No 2 (2019)

Plant growing
Adaptive potential of winter wheatparent materlal in the middle Volga region
Sukhorukov A.F., Sukhorukov A.A.
Abstract

The examination results of adaptability of 14 soft winter wheat varieties of native breeding and 29 lines of breeding are presented. The stress-resistant varieties with the greatest adaptive capabilities diapason are Spartak, Marathon, Esaul, Zhemchuzhina Povolzhya, line L. 351-04 ya0-19-7. According to the average yield in contrasting conditions the following varieties are stood out: Vjuga is 5,85 t/ha, Severodonetskaya Ubileinaya is 5,88 t/ha, “Basis” is 5,82 t/ha, Zimnitsa is 5, 62 t/ha, lines are 679 Sv-93 – 6,28 t/ha, L.351-04- ya0-19-7 – 6,01 t/ha. The Basis, Vjuga, Zimnitsa varieties demonstrated the maximum yield in favorable conditions during the experiment: Basis is 7,78 t/ha, Vjuga is 8,25 t/ha, Zimnitsa"is 7,93 t/ha. The varieties exceeded the standard in unfavorable conditions by 1,16 t/ha, 0,73 t/ha, 0, 62 t/ha. According to the drought tolerance index the Spartak, Severodonetskaya Ubileinaya, Esaul, Zhemchuzhina Povolzhya "varieties are stood out. The studied varieties under non-stressful conditions exceeded the first class wheat norm by the falling-number value (250-396 s.). The falling-number decreased to 79 s. under the stressful conditions. The mass fraction of protein and gluten in the grain of the most studied soft winter wheat varieties are of low stability. The mass fraction of protein in the grain decreased to 10,4% under the unfavorable conditions. The mass fraction of wet gluten decreased to 17,4%. It is 61,9 and 52,6% of the level of a favorable year for the formation of grain quality. The Birusa and Vjuga varieties have the most stable indicators of the grain quality. The falling-number of the Birusa variety under the unfavorable conditions is 316 s, of the Vjuga variety is 395 s, the mass fraction of protein is 14,5 and 14,0%, of wet gluten is 28,2 and 30,0% correspondingly.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):3-6
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Genetic diversity of barley accessions from Ethiopia for the powdery mildew resistance
Abdullaev R.A., Lebedeva T.V., Alpatieva N.V., Yakovleva O.V., Kovaleva O.N., Radchenko E.E., Anisimova I.N., Batasheva B.A., Karabitsina Y.I., Kuznetsova E.B.
Abstract

Nine hundred and twenty five Ethiopian barley accessions were studied under laboratory experiments for juvenile resistance to North West population of powdery mildew casual agent Blumeria graminis (DC.) Golovin ex Speer f. sp. hordei Marchal. Based on phenotypic screening, the 27 accessions resistant to the pathogen were selected and 47 forms were heterogeneous for the studied character. The resistant and susceptible plants of the examined accessions were analyzed with the use of molecular markers developed for identification of the mlo11 allele. Fifteen accessions carrying the mlo11 allele which determines durable resistance of most modern barley varieties to powdery mildew were revealed. The accessions differed by the resistance expression that can be explained both by the manifestation of other resistance genes which are inadequate to the mlo11 and also by the presence of different mlo11 allelic variants in the genotypes of the selected accessions. The resistance to B. graminis of other 59 forms is controlled by the effective genes which are different from mlo11.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):7-10
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Variability of rice haploids obtained in anther culture in vitro
Ilyushko M.V., Romashova M.V.
Abstract

