# Vol 17, No 2 (2019)

**Year:**2019**Articles:**15**URL:**https://journals.eco-vector.com/2073-3909/issue/view/3278

## Articles

### Generalized subband analysis and signal synthesis

#### Abstract

Currently, one of the main approaches used in the analysis of properties and synthesis of signals of various classes is the subband methodology, which is carried out from the position of the Fourier transform of signal counts (frequency representations) into subbands of the transform definition domain (transformants). At the same time, the main tool of subband analysis, including wavelet analysis, which is widely used for these purposes, is bandpass filters, and first of all, filters with finite impulse response (FIR filters). The paper presents the basics of building a theory of subband analysis / synthesis of signals of various classes using transformations based on any orthonormal basis with weight. The proposed approach is based on the concept of the fraction of the square of the Euclidean signal norm in a given subband of the domain of definition of the transformant. It is shown that the basis of the mathematical apparatus of subband analysis is a new class of matrices called subband ones. Some properties of the eigenvalues of these matrices are established, the problem of optimal selection of additive components of signals is formulated and solved.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):139-145

139-145

### HYBRID METHOD OF LINEAR SYSTEM SOLUTION FOR MATRIX OF ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION EXTRACTION A MULTCONDUCTOR TRANSMISSION LINE IN THE RANGE OF DIELECTRIC PERMITTIVITY VARIATION

#### Abstract

The calculation of a series of matrices of electrostatic induction coefficients of a multiconductor transmission line by the method of moments is presented. To calculate the matrix in the range of dielectric permittivity, the hybrid method for solving a system of linear algebraic equations is proposed. The method is distinguished by the use of the block LU decomposition with the first matrix calculation using the direct method of linear system solution while the subsequent matrices are calculated by the iterative method. Computational evaluation is obtained using several mathematical packages and compared with analytical ones. The analysis of the test structure shows the prospects of the developed method.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):146-156

146-156

### RESEARCH AND COMPARISON OF DUAL SYSTEMS E2/M/1 AND M/E2/1

#### Abstract

This article presents the comparative results of original research on dual E2/M/1 and M/E2/1 systems with second order exponential and erlangian input distributions. By Kendall’s definition, these systems belong to the classes G/M/1 and M/G/1, respectively. In queuing theory, the systems M/G/1 and G/M/1 are widely used. Investigations of G/M/1 systems are particularly relevant due to the fact that there is still no solution in the final form in the general case, with arbitrary laws of the distribution of intervals of the input flow. Using a higher order erlangian distribution is difficult to derive a solution for the average waiting time due to increasing computational complexity. For such distribution laws, the classical spectral decomposition method for solving the Lindley integral equation for G/G/1 systems allows one to obtain a solution in closed form. The E2/M/1 system is applicable when the coefficient of variation of the arrival intervals is equal 1/ 2 to the coefficient of variation of the service time equal to 1, and the system M/E2/1 is applicable when the coefficient of variation of the interval of receipt is 1 and the coefficient of variation of the service time is equal 1/ 2. To derive solutions, the classical method of spectral decomposition of the solution of the Lindley integral equation is used. The results of numerical simulation indicate a slight difference in the considered dual systems due to the relatively small coefficients of variation of the used distribution laws. In the case of other laws of distributions, dual systems G/M/1 and M/G/1 will give rather different results.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):157-162

157-162

### RESEARCH OF THE REFLECTION OF A FLAT ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE FROM A PLANAR OPTICAL ACTIVE STRUCTURE

