Vol XLVIII, No 3 (2016)

Articles
PROGNOSIS OF CLINICAL OUTCOMES IN THE LONG TERM PERIOD AFTER CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY
Akhmadeeva L.R., Bikbulatova L.F., Ishbuldina G.I., Plechev V.V., Akhmadullin F.F., Veytsman B.A.
Abstract
In this article we describe the factors that can influence the occurrence of stroke in long term period in patients after reconstructive surgery on the carotid arteries. We observed 195 patients (mean age 63,6 ± 8,4 years) who underwent reconstructive surgery on the carotid arteries for the stenotic lesions. We made a clinical examination of patients, which included clinical interview, objective examination (somatic and neurological), neuropsychological and laboratory and instrumental tests. As the result of our study, we obtained data about the most important factors influencing the incidence of strokes after this type of surgery. For the first time we presented the data confirming that if carotid endarterectomy is performed earlier, it significantly (p=0.004) decreases the incidence of strokes after these surgeries
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):5-10
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THE RELATIONSHIP OF RELIGIOSITY WITH AFFECTIVE DISORDERS AND POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER IN MIGRANT WORKERS
Ovchinnikov A.A., Sultanova A.N.
Abstract
With the use of the Mississippi Scale (civilian version) and Beck depression scale there was assessed the level of PTSD symptoms and depression among migrant workers who observe the canons of Islam and migrants of Western-oriented values. The survey data of 728 migrants revealed differences in the level of symptoms of PTSD and depression in the above two groups. It was found out that there is a favourable effect of religiosity as a kind of “antidepressant” in a group of migrant workers who observe the canons of Islam. At the same time, religiosity in a different culture, with different religious traditions, which do not allow migrants to fully satisfy their spiritual needs, is a stress factor leading to the development of PTSD symptoms. The authors draw attention of psychotherapists to the necessity of taking into consideration the spiritual and religious values of customers as one of the major contributing factors and progress in psychotherapy.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):11-17
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MENTAL DISORDERS, PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MARKERS OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DAMAGE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING CARDIAC SURGERY WITH EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION
Petrova N.N., Kovaltsova R.S., Dorofeykov V.V., Mashek O.N., Bautin A.E., Tashkhanov D.M.
Abstract
The article presents data on personal characteristics, features of cognitive and affective disorders in patients having undergone cardiac surgery treatment with extracorporeal circulation. Significant frequency of anxiety and depressive disorders in cardiac patients before surgery in the absence of cognitive impairment was shown. We have examined the relationships of cognitive functioning and the level of NSE and protein S100b. Increased concentration of neuromarkers in the early postoperative period (12-48 hours) in 80-90% of patients was demonstrated. It is shown that normalization of neuromarkers during the first day after surgery is a favorable prognostic factor in restoring cognitive functions of patients. Clinical-and- scale evaluation revealed a positive effect of cardiac surgery treatment on cognitive and emotional sphere of patients at 15 days after surgery.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):18-24
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PERSONALITY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS TRAITS OF PATIENTS WITH VARIOUS DEGREES OF SEVERITY OF PSORIASIS
Ruzhinskikh A.G., Solovjeva S.L.
Abstract
The article investigates the interrelations between personal, psychopathologic chatacteristics, internal picture of the disease peculiarities of patients with psoriasis, from one side, and severity of the chronic dermatosis course, from the other. The analysis of interrelations shows that psoriasis disease severity is negatively associated with such personal psychosocial characteristics as ability to control and to formation of trust relations. The data indicate the interrelation of mediated severity of psoriasis with an internal picture of the disease, its manifestations on the social level and psychopathological characteristics of patients.The recommendations for improving quality of specialized dermatological hospital treatment for patients with psoriasis are given.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):25-33
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THERAPEUTIC PREFERENCES OF ADDICTION SPECIALISTS IN SAINT-PETERSBURG
Sofronov A.G., Dobrovolskaya A.E., Egorov A.Y.
