Vol 10, No 4 (2020)

Articles

ENGINEERING, GEOLOGICAL AND PETROGRAPHIC FEATURES OF ANTHROPOGENIC LAYERS IN THE TERRITORY OF SAMARA

VASILIEVA D.I., BARANOVA M.N., MALTSEV A.V., SOKOLOVA S.V.

Abstract

The study of engineering and geological properties of anthropogenic deposits, widespread in the city of Samara. Their main properties have been identifi ed and a classifi cation based on the genetic principle has been developed. The results of a petrographic study of samples from cultural layers taken at an archaeological site are presented. Archaeological excavations were carried out on the territory of Khlebnaya Square, located in the oldest part of the city, in 2019. The object represents the cultural layers that were formed in the XVIII-XIX centuries at the site of the alleged location of the second Samara fortress. Petrographic studies of the samples were carried out under a binocular microscope at 8.75 times magnifi cation, in transmitt ed light of a polarizing microscope at 72 times magnifi cation and under a digital microscope (USB DIGITAL) at 10 times magnifi cation. It has been determined that the pebble fraction is represented by quartz ite and jasper fl int, the sandy and silty fractions are angular quartz fragments with an admixture of undecomposed organic remains. The organic cultural layers, which reach 7-8 m and more in the ancient part of the city, are especially powerful. Their presence is a limiting factor in modern urban construction.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):4-15
pages 4-15 views

METHODOLOGY OF THE TESTS OF FRAGMENTS OF MULTI-HOLLOW SLABS OF FORMLESS MOLDING WITH PINCHED SUPPORT ZONES

ZEMLYANSKIKH S.K., ALESHIN A.N., ATAMANCHUK A.V.

Abstract

The problem of determining the moment of formation of normal cracks in bending reinforced concrete elements with a complex cross-sectional shape, clamped at one end in brickwork and operating under the action of a negative bending moment is considered. A technique for testing prototypes of hollow-core slabs without formwork is presented. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the angles of rotation of the support nodes of hollow-core slabs without formwork, embedded in brickwork. The design of an installation for testing experimental specimens until the moment of cracking is presented. A diagram of the arrangement of measuring instruments is given to determine the deformation of the support unit at the place where the slab is embedded in the masonry, the defl ection of the prototype at the place of load application, the deformation of the brickwork simulating the wall of a multi-storey building.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):16-20
pages 16-20 views

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE INFLUENCE OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT FOR STRENGTH OF COMPRESSED REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS

MORDOVSKIY S.S., SHARAFUTDINOV K.B.

Abstract

The infl uence of transverse reinforcement, including indirect reinforcement, on the strength of compressed reinforced concrete elements is analyzed. This question arose in connection with the possibility of increasing the strength of short reinforced concrete elements loaded with a longitudinal force with small eccentricities within the section of the element. For such elements, the cage eff ect may appear, associated with the coeffi cient of transverse deformations, the magnitude of which is a direct factor in the destruction of the concrete sample, and the limitation of these directly aff ects the bearing capacity of the sample in the direction of increase. The infl uence of transverse reinforcement in the form of stirrups located with diff erent spacing, as well as indirect reinforcement in the form of meshes with a classical rectangular cell and meshes of the “zigzag” type is considered.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):21-28
pages 21-28 views

ASSESSMENT OF THE TECHNICAL CONDITION OF LARGE-SPAN COVERINGS OF RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS

SHEPELEV A.P., IBATULLIN R.R., ALESHIN A.N.

Abstract

The article examines the features of the calculation of large-span structures for covering religious buildings using the example of covering the middle part and the refectory of the church in honor of the holy unmercenaries Kosma and Domian of Asi, located in the village of Sezzhee, Bogatovsky district, Samara region. At the time of the work, the facility was undergoing a largescale reconstruction. Based on the data of the detailed examination of the technical condition of the building structures of the church roofi ng, calculations were made in a physically nonlinear sett ing, allowing to fully assess the stress-strain state of the monolithic reinforced concrete structure of the cover of the middle part and the refectory, which is a complex single continuous system of thin-walled spatial structures of various along the outline of the median surfaces.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):29-35
pages 29-35 views

OPTIMIZATION OF THE HEAT AND HUMIDITY MODE OF MULTI-LAYER BUILDING ENCLOSING STRUCTURES

VYTCHIKOV Y.S., SAPAREV M.E., KONYaKINA D.D.

