurrence of each potential cause of failure up to a given level of risk, taking into account priority. The tool for achieving low failure probabilities is the construction of diagrams of cause-and-effect relationships of failures is the source of cause and effect based on the method of deduction and induction. A calculation and experimental method for predicting reliability, according to the criterion of cyclic durability of load-bearing structures and fasteners was developed. The technique is based on local modeling of damage initiation zones, taking into account the influence of design and technological factors of production, simulating the load mode of a mobile vehicle, its damage zones. The following are used for the calculation: finite element method, experimental load assessment, fatigue resistance characteristics of load-bearing elements, rivets and bolts, damage accumulation hypotheses. Risk analysis is carried out using the FMEA methodology. As a result of the risk analysis in a probabilistic formulation, a conclusion is made about the possible damage to the supplier – the number of mobile vehicles that will not ensure the fulfillment of the stated requirements for a given resource and warranty mileage. Thus, data for assessing risks and making a decision on the advisability of redesigning equipment appear. The created methodological support for predicting cyclic durability and risk analysis for the implementation of risk-based design allows: to eliminate the uncompetitive level of product quality and production quality, as well as low efficiency and labor productivity; apply new design technologies, design and production preparation methods that reduce development time. The developed methods and means of the risk-based approach have been widely tested and are used in the practice of auto-tractor-agricultural machine building.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):45-53
pages 45-53 views

Comparative studies on the maneuverability of track trains for transportation of containers

Yevseyev K.B.


To increase the cross-country ability of ground trackless vehicles for off-road container transportation by land, it is advisable to use track trains. When moving track trains, it is necessary to ensure high profile cross-country ability when overcoming obstacles in the vertical and horizontal planes. The property of maneuverability determines the ability of track trains to maintain mobility when maneuvering in the plan and depends on the adopted design and layout solutions and static agility. The article examines the maneuverability of track trains for two variants of design and layout solutions: a track single-articulated semi-trailer train and a double-articulated track train. The movement of each of the track trains is compared according to the criterion of energy efficiency, taking into account two methods of turning: kinematic and power turning methods.

A variant of the design and layout of a track train was determined. It has better static agility and a smaller overall turning radius.

To assess energy efficiency, the method of simulation mathematical modeling is used, taking into account the peculiarities of the interaction of the driving machine with the support base. The article provides a description of the regulators that are used in the mathematical model and provide the turn of caterpillar trains with a minimum radius. To compare the energy efficiency of performing maneuvers, several design schemes are considered: with one active link or with two active links.

A turning method was determined. It is advisable to use it to ensure high turnability of track trains. The effect of the length of the bearing surfaces of caterpillars active links on energy efficiency is determined as well. In addition, the results of a comparison of track trains according to the criterion of energy efficiency are given.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):54-67
pages 54-67 views

Mathematical modeling of the movement of a tracked vehicle using the RecurDyn application package

Poddubnyy V.I.


Mathematical modeling of motion allows at the design stage to assess the impact of the design and operational parameters of tracked vehicles on their performance, determine the qualitative and quantitative performance indicators, and consider controllability issues. The use of the RecurDyn application with a library of specialized extension packages allows to obtain a mathematical model of the vehicle, taking into account its design with a specified degree of detail. A model of a tracked vehicle with a torsion bar suspension was developed using the Professional extension packs and the Track (HM) library of the Toolkit extension package. It allows simulating standard maneuvers on various supporting surfaces. The CoLink extension package implements a control model that ensures the movement of the tracked vehicle along a given trajectory. The basis for the development of the motion control model is a technique based on predicting the position of the vehicle after a given forecast time. As a control, the speed difference between the leading and lagging tracks was adopted. It ensures movement along a given trajectory. The difference in speeds ∆V is determined using PID – regulation by the values of the lateral deviation of the vehicle from the given trajectory and the angular deviation of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle from the tangent to the trajectory in the predicted position. The control model allows to simulate the movement of a vehicle with a differential and a planetary rotation mechanism. The simulation of movement along a circular trajectory and the snake maneuver was carried out. The movement of a tracked vehicle with a planetary steering mechanism on a solid support surface with a friction 0.7 coefficient was simulated.

Based on the simulation results, a conclusion about the adequacy of the mathematical model of the tracked vehicle and the performance of the presented motion control model was made. The developed model allows simulating various maneuvers of a tracked vehicle to assess the stability of movement and controllability, to determine the rational parameters of the tracked mover based on the results of simulation of movement at various heights of irregularities and speeds of movement.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):68-75
pages 68-75 views

Quality, reliability

Efficiency of use of machine and tractor units operating with elastic damping drives of driving wheels

Polivaev O.I., Pilyaev S.N., Bolotov D.B.


Nowadays an urgent direction in agriculture is the issue of increasing the volume of production. In order to do this, it is necessary to have powerful energy facilities operating at high speed modes. But at the same time, the increased vibrations appear in the tractor transmission, which are transmitted from the soil. These fluctuations negatively affect the units and assemblies of the mobile power plant, lead to an increase in the consumption of fuel and lubricants, a deterioration in the ride smoothness, and also have a negative effect on the health of the vehicle operator. For this reason, it is necessary to improve the design of modern mobile power tools.