#### Abstract

The paper considers the possibilities of capturing optical energy by planar optically active media (crystal). When an infrared optical wave is incident on an optically active medium with the property of chirality, it is possible to transform radially incident radiation into azimuthal scattering along a planar structure. The problem of an oblique incidence of an electromagnetic wave on an optically active crystal is considered. It is shown that tensor material equations for optically active crystal can be reduced to material equations of scalar type with the insertion of the relative parameter optical activity of a crystal. The problem of the incidence of an electromagnetic wave on an optically active crystal was solved by the method of partial regions. At the frst stage, the electromagnetic feld in an optically active media and in its surrounding areas was determined. At the second stage, after applying the boundary conditions, an inhomogeneous system of linear algebraic equations was obtained about unknown refection and passage coefcients. In this work, two types of the structure were considered: the optically active crystal, located on a dielectric substrate and the optically active crystal, located on an ideally conducting substrate. The dispersion of the refractive index and the parameter of the optical activity of the optically active crystal were taken into account. Minimizing the modules of refection and passage coefcients by selecting the geometric dimensions of the optically active crystal was the main purpose. As a result, the parameters of the crystal were selected, in which the efect of azimuthal scattering of incident emitting is predominant over classic Fresnel scattering. In this case, the researching optical structures based on optically active crystal can perform the function of capturing the optical emitting of the infrared range by concentrating a part of the light energy inside the optically active crystal.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):163-171

163-171

### ESTIMATION OF ADDITIONAL SIGNAL TRAFFIC CCS № 7 AT PROVISION OF SERVICES WITH THE MOBILE NUMBER PORTABILITY

#### Abstract

The service of mobile number portability has been operating in Russia since 2013. A central database of the ported numbers has been created and access to it has been provided to all operators of mobile networks. Voice services and short text messaging services using ported numbers require the gateway mobile switching center to request a special signal node in which a copy of the central database is stored and receive information about the ported number from it. These requests and responses are transmitted using the common channel signalling № 7, so additional traffic is generated in the signaling network. The article presents a technique for determining the volume of this signaling traffic based on the analysis of signal messages of the protocol stacks common channel signalling № 7 and SIGTRAN transmitted during the interaction of the gateway mobile switching center with the special signal node. The technique allows to estimate the necessary network resource for the transmission of additional signalling traffic using transport networks with circuit switching and packet switching. An example of calculating the volume of additional signalling traffic and the necessary network resource in the network of common channel signalling № 7 is given, using the example of a large mobile operator 2G/3G /4G.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):172-181

172-181

### RESEARCH OF QUEUING SYSTEM WITH DISPLACED EXPONENTIAL INPUT DISTRIBUTIONS

#### Abstract

The problem of determining characteristics of a queuing system (QS) produced by two flows with displaced exponential distributions is considered. Such a system is considered for the first time. For the classical M/M/1 system the coefficients of variation of the input flow intervals and the service time are equal to one, and for the new system they become less than one and we get a non-Markov queueing model of G/G/1 type. By varying the time displaced parameter in the input distributions, it is possible to change the values of the variation coefficients of the arrival intervals and the service time. Thus, the displaced exponential distributions widen the range of the arrival time variation coefficients and service time, thereby expanding the scope of the new queuing system. The problem is solved by the classical method of queuing theory - the method of spectral decomposition of the solution of the Lindley integral equation. It is shown that the load in such a system is higher than in the classical M/M/1 system, and the average waiting time is shorter because of reduced variation coefficients of the intervals between the receipt and the service time. It is known that the average waiting time is related to the coefficients of variation by a quadratic dependence. Thus, the article presents a solution for the new G/G/1 system. The possible applications for this new QS have yet to be assessed.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):182-188

182-188

### ANOMALY DETECTION PROTOCOL WITH NEGATIVE SELECTION MODULE AND MACHINE LEARNING RULES

#### Abstract

Today, the interest in artificial immune systems has increased many times, as the immune system can solve a large number of problems in the field of computer security. In this article the statistical model of intrusion detection system based on artificial immune system is considered, the sets of detectors in the model are selected on the basis of packet headers. Based on the test results, methods for improving the intrusion detection system are proposed and implemented. The article combines the theory of negative selection and the rules of machine learning in order to propose a new intrusion detection system. To generate detectors, a set of basic rules is developed, using software for data analysis and machine learning, and then new detectors are generated and detailed, inside the negative selection module. During testing the proposed model, using the DARPA1999 data set, the model showed good performance compared to the previous models.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):189-193