Morphological variability of haploid plants and doubled haploids of rice obtained on one callus line in anther culture in vitro was studied. The work was carried out on rice plants Oryza sativa L. subspecies japonica Kato varietу Cascade. Regenerant plants of one callus line obtained from one rice anther (four in total) were divided into two or three groups of 20-30 plants, depending on the sample size in order of their differentiation on callus and transplantation on the rooting medium. Two callus lines (15.1 and 18.1) formed half of the haploids, half of the doubled haploids, and two other callus lines (5.1 and 7.2) – numerous haploids. On callus lines with numerous haploids (5.1 and 7.2), as the regenant number increases, the size of plants decreases (plant height, number of flowers on the main panicle, number of panicles). On the lines 15.1 and 18.1 between groups of haploids and between groups of doubled haploids statistically significant differences absent. In breeding purposes for the induced doubling of the number of chromosomes in haploid regenerants with antitubulin substances such as colchicine, it is advisable to use plants that form on callus among the first. Between haploids of four callus lines and doubled haploids of two callus lines, statistically significant differences (at p=0.001) were revealed using the Hotelling's T2-criterion, calculated for the whole complex of biometric features. Haploids of different lines differed in three or four of them, doubled haploids on three of the five signs (length of panicle, productive bushiness and plant height). Varieties of interest to breeders may be improved by anther culture in vitro.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):11-14
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Innovation methods of beta vulgaris l. molecular breeding
Bogacheva N.N., Fedulova T.P., Nalbandyan A.A.
Abstract

Molecular-genetic selection of sugar beet parental lines for hybridization has been performed. The results of molecular evaluation of sugar beet initial lines using microsattelite markers are presented. Object of the investigations are plants of male sterile lines and linesmultigerm pollinators. The investigations of polymorphism of 12 microsattelite markers have resulted in selection of 2 primer pairs –
Bvv 30 + Bvv 64 and Bvv 23 + Bvv 32 – as the most informative to reveal heterogeneity of starting material and effective to forecast heterosis. The PCR-analysis of 12 sugar beet initial lines with these pairs of microsattelite primers has allowed determination of specific DNA-profiles for breeding material. Genetical distances have been determined, and the cluster analysis has been performed that allow differentiation of the studied varieties between clusters depending on genetical relationship. Parental forms are recommended for crosses to produce highly productive hybrids. It has been revealed that crossbreeding of the lines being the most distantly related genetically plays an important part in exhibiting heterosis effect in hybrids. It is advisable to exclude hybrid combinations with genetical distance less than 1.41 from further studying in connection with low efficiency. The investigations results presented are important for sugar beet practical breeding when producing heterosis hybrids.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):15-18
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Growth of plants and productivity of corn in cold climate
Golovko T.K., Далькэ И.В., Shmorgunov G.T., Triandafilov A.F., Tulinov A.G.
Abstract

Under conditions of a relatively cool and humid growing season in the central agro-climatic region of the Komi Republic, corn is not inferior in terms of growth rate and photosynthetic activity, traditionally cultivated under the conditions of the northern Non-Black Earth region crops. The purpose of the research is to study the possibility and prospects of growing early ripe corn hybrids in the soil and climatic conditions of the Komi Republic. Field experience was established on the basis of the Institute of Agriculture of Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2016-2017 on an area of 1.6 hectares. In 2016, 6 varieties of corn were studied, and in 2017, in addition to them, another 15. Thus, out of 21 varieties and hybrids, 7 varieties were selected for further study. The article presents the results of a preliminary study of the ecological testing of early-ripening hybrids of corn when cultivating them in agroclimatic conditions of the Komi Republic. The features of growth and development of corn hybrids, formation of the green mass harvest are considered. As a result of the research, the Uralskiy 150 with the best fodder characteristics was identified among the studied hybrids. Uralsky 150 formed 11-12 leaves with a specific leaf density of 0.30 g/dm2. The LAI of the cenosis was 4 m2/m2. The maximum rate of photosynthesis of the leaves was 17 μmol CO /m2s. The average for two years the yield of green mass 2 of the studied variety sample and hybrids of corn was amounted to 380 centner/ha. The dry matter content in biomass did not exceed 20%, the content of crude protein reached 12%, and fiber 29%.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):19-23
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Effect of selenium nanoparticles on the formation of the corn crop
Chernikova O.V., Ampleeva L.E., Mazhaisky Y.A.
Abstract