Analysis of works on this topic has shown that the most effective way to protect against dynamic loads from external influences is the setting of elastic elements in the final link of the transmission. The paper analyzes various designs of elastic damping drives (EDD). The design of the EDD of driving wheels was proposed (utility model patent of the Russian Federation No. 203460). The proposed blade EDD is rigidly fixed on the wheel disk and has two cavities. The forward stroke cavity is connected to two gas-hydraulic accumulators, one of which has an adjustable throttle, and the second cavity of the return stroke is connected to one gas-hydraulic accumulator. Both cavities of the damper are filled with a magneto-rheological fluid, which viscosity changes by electromagnetic coils, depending on changes in the oscillations of the moment on the semi-axes. The drives were installed on the MTZ-80.1 tractor. The studies were carried out as part of transport and arable units. When working with a transport unit on a dirt road due to the EDD the slipping of the propellers is reduced and the speed of movement is increased by 6–9 %. When the tractor is plowing, the skidding of the propellers is reduced by 10–16 %, and the speed of movement is increased by 7–12 %. This increases the productivity of the tractor unit by 6–12 %.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):76-81
pages 76-81 views

Restoration and alloying of working bodies of earth-moving machinery

Kazannikov O.V., Popov E.V.


During the operation of road-building and earth-moving machinery, their working bodies are subjected to the greatest wear, in particular: crowns of rippers, blades of dumps, teeth of excavator buckets. The limiting state of parts is characterized by a 25–35 % loss of mass of worn elements of working bodies that have direct contact with the ground. Rejected during repair parts are sent for recycling or restoration. The service life of some of the most loaded parts when working with heavy soils is several hours. The need for crowns for earthmoving equipment from enterprises involved in road construction and quarrying in the Far East region is measured in tens of thousands of pieces per year. Replenishment of stocks of wear parts makes it necessary to implement complex logistics schemes due to the remoteness of facilities from the centers of production of parts, and is always accompanied by significant costs. Therefore, the problem of restoring and strengthening worn crowns of rippers and teeth of excavator buckets is very relevant. Various industrial and scientific organizations have been solving this problem for a long time, and quite good results in this direction were obtained after a number of developments at the E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute in the direction of the method of electroslag facing (ESF). Based on this method, various technological processes for the restoration of massive parts were created. The use of ESF allows not only to restore parts with significant wear, but also to obtain the corresponding design requirements or improved functional properties. These, when restoring the working bodies of construction and road vehicles, will increase their durability. The paper considers the possibility of restoring worn crowns of working bodies of earth-moving vehicles by the ESF method, using ore concentrates mined in the Far East as alloying additives.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):82-89
pages 82-89 views

Economics, organization and technology of production

Development of a methodology for rationing the route fuel consumption of the LIAZ-5256.57 bus in operation

Boloyev P.A., Petrov N.V., Skrybykin P.A.


The article analyzes suburban bus transportation on specific routes in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Route No. 101 Yakutsk – Tabaga with a total length of 31 km was chosen for the experimental study. The timetable for the movement of buses of the municipal unitary enterprise Yakutsk Passenger Transport Enterprise (YAPAK) on the suburban route is given. The main technical data of the LiAZ-5256.57 bus were studied. In accordance with international rules for buses, the determination of the amount of fuel consumption and specific emissions of normalized toxic components is carried out using a driving cycle on working drums. A technique to calculate fuel consumption is used for modeling engine performance indicators that provide a change in the traction and speed characteristics of the vehicle in accordance with the established driving cycle. The calculated fuel consumption results for the NEDC driving cycle are compared with experimental data. As a comparison of calculated and theoretical data on fuel consumption with practical data, a Cummins type CG 250 engine is considered. The internal combustion engine is installed on the LiAZ-5256.57 bus. Experimental data on the fuel consumption of this bus per 100 kilometers (km) showed 49 nm3, and theoretical calculations of the fuel consumption of the bus per 100 km using the proposed method showed 48 nm3.

Thus, to assess the traction and speed characteristics of the bus, the proposed combined method can be used, which makes it possible to obtain a calculation of fuel consumption that is closer to the experimental data on the driving cycle. Based on the initial data of the vehicle, the effective performance of the engine is evaluated. A computational method for modeling tests and an experimental driving cycle for motor vehicles with a total mass of more than five tons are proposed.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):90-98
pages 90-98 views

Economic feasibility of using the technology of carbon-vibro-arc hardening for hardening the pointed paws of tillage machinery

Titov N.V., Kolomeychenko A.V., Vinogradov V.V., Kolomeychenko A.S.


The article describes the rational technology of carbo-vibro-arc hardening (CVAH) developed by the authors using a multicomponent paste of the working surfaces of the pointed paw of tillage machinery. An economic assessment of the feasibility of using CVAH for strengthening pointed paws was carried out. PG-FBKh6-2 powder was used for research as the basis of a multicomponent paste for CVAH. The boron carbide B4C served as a ceramic component of the paste, the mass content of cryolite was 10 %. CVAH was carried out on a VDGU-2 installation. A carbon electrode of 8 mm in diameter was used to form reinforcing composite coatings.

The implementation of developed technology involves firstly the cleaning of working part of the paw. Then a multicomponent paste is prepared, it is applied to the surfaces, hardened and dried until cured. After it the CVAH is done with the formation of a composite coating and the resulting coating is monitored. The rational composition of the multicomponent paste according to the results of a set of studies should be as follows: PG-FBH6-2 powder – 60 % by weight, B4C – 30 % by weight, cryolite – the rest. Rational CVAH modes: current strength – 70 ... 80 A, carbon electrode vibration frequency – 25 Hz, electrode vibration amplitude – 1,1 mm. The thickness of the formed reinforcing composite coating is 0,9…1,0 mm, and its hardness is 70…72 HRC. The developed technology, due to low additional capital investments, can be used both in small workshops of farms and in the conditions of specialized repair and restoration enterprises. The calculation of the economic efficiency of the developed technology for strengthening pointed paws showed that the expected annual economic effect from the introduction of the technology will be 120, 191 rubles with the hardening of 430 blades of KShU-12N cultivators. Thus, the developed technology is economically feasible and can be recommended for implementation in production.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(6):99-104
pages 99-104 views

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