189-193

### DEVELOPMENT OF STATISTICAL SIMULATION MODEL OF «CONSTRUCTION OF PREFABRICATED BUILDINGS» BUSINESS PROCESS

#### Abstract

In the second part of the article the authors focused on the statistical study of the “Construction of prefabricated buildings” business process, the description and scheme of which has been presented in the first part. In the context of statistical simulation, the business process was analyzed and the main random factors affecting the process were identified. Then, in terms of probability theory and mathematical statistics, random variables describing these factors are determined. There was found that all random variables can be approximated by one of the three laws of distribution - normal, exponential and Poisson. Based on the identification of random variables, there was obtained a list of parameters and variables of the model, the values of which can be further changed by the user working with model online. A generalized scheme of the modeling algorithm is presented then.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):194-201

194-201

### Modifications of Pilot Patterns for Channel Estimation in Networks 802.11p Standards

#### Abstract

Prototypes of 802.11p communication protocols in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network networks were created to work with fixed or slow moving vehicles and, therefore, did not take into account the negative impact of high speed vehicles on the characteristics of Vehicle 2 Vehicle radio channels (communication channels between mobile vehicles). «Cross layered methods» modify of the Wireless Local Area Network frame structure, which do not affect the standardized procedures and characteristics of the two lower layers (physical and medium access control). In this paper, the concept of «cross layered» modification contains two differences from the solutions: first of all, the inclusion of additional pilot signals for channel estimation, that reduce the speed of information transfer is carried out only when exceeding a certain threshold of high speeds interacting mobile vehicles in the Wireless Local Area Network coverage area, which leads to the appearance of rapid fades in the channel. Secondly, additional pilot signals have a regular hexagonal configuration, which allows to obtain the channel state information by linear 2×1D interpolation. Parameters, characterizing the spreading of the channel in time and frequency, are random variables that are depended on environmental factors. The system designer always faces the problem of parameter selection Nt and Nf distance between pilots along the axes of time and frequency. Creating a pilot signals grid that adapts to changes in channel parameters can be a solution to this problem. To determine the appropriateness of the introduction of adaptation, it is necessary to assess how much the assessment of the estimation state of the channel deteriorates when it used and with the actual values spreading in the radio channel.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):202-206

202-206

### Search and Selection of License Plate Images in TV Systems with Video Analytics

#### Abstract

Algorithms for searching and extracting images of state vehicle license plates from video sequences are discussed. The most common is the search algorithm, in which the image of licence plate is considered as a connected closed foreground area with the specified sizes. This algorithm uses the edge detector Kanny to select the boundaries of objects. The use of this algorithm leads to errors with poor image quality. Errors are manifested in the presence of significant boundary breaks around the license plate. The use of morphological processing methods to eliminate errors leads to the complexity of the algorithm. The algorithm proposed by the authors does not search for the number plate, but directly for the symbols of the state license plate, which are then used to localize the location of the number plate in the image. In this case, the object of interest is considered as a chain of symbols with known characteristic features. At the first stage, the applicant areas for symbols of the licence plate are found. At the second stage, a mask is formed to select the image of the licence plate. The results of modeling algorithms using MATLAB are given.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):207-214

