Vol 89, No 3 (2019)

On the Rostrum of the RAS Presidium
Solzhenitsyn’s heritage as a cultural phenomenon and an object of scholarly study
Polonsky V.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the peculiarities of Solzhenitsyn’s creative self-determination in the context of 20th century culture. The author dwells on the writer’s artistic connections and interactions with Russian and world classics, modernist poetics, and the socialist realist canon. Special attention is paid to the evolution of the mystery-epic principle in his prose. In the final part of the article the current state of scholarly and academic studies of Solzhenitsyn’s heritage are considered. The article is based on V. V. Polonsky’s report at the meeting of the Presidium of RAS on December 13, 2018.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(3):211-220
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Science and Society
Demographic implications of social deviations of Russian youth
Ryazantsev S.V., Semenova V.G., Ivanova A.E., Sabgayda T.P., Evdokushkina G.N.
Abstract

The article provides an assessment of the demographic losses among Russian youth due to social deviations – suicides, murders, alcohol and drug poisoning compared with the countries of the “old” (before May 2004) and the “new” (after May 2004) European Union. It has been shown that in Russia and in Europe over the past 30 years, the contribution of losses due to deviant behavior to the total mortality of young people has increased, but in Russia this undoubtedly preventable factor has been of special significance. Currently, this factor causes more than a third of the total mortality of young men in our country and almost a quarter of their contemporaries. The evolution of the structure of losses caused by social deviations testifies to multidirectional processes in Russia and Europe. If both in the "old" and in the "new" European Union the importance of suicides increases, in Russia there is damage with uncertain intentions. In essence, due to this vague diagnosis, underreporting of deaths from alcohol and drug poisoning, suicides and murders is masked – in general, from one third to 100% of cases. This means that the death rate from social deviations in Russia compared to the EU is even more than official statistics show.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(3):221-231
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Point of view
How to reorganize computer science and technologies?
Iliin V.P.
Abstract

The fundamentals of modern progress are based on the infinite growth rates of the computational and informational capacities of a post-petaflop scale, which provide unthinkable opportunities for acquiring new knowledge and introducing innovation into production, environmental management, and the economic and social spheres. The key method here is based upon the predictive mathematical modeling of processes and phenomena, including theoretical and applied research, super-computations and large-scale computer experiments, operations with mega-data sets, and artificial intelligence. The solution to emerging supertasks requires huge amounts of new generation intelligent software, which is impossible without the formation of new concepts and paradigms of activity, architectural solutions, and constructive technologies. The world is embracing the creation of integrated computing and information environments, forming an instrumental context for automating the construction of models and algorithms, their mapping onto supercomputer platforms, and the creation of comfortable interfaces for users with different professional backgrounds. Such an ecosystem is designed for a long life cycle with continuous development and the coordinated participation of various groups of developers, as well as widespread demand. In fact, this is leading to the formation of a new industry with mass professions requiring high supercomputer literacy. The identified scientific and technological challenges require competent organizational and infrastructural solutions, including the interdepartmental coordination of academic, educational, and production teams

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(3):232-242
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Organization of Research
The scientometric profile of Boreskov Institute of Catalysis
Zibareva I.V., Ilina L.Y., Alperin B.L., Vedyagin A.A.
Abstract

This paper presents the results of a scientometric analysis of the publications of Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, over a 60-year period (1958–2017). The current research used the SciAct information system, and the WoS, Scopus, CAPlus and RSCI databases. The main types of catalysts and catalytic processes studied at the Institute are specified, together with the number and citation dynamics of publications, grants supporting the research by domestic and foreign funds, types and languages used in publications, the locations of publications and where they were issued, their authors and affiliations, each publication’s mission and remit, as well as their main bibliometric indicators.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(3):243-254
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A Branch of the Library for Natural Sciences of RAS in Pushchino Research Center as a link of management information system for science
Kalenov N.E., Kharybina T.N.
Abstract