Abstract
We have done the analysis of therapeutic preferences of alcohol or drug abuse therapists in the treatment of alcoholism and opioid addiction at the present stage. Through anonymous questionnaires we have received the results from 132 alcohol or drug abuse therapists. The questionnaire consisted of 72 questions that reflected the preferences of addiction specialists in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, and also the subjective assessment of patients’ attitude to the different methods of treatment. It was found out that alcohol or drug abuse therapists from psychotherapeutic techniques often use cognitive-behavioral and family counseling. About 80% of alcohol or drug abuse therapists continue to use with different frequency traditional but not scientifically proved methods (“coding” (alcohol or drug abuse hypnosis), simulation of “Anti addiction substance” (placebo) implantation, etc). Alcohol or drug abuse therapists widely use neuroleptics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, normotimics, tranquilizers and nootropics, and in the treatment of alcoholism; these tools are used more often than in the treatment of drug addiction. Over 80% of alcohol or drug abuse therapists administer Disulfiram and Cyanamide, of which 48,2% are often Disulfiram and 45.5% - Cyanamide. More than 21% of alcohol or drug abuse therapists are given different forms of Naltrexone in the treatment of alcoholism, and in the treatment of drug addiction - more than 25%. Naltrexone for extended-release injectable suspension (Vivitrol) is known by the absolute majority of alcohol or drug abuse therapists, however, nearly half of doctors don’t use it or have minimal experience. Doctors with experience in the use of Vivitrol assess its efficiency as average, noting a weak manifestation of side effects. The main goal of treatment of patients with alcoholism and drug addiction, according to experts, is achievement of remission, although about one third of experts consider that the purpose of drug treatment may be reduction of utilisation of psychoactive substances and relief of abstinence. Doctors consider that unscientific methods of treatment are demanded by 39.2% of patients with alcoholism and 31.2% of patients with opioid addiction and treatment with Naltrexone are demanded by 4.5% and 9.4% of patients.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):34-43
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INTERRELATION OF HEMISPHERIC ASSYMETRY AND IMPAIRMENT OF HIGHER CORTICAL FUNCTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOLISM
Tarkhan A.U., Nezhdanov G.A., Zubova E.Y., Popov Y.V., Chekhlaty E.I., Neznanov N.G., Rybakova K.V., Krupitsky E.M.
Abstract
Interrelation of hemispheric asymmetry (in motor area and in solving verbal and logical problems) and impairment of higher cortical functions in 435 patients with alcohol dependence are examined. Characteristics of this relation depending on the expression and nature of the organic brain impairment, age and duration of the disease are described. Possible mechanisms of hemispheric asymmetry type formation in alcohol dependent subjects are discussed.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):44-54
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STUDY OF CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL TREMOR
Jarygina J.V., Zaharov D.V., Mikhailov V.A., Bogacheva V.A., Hublarova L.A.
Abstract
Essential tremor (ET) is characterized by heterogeneity and variable intensity of hand tremor, which accounts for the severity of functional disorders, thus lowering the quality of life (QoL) of patients. The purpose of the study was to examine the clinical characteristics and quality of life indicators for various types dominant hand tremor of patients with ET. Findings: As a result of the research, we have identified subgroups of essential tremor characterized by significant variability of the hands tremor. The first subgroup has kinetic tremor prevailing over postural tremor, predominantly asymmetric; the second subgroup is represented by high-amplitude symmetric posture-kinetic tremor; the third group has low-amplitude posture-kinetic tremor. Patients with ET are defined by medium and low estimate of physical and mental components of the QoL. The patients of subgroups 1 and 2 were estimated the QoL lowest, whereas the health physical component was higher in patients of group 3 which was complemented by less functional disabilities.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):55-62
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NEW THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES AT COGNITIVE LESIONS OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE
Galyautdinov G.S., Lonkin M.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the study - study of development of cognitive impairment in patients with chronic heart failure and their possible correction by combined therapy with brain-specific antibodies to S-100 protein and endothelial NO-synthase. During the analysis of the literature there was found significant correlation between the course of chronic heart failure and the emergence of cognitive impairment, the possibility and advisability of therapy with brain-specific antibodies to S-100 protein and endothelial NO-synthase. The approach to the tactics of treatment of patients with chronic heart failure should be significantly changed, considering the revealed facts.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):63-69
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GENDER DIFFERENCES IN CLIMACTERIC PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
Mendelevich V.D.