207-214

### Polarization of Radiation of an Aperture Random Antenna

#### Abstract

The polarization characteristics of radiation of an aperture random antenna are investigated by using the triad cluster method of simulation. The limitations inherent in the traditional definitions of radio waves polarization are shown and the method applicable to the study of the the triad -cluster method of simulation -model of aperture random antenna is selected. The histograms of distribution of azimuthal and meridional angular coordinates of the electric E-field and magnetic H-field strengths, found experimentally in real conditions, are presented. The similar histograms obtained by using the the triad cluster method of simulation -model, which characterize the stochastic polarization of radiation of a typical three element aperture random antenna, are presented. The factors affecting the properties of stochastic polarization are considered (radiation frequency, amplitude and phase errors, correlation of errors in aperture random antenna). It is shown that the main factor is the unpredictable nature of the aperture random antenna mode of operation, which is taken into account in the the triadcluster method of simulation framework and realized by probabilistic combinatorics of components of the E-field and H-field vectors. The obtained data demonstrate both the practical effectiveness of the proposed methods and means for the study of radio waves stochastic polarization, as well as its specific properties. The obtained data can be in the simulation of confidential information leakage channels, as well as in other applied problems of the random antenna theory.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):215-228

215-228

### Selection of Key in Two-Component Steganography Systems with Mutual Component Noising

#### Abstract

In general, any steganography system uses two signals - a hidden signal and a container signal. The process of signal recovery requires the receiving party to know the signal from the container. If we represent the transmitted signal as two components, each of which is a function of two signals, then the process of recovering the hidden signal does not require the receiver to know the signal from the container. This article discusses the system in which both signals are informational, and in each component, the two signals are mixed in accordance with a specific algorithm. An important task of designing a steganographic system is the selection of a key. The main requirement for the key is to ensure consistently high sensitivity of the system to the key variation, and, accordingly, to the minimum change of this sensitivity during the formation of the container. The article provides an analysis of a two - component steganographic system from the point of view of sensitivity to variations of various parameters and values of the embedded signals. The conclusions are made about the obtained result.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):229-233

229-233

### Some Aspects of Telecommunications Regulation: the Public Interest and the Structure of Telecommunications Markets

#### Abstract

The main justifications for government interventions in market mechanisms have always been based on the doctrine of market failures and the public interest concept, and it is commonly believed that competition failure is one of the instances of inability of the market to serve social needs. Meanwhile, the monopolistic landscape of the telecom industry cannot be considered a natural outcome of market forces, but it is a direct result of regulatory efforts. Telecommunications markets have always been highly regulated, while the competitive order has been an alternative to regulation. The central role in regulation of telecommunications markets has been played by the universal service idea, which appeared in the US in the beginning of the 20s century in response to the “dual service” competition, and then, this doctrine has evolved and found its place in a new form in the digital economy era, and continues to influence regulatory efforts in the industry. The article analyses the process of formation of the modern structure of the infocommunications industry and the role of universal service in the concentrated landscape of telecommunications markets.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):233-240

233-240

### «Growth Points» in the Digital Economy: «Smart City» Projects

#### Abstract

In the process of forming the digital economy in Russia, the approach associated with the creation of «growth points» to stimulate economic growth and create a favorable innovation climate in the regions is very much in demand. It involves the creation of agglomerations, which will concentrate innovation, resources, infrastructure and «human capital». «Smart cities» projects include purposeful work for the creation of a new urban environment. The priority areas are the use of «big data», sensory technologies for collecting information, the widespread use of resource - saving technologies, active interaction between authorities, public structures and citizens in the management process, the development of political «civic culture» and local self - government, the formation of a new educational system aimed at the development of «soft» skills. The advantages of «smart cities» are associated with the achievement of a high level of socio - economic development and improvement of the management system. The key risks of digital society in Russia are insufficient management efficiency, lack of competencies to create competitive services and production facilities, threats to security in the Internet space, and unwillingness of Russian society to fully participating in the «digital» reality.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):240-246

240-246

### Analysis of Emotions from Texts for Management of Society

#### Abstract

This article examines tools and methods used in the analysis of emotions from text to manage society. It illustrates the influence of emotions on the control of people, society and businesses processes. Important changes occur over time in the management of society: the role played by social networks in the management of society and the methods they use. We researched different websites and software, observed data collection and its use to control society. In general, we analyze the most common methods, their influence, factors that determine the choice of a particular method; give recommendations for improving the process of analyzing emotions to control society.

**Infokommunikacionnye tehnologii**. 2019;17(2):246-254

246-254