Abstract

The article presents a methodology for determining the required resistance to vapor permeation of the outer layer of a multilayer building envelope, based on the condition that there is no condensation of water vapor in it. When deriving the formula, an analytical dependence was used to determine the elasticity of saturated water vapor, obtained by the authors of this article. With the help of the proposed technique, the assessment of the thermal and humidity regime of the outer wall, insulated facade system using thin-walled plaster, as well as layered masonry using expanded polystyrene and basalt plates as insulation was made. The results of the calculation of the indicated external walls are presented, which show that condensation of water vapor is possible in layered masonry. The proposed analytical dependence for determining the maximum allowable resistance to vapor permeation of the outer layer of a multilayer enclosing structure is recommended to be used in engineering calculations of the humidity mode of external enclosures of buildings and structures.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):36-41
pages 36-41 views

RECONSTRUCTION OF GAS DUCTS OF WATER BOILERS WITH INSTALLATION OF FLUE GAS PUMPS

MINKINA S.A., URYADOV M.I.

Abstract

The work is devoted to solving the problem of the lack of draft of the existing chimney when operating hot water boilers at full capacity. Thermal and aerodynamic calculations were performed. Thermal calculation was carried out with diff erent loading of hot water boilers and the number of operating burners. The options for the operation of boilers according to the regime map and test protocols are considered. In the aerodynamic calculation for the sections, the resistance of the gas ducts was determined, the chimney was calculated. A fl ue gas pump is installed to remove combustion products from hot water boilers. This will ensure the parallel operation of two hot water boilers over the entire load range.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):42-49
pages 42-49 views

WATER TREATMENT BY AN INTEGRATED METHOD FOR OPERATION OF WATER BOILERS AND HEATING NETWORKS

NEGODA L.L., MINKINA S.A., ANGALYShEV S.Y., CEJZER V.A.

Abstract

The use of a complex fi lter for water treatment is proposed for the fi rst time. The complex fi lter includes two layers. The fi rst layer along the course of the water should be loading for mechanical cleaning, the second - for softening (ion exchange). Cleaning can be one- or two-stage. For research, water was used from three wells in the Samara region. In the course of the work, two stages of laboratory research were carried out, on the basis of which the best fi ltering load was determined. The calculation of the total and working exchange capacity has been made. A technical and economic comparison of cleaning methods was carried out. The results of the work performed were summed up, proposals were made for the rational use of installations and the prospects for the development of the work in the future were determined.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):50-59
pages 50-59 views

INFLUENCE OF THE BIOMASS CARRIER TYPE ON THE OXYGEN TRANSFER RATE OF THE MODIFIED SUBMERSIBLE ROTATING BIOFILTER

SAIED M.A., SERPOKRYLOV N.S., NELIDIN V.V.

Abstract

The modifi ed submersible rotating biofi lter MSRB was developed and patented to improve the effi ciency and quality of treated wastewater from small sett lements in Syria by increasing the mass transfer rate and oxygen transfer rate of the drum-type rotating biofi lter without the need for additional aeration elements. The result of comparing the eff ect of two types of biomass carrier on the oxygen transfer rate OTR shows that the highest value of the OTR when using the fi rst biomass carrier (1) was 409 g/m3·h with a drum fi lling percentage of 60%, a rotation speed of 15 rpm and an immersion depth of 35% While the maximum value when using the second biomass carrier (2) was 518.95 g/m3·h with a drum fi lling percentage of 90%, a rotation speed of 15 rpm and an immersion depth of 15%. It can also be concluded that a change in the shape of the biomass carrier, as well as its density, signifi cantly aff ects the OTR of the biofi lter. In addition, changing the shape of the biomass carrier requires changing other technological parameters, such as the fi lling percentage of the drum, the depth of immersion and the rotation speed.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):60-68
pages 60-68 views

INVESTIGATION OF METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF PHOSPHATES FROM HOUSEHOLD WASTE WATER

TEPLYH S.Y., BOCHKOV D.S., BAZAROVA A.O.