This paper describes main the direction of activities at the Central Library in Pushchino Research Center (PNC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (a branch of the Library for Natural Sciences of RAS), which provides PNC scientists with the information they need. The most important activities involve the development and implementation of new methods for delivering information support to scientific studies, based on the latest networking technologies. In addition, the library supports the development of information systems in the field of physical and chemical biology, along with bibliometry and scientometrics research.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(3):255-259
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Review
The origin of plague. Future perspectives of ecological and molecular-genetic synthesis
Suntsov V.V.
Abstract

Plague, infamous due to three devastating pandemics, remains one of the most dangerous human diseases. Its causative agent, the microbe Yersinia pestis, is a priority in the arsenal of possible biological weapons, which requires increased attention to the development of a system of biological (bacteriological) security. A deep knowledge of the natural processes that facilitate the development of the causative agent of plague may be useful for this. There are currently two alternative approaches to determining the origin of Y. pestis – molecular genetics (MG) and ecological. MG-data has led to the innovative idea of the saltation conversion of the psichrophilic saprozoonotic microbe Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1b into a population of the pathogenic plague microbe Y. pestis, by horizontal transfer of two specific plasmids pFra and pPst from the external environment, or from other bacteria and inactivated/deletions of genes that have lost their functions in a new habitat, probably in populations of voles (Microtinae) in Asia. The ecological scenario is based on the idea of Darwinian adaptations by way of a quick "quantum" formation of its properties in a parasitic system; the "marmot–flea" (Marmota sibirica – Oropsylla silantiewi), during the transition between the Pleistocene and Holocene periods. Three important factors of quantum speciation were found: heterothermia of marmot bodies during hibernation, the oxidative "burst" of macrophages in hibernating marmots, and stress-induced mutagenesis initiated by the oxidative "burst" of macrophages. This article asserts the complementarity of the ecological and MG approaches. The prospect of a solution to the problem of quantum speciation of the causative agent of the plague, and the development of methods for the treatment and prevention of disease, can be observed in the synthesis of ecological and MG approaches.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(3):260-269
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From the workbook of the researcher
Career path of researchers in relation to publication ethics
Gureyev V.N., Mazov N.A., Ilyichev A.A.
Abstract

This paper describes the how the scholarly output of researchers impacts upon their career development. Bibliometric approaches were engaged to study the frequency of publications of prominent scientists from the Novosibirsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences during their career. This included their thesis defense, assignment to leading positions in research organizations, and election as members of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The highest correlation was between the growth in the number of papers and assignment to a position of leadership. A rapid growth in scholarly output, in this case, was achieved through co-authorship. Furthermore, the thematic diversity of papers was significantly enhanced during this period. Our investigation enabled us to detect cases of violation of publication ethics through the use of "guest" and "honorary" authorship.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(3):270-278
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Chemical methods to control combustion, explosion and gas detonation
Azatian V.V., Vedeshkin G.K., Filatov Y.M.
Abstract

The identification of the chain reactions of gas combustion at atmospheric and elevated pressures has created not only new features of combustion theory, but also wide opportunities for the effective management of the processes of combustion, explosion, and detonation. This can be improved by controlling the rates of multiplication and destruction of active intermediate particles: free atoms and radicals, using inhibitors and promoters. This article briefly describes the use of methods developed to prevent the ignition and explosion of methane in the air: including in coal mines; the ignition and explosion of hydrogen air mixtures; and of the transition of combustion into detonation in the ramjet engine. The results of interdepartmental tests are presented, as well as experimental data illustrating the destruction of a stationary detonation wave by small additives of simple hydrocarbons.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(3):279-284
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Profiles
The founder of the historical science of the Russian language. The 200th anniversary of academician F.I. Buslayev
Nikitin O.V.
Abstract

The article presents an analytical review of the biography and scientific activity of F.I. Buslaev (1818–1897), an outstanding Russian philologist and academician of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Special attention is paid to his innovation in his studies of monuments of folk literature, and teaching the history of the Russian language. F.I. Buslaev was one of the originators of modern comparative studies, lingua-cultural analysis, and influenced the development of science during the XX–XXI centuries. This article releases new archive documents revealing F.I. Buslaev’s laboratory of creative thought, and describing his formation as a scientist. Interesting little-known biographical facts are also presented. F.I. Buslaev’s personality is considered in the context of the social and historical events of his time.

Вестник Российской академии наук. 2019;89(3):285-296
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