Peculiarities of yield formation of maize variety Obskiy 140 the cultivation of it with the use of selenium nanoparticles of an optimum concentration. The experiment was carried out in soil culture in 3-fold repetition. Agrochemical parameters of soil: рН 6,2; the КСl humus of 2.6%; P O – 204 mg/kg and K O – 219 mg/kg soil. Four variants of the experiment were developed: control 1 (dry seeds), 2 5 2 control 2 (soaking seeds in water), NP Se inlay (semi-dry etching) and NP Se soaking (30 minutes before sowing at the rate of 0,1 g/ha of NP selenium). In the experiments, NP Se containing 3,7 mg of nanopreparation Se in 1 liter of water was used. The positive effect of selenium nanoparticles on the growth processes of maize seeds: germination, germination energy, growth force is shown. Se NP seed treatment increases germination energy by 6,90 and 9,13%, laboratory germination by 4,67 and 8,34%, growth strength by 26,32 and 31,05%, respectively, control 2 (soaking in water) and control 1 (dry change). Under adverse conditions, the use of selenium nanoparticles increases the growth of plants in height. Positive effect on the accumulation of starch in corn grains inlay NP Se, and soaking in this drug increases the content of protein fractions. The greatest increase in the yield of dry corn phytomass provides soaking seeds with selenium nanoparticles, which is caused by an increase in the yield of green corn mass.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):24-27
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Water relation features of prunus laurocerasus l. under progressive soil drought stress of soutern coast of the Crimea
Ilnitsky O.A., Pashtetsky A.V., Plugatar Y.V., Korsakova S.P.
Abstract

Study the Ecophysiological reaction Prunus laurocerasus L. effect of progressive soil drought determined optimum thresholds and zones of soil moisture, temperature and light, photosynthesis and transpiration limiting Prunus laurocerasus L. in summer active vegetation on southern coast. Start of development of the plant water stress and inhibition of photosynthesis - the soil moisture reduction to 30% of FC.; Temperature optimum photosynthesis whose exceeding leads to inhibition of the enzyme activity and reduce the rate of photosynthesis - metal temperature 35 °C; Growth inhibition, reduction turgor apical young leaves - soil moisture content decrease to 25-20% FC. and Reduced soil moisture to 18% FC and below results in a sharp decrease transpiration rate - 92.3%, visible photosynthesis rate at 95.1% and stomatal conductance by 94.7%. The proportion of the total dark respiration grossphotosynthetic under strong water stress - 78%, in the absence of stress factors - 25-30%; The beginning of the recovery after watering turgor - 1.5-2 hours, the full restoration of the intensity of photosynthetic gas exchange after watering - after 24 hours. Under strong water stress visually noticeable loss of chlorophyll in leaf: Central vein acquired a yellow-green color to leaf- brownish stains. The culture conditions, this leads to loss of decorative qualities of plants. Disclosure mechanisms of functioning of leaves, depending on the environmental impact, provides the basis for the environmental assessment of the physiology of the evergreen species and the possibility of agricultural technology of choice.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):28-33
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Ecology
The environmental forming and productional functions of the haloxylon aphyllum in the Karnabchul desert
Shamsutdinova E.Z.
Abstract