Abstract

A study of the reagent removal of phosphates from domestic wastewater is presented. The research involved works, the authors of which describe methods for extracting phosphorus compounds from water. The article compares the removal of phosphates from wastewater by various methods in comparison with reagent methods. The analysis of existing technologies for regenerative dephosphorization of wastewater has shown that a promising direction is the search for new reagents for extracting phosphates from wastewater. Preference is given to such reagents as calcium oxide and hydroxide, iron chloride and sulfate, aluminum sulfate. The most eff ective for binding phosphates is the calcium cation, since a greater amount of hardly soluble compounds are formed with it.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):69-77
pages 69-77 views

PROBLEMS OF TRANSPORT COMMUNICATIONS RESTORATION AFTER NATURAL DISASTERS

PAVLOVA L.V., PAVLOV A.A.

Abstract

Questions of restoration of transport communications, in particular highways, after natural disasters - earthquakes, fl oods, landslides - are considered. The classifi cations of various degrees of destruction from earthquakes, fl oods and landslides are viewed. Examples of varying degrees of destruction from natural disasters are presented. Features of restoration of transport communications after destructions as a result of natural disasters are designated. Recommendations for the restoration of transport communications and measures for liquidation of destruction, as well as the sequence of work in the process of elimination of the consequences of destruction are proposed.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):78-84
pages 78-84 views

UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE THROUGH HEIDEGGER’S PHENOMENOLOGY

BAZINA A.N., REPINA E.A.

Abstract

The authors, analyzing the philosophical concepts of M. Heidegger and their interpretations by architectural theorists, outline the understanding of architecture in the phenomenological tradition. The purpose of this work is to identify those meanings of architecture that are overlooked in the positivist picture of the world. The article examines the phenomenological concepts that reveal the importance of architecture as a link between man and the environment: architecture as the creation of «places», architecture as a built «thing», architecture as a work of art. The relevance of the topic is justifi ed by the urgent need to reunite architecture with the human life world.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):85-90
pages 85-90 views

NEW APPROACH TO THE COMPREHENSIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF HISTORICAL QUARTERS

VAVILONSKAYA T.V., RAIKHEL Y.L.

Abstract

The article provides a retrospective analysis of existing approaches to the complex reconstruction of block buildings, which developed against the background of various scientifi c paradigms. Within the framework of the paradigm of territorial development management, a new investment and prognostic approach to the complex reconstruction of historical quarters is proposed on the example of Samara. The historic quarter is viewed as a planning module for the transformation processes of a sett lement. Reconstruction of the historical quarter is presented in the aggregate of problems of preserving and developing its buildings, providing residents with the necessary level of engineering, social and transport infrastructures. A method for calculating the rates of return for complex reconstruction is proposed, which serves to test the modes of the security zoning proposed for a historical sett lement. Particular att ention is paid to the preparation of initial data for calculating the rates of return for complex reconstruction for a number of quarters selected as reference.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):91-99
pages 91-99 views

HISTORICAL HERITAGE AS A CULTURAL RESOURCE. INTEGRATION OF THE NEW OBJECT INTO THE STRUCTURE OF A UNIQUE ARCHITECTURAL COMPLEX IN LALIBELA, ETHIOPIA. TECHNOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

MALAKHOV S.A., MAMO K.A.

Abstract

The study is based on the material from an experiment on the renovation of a historical heritage complex in Lalibela, Ethiopia. The unique properties of rock architecture of churches created in the structure of rocky massifs, starting from the X and XI centuries, are supplemented by the specifi c character of folk construction of adjacent sett lements, using the technology of earthen structures. An important factor in the ongoing experiment to study the complex and (also to)build a hotel, the object of a developing tourist infrastructure, is the careful study of traditional technologies and environmental aspects, including climatic characteristics of the area, sources of energy supply, and relationships with the local community.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):100-107
pages 100-107 views

REVITALIZATION OF THE HISTORICAL QUARTER. EXPERIENCE IN APPLYING THE CONTEXTUAL APPROACH

ORLOVA N.A., ORLOV D.N., GARSHINA A.A.