Abstract
In the article specific features of clinical implications and mechanisms of formation of climacteric psychiatric disorders at men and women are analyzed in comparative aspect. The contribution of hormonal, psychological, cultural, sex and some other factors to formation of psychopathology of a menopause and an andropause is estimated. The conclusion about gender specificity of climacteric psychiatric disorders is drawn. At women they are more often caused by specific hormonal changes, at men - have psychogenic factors and reflect personal reaction to of signs of aging and age sex dysfunction.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):70-76
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EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS OF ISCHEMIC STROKE IN THE YOUNG PEOPLE
Fazliakhmetova A.G., Bogdanov E.I.
Abstract
This review presents recent data concerning the prevalence and risk factors of the ischemic stroke in young adults and specific risk factors of the ischemic stroke at young age.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):77-81
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PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT IN PSYCHIATRIC FACILITY
Solovieva S.L.
Abstract
The article presents distinctive features of the adjustment process at a psychiatric facility associated with a probable interaction between mental health experts and patients at the level of deep mental structures. The research includes a clear differentiation between clinical and non-medical (psychological) approaches to the patient’s psychic reality. There are also the described specifics of the psychological adjustment carried out by a clinical psychologist in an overall recovery process based on the teamwork. Psychological illusions are considered. They are keys to the worldview of the adjusted personality and subject to recovery in the mental patients in the first episode clinic.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):82-87
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SELF-DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR IN PRE-SUICIDAL PERIOD IN JUVENILE SUICIDES
Shkityr E.Y.
Abstract
Suicidal situation in Russia is characterized by ultra-high frequency of suicides among minors. The article presents the results of a retrospective study of auto destructive behavior of 72 suicides. We have obtained data on significant self-destructive behavior in minors in the pre-suicidal period.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):88-91
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SOCIAL NARCOLOGY (ADDICTION MEDICINE) AND SOCIAL PSYCHIATRY UNDER THE PRESS OF PUBLIC OPINION
Mendelevich V.D.
Abstract
In the article the comparative analysis of social psychiatry and social narcology (addiction medicine) is carried out, influence of society on various parameters of science and practice is estimated. The conclusion that the Russian social narcology performs the activities in the conditions of essential pressure from the different nonprofessional groups and public associations dictating development of the principles of diagnostics, therapy and criteria for evaluation of efficiency of treatment that calls into question of scientific character of Russian narcology is drawn.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):92-97
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CIAS: THE CREDIBILITY PROBLEM
Soldatkin V.A., Mavani D.C.
Abstract
The article is devoted to topical issues of computer addiction. In the literature review, the authors emphasize the presence of the fundamental contradictions in the views on the disorder. One of the possible reasons for the formed situation, according to the authors, is the frequent and ill-founded use of psychometric scales as the main tool. Our own study clearly shows the lack of validity of commonly used instrument - CIAS scale. According to the authors, clinical and dynamic approach with the syndrome-based assessment of the state is a reliable alternative to study of the problem using simple, accessible and easy psychometric methods. It is necessary to highlight the clear differential diagnostic criteria of the disorder, and the development of therapeutic recommendations based on the principles of evidence-based medicine.
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):98-105
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SCIENTIFIC JUBILEE OF PROFESSOR D.M. MENDELEVICH
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Abstract
Neurology Bulletin. 2016;XLVIII(3):106-107
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