We have conducted investigation of the environmental function of the desert tree of black saxaul (Haloxylon aphyllum) in the Karnabchul desert. As a result, it was found that different age plants of black saxaul had different effects on the degree of illumination. The greatest influence on the intensity of solar radiation was exerted by the saxaul plant of the black middle-aged state, the least – the old generative individuals. Saxaul black had a significant impact on the temperature of the air: in the daytime, especially in the period 13-16 h, reducing the temperature under the crown and on the edge of the crown, and at night increasing it in the same areas. It also had a noticeable effect on the temperature of the soil. The temperature of the soil surface under the crown at night is higher, and during the day the warming was slower than in the outer part of the saxaul crown. Under the influence of black saxaul and soil moisture changed. Under the saxaul crown soil moisture is significantly higher compared to the control (open natural pastures). The highest soil moisture was observed in the upper soil layers at the base of the saxaul trunk. As a result, under the environmental action of black saxaul more favorable hydrothermal conditions for the growth and development of natural wormwood-ephemeral vegetation under the protection of strips and adjacent areas of pastures are formed. The result of production activities chemotaxonomic postbestowal bands consists of two following components: production of fodder mass of the Haloxylon and fodder productivity of wormwood-ephemeral vegetation of natural pastures. By increasing the yield of natural pastures under the protection of pasture protection strips and the harvest of the black saxaul fodder productivity of desert pastures increases more than twice.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):34-38
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Pedology
The influence of landscape conditions on the properties of soil cover of arable land on a gentle slope lake-glacial plains
Ivanov A.I., Ivanova Z.A., Dubovitskaya V.I.
Abstract

In order to lay the landscape experience, the soil cover of the agro-landscape on the gentle slope of the lake-glacial plain was studied and the factors and parameters of spatial differentiation of some physical, physico-chemical and agrochemical properties were established. The different degree of differentiation of individual properties associated with the characteristics of soil-ing rocks, geochemical regimes and the nature of anthropogenic impact is established. Significant heterogeneity in the power of eluvial horizons, the degree of development of the gley process, the structural state, the content of organic matter, nitrogen and moderate- granulometric composition, physico – chemical properties and nutritional regime. The main factor of variation of soil properties in the agricultural landscape is heterogeneity of soil-forming rocks, estimated in terms of physical, chemical and agrochemical properties in 19-59 %. Natural and anthropogenic soil formation process reduced the average coefficient of variation of these properties within the arable layer by 2.6 times (from 36% to 14 %). The factor of increasing the heterogeneity of a number of agrochemical properties by 1.3-1.9 times in the tranzitno-eluvial facies was planar erosion, in the eluvial facies by 3 times – uneven application of organic fertilizers.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):39-43
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Reclamation
Justification of the choice of predecessors of rice at drip irrigation on light- chestnut soils of the privolzhian extraction
Kruzhilin I.P., Doubenok N.N., Ganiev M.A., Melichov V.V., Rodin K.A., Bolotina A.G., Nevezhina A.B.
Abstract

The article presents an analysis of the research results of the All-Russian Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture, obtained in 2014 - 2016. in conditions of the southern slope of the Volga Upland, allowed to enrich the studied problem with new knowledge confirming the possibility of cultivating rice on innovative water-saving technology in general-purpose irrigation systems, including a different set of crops as precursors in field and other crop rotations. To assess the preference for the choice of rice precursors, we selected a legume soybean culture, a row crop potatoes and a narrow-crop culture rice.Studies have shown that, for all predecessors, rice crops with a small time difference have completed the vegetation period and formed a yield close to the planned without negative impact on soil, phytosanitary condition, growth and development of rice. All this makes it possible to recommend them for inclusion in rice crop rotations on general-purpose irrigation systems, to be used as rice precursors with periodic irrigation in the following ranking order: soybean ® potatoes ® rice.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):44-47
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Animal husbandry
New method of determining types constitution of animal
Ulimbasheva M.B., Aisanov Z.M., Gosteva E.R., Eljirokova Z.L., Ulimbasheva R.A.
Abstract

A new method for determining the exterior-constitutional types based on the determination of the mass-specific coefficient (CMR) using 4 body measurements and the animal's live weight was developed and proposed according. Depending on the size of the UMK, the cows were classified into three exterior-constitutional types: loose ( 1.36 and less), intermediate (1.37-1.54) and dense (1.55 or more) types. The aim of the work was to differentiate the full-aged cows of the red steppe breed of the intra-breed type "Kubansky" (n =