Abstract

For the Samara architecture of our time, the urgency and priority of the problem of preserving and developing the historical center is obvious. This study is at the forefront of the current controversy on this issue and gives its own version of the solution to the problems. The practical signifi cance of the research is a new articulated and visualized experience of reconstructive actions in the historical environment. The method of urban planning analysis of the site in order to identify the reserves of the territory is proposed. Methods of working with the architectural form necessary for preserving the morphotype of the old city in the conditions of modern development are shown. Conclusions and recommendations based on specifi c urban planning material are formulated.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):108-118
pages 108-118 views

IRVING JOHN GILL: THE BIRTH OF AMERICAN MODERNISM

FILIPPOV V.D.

Abstract

The story of the life and the fi rst stages of the work of the American architect Irving John Gill, which led to the emergence of modernist architecture “on the very edge of America,” in Southern California, is presented. The author describes in detail the infl uences that the architect experienced in his work and which, in their totality, led him to the creation of the principles of new architecture and new style. The infl uence on their formation of the Chicago school is emphasized, in particular his work in the workshop with Adler and Sullivan, and the theoretical ideas of Louis Sullivan. The principles of Gill’s architecture are compared with the principles of the architecture of European modernism that appeared ten years later, as set forth by Walter Gropius.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):119-135
pages 119-135 views

EVOLUTION OF THE FUNCTIONAL COMPONENT OF ARTISTIC PERFORATION IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS

DANILOVA A.V.

Abstract

The evolution of the use of perforation is considered from the point of view of the functional component in the architecture of public buildings: technological, functional, artistic and decorative, emergent. An att empt is made to identify the stages of the evolution of perforation in the formation of the architectural image of a public building. The objects of architecture are analyzed, differentiated by stylistic characteristics and peculiarities of using the perforation technique as the most important component of the formation of the object’s architecture. The dynamics of the change in the dominant functions of artistic perforation in the context of the evolution of architectural styles is analyzed. The research was carried out with the fi nancial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research within the framework of the scientifi c project No. 20-312-90005
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):136-143
pages 136-143 views

ANALYSIS OF WORLD EXPERIENCE IN DESIGNING OF ISLAMIC CULTURE SPIRITUAL AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS

KOSENKOVA N.A., DEMIROVA M.A., KOSENKOVA E.V.

Abstract

The article analyzes the world experience in the design and construction of religious buildings and spiritual and educational centers of Islam at the turn of the XXXXI centuries. The most famous modern examples of religious objects of Islam are given. Similar temporal, stylistic, structural, and planning features of temples are classifi ed. Based on the performed analysis, conclusions are drawn about the prevailing trend in the design of Islamic religious buildings - historicism. It is shown that an important design concept is the openness and tolerance of the object in relation to the city and the creation of a harmonious environment around the new structure
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):144-151
pages 144-151 views

METHODS OF RENOVATION OF OPEN PUBLIC SPACES OF THE HISTORICAL CENTER OF SAMARA

VERETENNIKOV D.B., NOVIKOVA S.O.

Abstract

The necessity of renovation of open public spaces in Samara, which has developed in the historical environment, is considered. The concept of “open public spaces” and their features are revealed. Att ention is focused on their signifi cance and impact on the further development of the city as a whole. The relevance of the topic is formulated, the goal and objectives of scientifi c research are set. A research hypothesis of scientifi c work is put forward, a methodological basis for the study is proposed, based on the analysis of scientifi c works in the fi eld of urban planning, considering aspects of the organization and formation of open public spaces.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):152-156
pages 152-156 views

STUDY OF COMFORT OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF SAMARA CITY

MALYSHEVA E.V.

Abstract

This article discusses the problem of constant growth in the level of motorization, amid a decrease in the use of public transport. It touches upon the functioning of urban public transport in the context of the concept of sustainable mobility. On the example of the city of Samara, using a sociological survey, an analysis of the comfort of the transport system was carried out. The analysis of the transport accessibility of the districts of the city of Samara relative to the historical center of the city is presented. An assessment is made of the readiness of the city and, in particular, the transport infrastructure for the introduction of paid parking zones in the central part of the city. The studies on the assessment of the probability of abandoning a personal car in favor of public transport are presented. The criteria for reducing or completely abandoning the use of a personal car in favor of public transport have been identifi ed.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):157-164
pages 157-164 views

URBAN PLANNING METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSING THE DESTRUCTION OF RESIDENTIAL AREAS AFFECTED BY HOSTILITIES

YOUNIS A., BAKAEVA N.V.

Abstract

This article discusses the task of developing an urban planning methodology for assessing the degree of destruction of residential areas aff ected by hostilities in Syrian cities. This methodology will be the basis for the theoretical substantiation of the process of restoration the destroyed residential areas of the cities and their functional planning organization in the context of ongoing military confl icts. The research is based on the methodology for assessing the degree of destruction of buildings presented in GOST R 42.2.01-20141 « Civil defense. Assessment of the state of potentially dangerous facilities, defense and security facilities under the infl uence of damaging factors of conventional weapons» .The state of the buildings destruction is determined using satellite imagery as well as fi eld tests. The parameters of the damaging factors are determined analytically. The developed methodology makes it possible to determine the degree of destruction of residential areas within the radius of destruction formed by the excess pressure of the blast wave and the explosives used and to assess the suitability for recovery in the context of continued hostilities. On the basis of the established degree of destruction of residential areas, a scheme of urban planning zoning of the residential area of Homs was made.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):165-173
pages 165-173 views

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER IN ANSYSFLUENT SOFTWARE

GORSHENIN A.S., KRASNOVA N.P., RAKHIMOVA J.I.

Abstract

Numerical modeling of a water-to-water shell-and-tube heat exchanger using the capabilities of mathematical modeling by means of a fi nite element analysis package is considered. An algorithm for solving problems of heat and mass transfer in the ANSYSFluent software product is proposed. A distinctive feature of this algorithm is the simplicity and accuracy of the calculations. In the course of the study, the contours of the velocity and temperature distribution in the heat exchanger were obtained, and the data obtained using computer modeling were verifi ed with an analytical solution.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):174-179
pages 174-179 views

INFLUENCE OF CHANNEL GEOMETRY, PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, OSCILLATIONS AND ADSORPTION ON OBLITERATION OF SLIT SEALS OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS

KRESTIN E.A., SEREBRYAKOV G.V.

Abstract

The infl uence of the geometric dimensions and confi guration of slot contactless seals on the obliteration of the gaps of plunger pairs at the design and calculation stage of drive systems of electric power systems units is considered. The combined eff ect of working fl uid contamination and the adsorption eff ect on the overgrowth of the living section of the channel was revealed. The fl ow rate during sample shedding was reduced simultaneously as a result of the channel overgrowing with contamination particles and adsorption, i.e. the formation of boundary fi lms on the channel walls. Leaks through the gap at concentric and eccentric position of the plunger in the sleeve are determined. The minimum gap is found, at which the obliteration process is stabilized and loose mud formations are washed away by the fl ow of the working fl uid. The infl uence of the pressure drop at the ends of the slot gap on the channel obliteration process was revealed. With an increase in the pressure drop, the process of stratifi cation of adsorbed layers of polar molecules accelerates, resulting in an increase in the number of contamination particles trapped in the gap per unit of time. With an increase in the temperature of the working fl uid, the process of channel obliteration accelerates, which is confi rmed by experiments. With an oscillating plunger, the fl ow through the annular gap is less than with a stationary one. This is due to the fact that the oscillating plunger occupies a position in the sleeve close to the concentric one, at which leaks are minimal. A stable fl ow rate is obtained when the working fl uid fl ows through the gaps of the plunger pairs performing reciprocating oscillating movements.
Urban construction and architecture. 2020;10(4):180-186
pages 180-186 views

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