146) according to the types of constitution and the study of the immunobiological status of the organism, the level of milk productivity and reproductive capacity. It was found that the highest specific gravity of cows was found in a dense body type - 46.2%, which is 11.6% higher in individuals of intermediate type and 27.0% in loose body type. The yield of cows of loose type of constitution was higher than that of other types of individuals on average by 254-335 kg (P> 0.95) with an average milk yield for the experimental population - 5496 kg. At the same time, cows belonging to the loose type of constitution, produced more fat and protein milk milk, whose superiority over dense-type contemporaries was 0.11 (P> 0.99) and 0.09% (P> 0.999), respectively. The best preserved cows were of dense type, the production use of which was much higher than that of peers of loose type. Despite the greater yield of cows of loose type for a separate lactation, this did not provide them with an advantage in terms of lifetime productivity, they were inferior to dense animals on an average of 2109 kg of milk.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):48-52
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Immunogenetic characteristics of the sheep of the transbaikal brew of a different direction of productivity
Khamiruev T.N.
Abstract

The article presents the results of immunogenetic certification of fine-fleeced sheep of Transbaikalian breed, depending on the direction of productivity for six blood group systems, including 14 antigenic factors. The analysis of the immunogenetic blood indices revealed the similarity of wool-meat and flesh-sheep to the antigenic factors Bb, Bg, Ca, Cb, R and O and a significant divergence in antigens Aa, Ab, Be and Bi. Wool and meat sheep are characterized by a high incidence of Bb (0.980), Bi (0.873), Ca (0.932), Ma (0.555), R (0.538) and O (0.910) - erythrocyte antigens. Animals with antigens Bd, Be, Bg and Mb (0.150, 0.278, 0.190 and 0.228) are less common. A high concentration of antigens Bb, Be, Ca, Ma, R, O and Da (0,960, 0,743, 0,782, 0,812, 0,554, 0,713 and 0,505) was detected in meat-sheep, a low frequency of occurrence was observed in carrier animals Aa (0.119), Ab (0.109), Bd (0.089), Bi (0.109), Bg (0.129) and Mb (0.149). In the case of woolly meat sheep, antigens Aa, Ab, Bi, Ca and O (P<0.001) are significantly more common, whereas meat-beeted individuals have a higher concentration of Be, Ma and Da (P<0.001). The degree of genetic similarity and genetic distance between individuals within the breed was 0.652 and 0.428, respectively.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):53-55
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Veterinary science
ATFpase the activity of red blood cells and muscle tissue of sheep
Fedorova E.Y., Maksimov V.I., Smolenkova O.V.
Abstract

The aim of the research was to establish the functioning of the ATPase enzyme systems of the blood and the longest back muscle of sheep of various breeds and ages. The object of the study was selected according to the principle of analogs of lambs and valukha of Texel and Kuibyshev breed, the feeding conditions and content of which corresponded to the current standards developed by the survival permit. It was established that the activity of Mg2 +, Na +, K + -, Mg2 + - and Na +, K + -ATPases in the membrane of erythrocytes of lambs is determined by age with a high degree of confidence (P <0.001), respectively, at 99.45; 99.41 and 98.46%; the activity of Mg2 +, Na +, K + -, Mg2 + - and Na +, K + -ATPases of the longest back muscle of the valuchs, respectively, by 81.09%; 85.16 and 83.21%. The correlation analysis carried out by the authors proved the effect on the ATPase activity of the erythrocyte membrane and the longest back muscle age; moreover, in the case of erythrocytes, the correlation is negative, in the case of muscle tissue, it is positive. No significant influence of animal species on the activity of Mg2 +, Na +, K + -, Mg2 + - and Na +, K + -ATPases of the erythrocyte membrane and sheep muscle was not found.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):56-59
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Physiological parameters of thrombocytes in piglets during phase of plant nutrition early ontogeny
Zavalishina S.Y., Tkacheva E.S.
Abstract

A very important mechanism for maintaining homeostasis in the animal body is platelet hemostasis. The level of his activity very strongly determines the rheology of blood in the capillaries and due to this the state of metabolism in the tissues. There is reason to believe that the growth and development of piglets depends on the level of functional activity of platelets. For this reason, studies of the age-related dynamics of platelet activity in piglets at the end of early ontogenesis are of great importance. In the study, it was found that the piglets of plant nutrition showed an increase in the aggregation capacity of platelets (aggregation of their platelets was accelerated by ADP from 34.1±0.12 s to 27.6±0.12 s, with collagen from 24.7±0.08 s to 17.5±0.10 s, with thrombin from 36.5±0.08 s to 28.4±0.12 s). The main reason for this may be an intensification of the work of receptor and postreceptor mechanisms of platelets. This was characteristic of piglets during the phase of plant nutrition of early ontogenesis to the same extent with respect to strong and weak inducers of platelet aggregation. The increase in thromboxane synthesis in platelets (from 48.5±0.05% to 59.8±0.09%) was largely due to an increase in the activity of cyclooxygenase in them (from 78,4±0.06% to 89.8±0.12%) and thromboxane synthetase (from 69.2±0.07% to 81.5±0.07%) and activation of ADP secretion from them (from 46.0±0.13% to 56.9±0.15%). The increase in hemostatic activity of platelets in piglets during the phase of plant nutrition of early ontogeny should be considered an important regulator of their microcirculation and metabolism in tissues under existing conditions of existence.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):60-63
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Mechanisation
Universality of volatile corrosion inhibitors applied requirements of agricultural production
Vigdorovich V.I., Tsygankova L.E., Knyazeva L.G.
Abstract

Aqualitative and quantitative system of criteria for evaluating the universality of volatile metal corrosion inhibitors (VCIs) applied to agricultural production conditions was developed. The system of qualitative criteria for universalism includes: 1- an assessment of the effectiveness of corrosion inhibition of metals under the conditions of the action of corrosion-specific stimulants present in the vapor- gas phase separately or together; 2 - suppression of various types of local corrosion caused by them in the composition of a corrosive medium; 3 - suppression in specific conditions of general and local corrosion of contacting metallic structural materials of various nature; 4 - observance of acceptable specific characteristics of VCI: ecological, class-related hazards, influence on chemical oxygen consumption (COC) and biochemical oxygen demand for the biodegradation of substances by microorganisms (BOD5). The system of quantitative criteria for universalism of the VCIs includes quantitative parameters for all the proposed qualitative items. A simplified assessment, taking into account only a part of the criteria for characterizing partially universal inhibitors, is proposed to be applied to the conditions of agricultural production. The experimental data for the volatile inhibitor IFKhAN-114 are given as an example of the effectiveness of the proposed criteria. It was shown that IFKhAN-114 is a partially universal inhi-bitor.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):64-68
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Theoretical parameters seeder for the nest method of sowing soybean seeds
Zazulya A.N., Balashov A.V., Strygin S.P., Sinelnikov A.A., Khairullina S.G.
Abstract

To ensure a given rate of seed soybean seeding, a substantiation of the design parameters of the sowing disk is provided by the nesting method: the number of cells and the distance between the cells, depending on the diameter of the disc and the linear dimensions of the cell. An analytical relationship were obtained to determine the distance between the seeds in the nest and between the nests, depending on the central angles between the centers of the cells in the group and the groups of cells on the lateral surface on the sowing disk, taking into account the seeding rate and the number of cells. The necessary number of cells on the sowing disk its critical linear speed is justified taking into account the seeding machine speed at which the cells are guaranteed to be filled. As a result of the numerical experiment, the following data were obtained: for a given diameter of the sowing disk 0.21m with a cell diameter of 0.008 m and a cell depth of 0.005 m, the total number of cells on the side surface of the disk is 120 pieces, the central angle between the cells in the group is 20, and the central angle between groups of cells is 50. At these values of the design parameters of the sowing disk and the specified soybean seeding rate from 9 to 27 pieces/m., the distance between the seeds in the nest varies from 0.025 to 0.074 m, and between the nests from 0.062 to0.0 185 m. A seeding disc was designed and manufactured for laboratory testing of a sowing device for nesting soybean seeds.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(2):69-71
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