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Vol 11, No 1 (2013)

Articles
GENETICS AND EPIGENETICS OF AGING AND LONGEVITY
Moskalev A.A.
Abstract
This review covers the main groups of genes that determine the rate of aging and longevity in model animals and humans. The focus is on genes of insulin/IGF-1, PI3K-, TOR-, MAPK-, NF-kB-, TGF-β-, WNT-signaling pathways, stress resistance genes (chaperones, antioxidant genes, autophagy, proteasomal degradation, DNA repair) and genes of cellular senescence (pRB, p21, p16, p53). The groups of genes that alter their activity during human aging and epigenetic mechanisms of age-related changes are described
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):3-11
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Adaptive and progressive evolution of plant-microbe symbiosis
Provorov N.A., Vorobyev N.I.
Abstract
In N2-fixing symbionts of leguminous plants (rhizobia) evolution of the host-beneficial (“altruistic”) traits occurs in populations colonizing the subcellular compartments in nodules (infection threads, symbiosomes). These compartments are developed as a result of partners’ coevolution related to complications of trophic and regulatory interactions elevating the ecological efficiency of symbiosis. Their analysis enables us to study correlations between genetic mechanisms of adaptive and progressive symbiosis evolution which remain obscure in free-living organisms
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):12-22
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The effects of overexpression of human APP on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons of brain of Drosophila melanogaster
Bolshakova O.I., Zhuk A.A., Rodin D.I., Sarantseva S.V., Kislik G.A.
Abstract
The influence of APP overexpression on cholinergic and dopaminergic neuronal populations was investigated. The number of cholinergic neurons, which was the same in the control and APP expressing young flies, decreased in the APP expressing flies with age. The number of dopaminergic neurons in APP expressing flies was significantly reduced after the 15th day. Neurodegeneration was followed by the deficit of memory and learning abilities of the flies with APP expression as well as the flies with amyloid-beta-peptide production
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):23-31
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Wolbachia Infection among Fleas (Siphonaptera: Insecta) of Sverdlovsk Region and Khabarovsk Territory
Ilinsky Y.Y., Yudina M.A., Kalmykova E.A., Bykov R.A., Vysochina N.P., Vinarskaya N.P., Zakharov I.K.
Abstract
Wolbachia are maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria that are widespread among arthropods and filarial nematode parasites. It has been found in all main insect orders although some of them are still insufficiently studied. We performed PCR-screening for 15 species, 252 samples of fleas (Siphonaptera), that had been collected in the Sverdlovsk region and Khabarovsk territory. Six new symbiotic associations of Wolbachia-Siphonaptera were found for the first time. On the basis of earlier published data and the results of the current study we estimate that a minimum of 500 out of 2000 species in the Siphonaptera order are infected with Wolbachia
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):32-35
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DEVELOPMENTAL PATTERNS OF SNIFFING BEHAVIOR IN male laboratory MICE in conditions of SOCIAL COMPETITION
Kleshchev M.A., Osadchuk L.V.
Abstract
Sniffing behavior plays a significant role for communication and maintenance of the ethological structure of population. We studied the number of nose-nasal and nose-anogenital sniffing in male mice of inbred strains PT and CBA/Lac housed in genetically heterogeneous pairs during puberty and later (from 41 to 70 days of life). Male mice of the CBA/Lac strain show a higher number of nose-anogenital and nose-nasal sniffing in comparison with males of the PT strain. Throughout the period of stable social hierarchy we observed a transient increase in the number of sniffing behaviors in dominants and subordinates of the CBA/Lac strain but not in PT. In conclusion, the study revealed a significant influence of genotype and social rank on developmental patterns of sniffing behaviour in laboratory male mice
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):36-41
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SEARCHING FOR NEW FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE TRANSLATION TERMINATION IN YEASTSACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE
Moskalenko S.Y., Murina O.A., Askinazi O.L., Zhuravleva G.A.
Abstract
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae translation termination factor eRF1 is encoded by the essential gene SUP45. Here we applied multicopy yeast library to identify a new factor which interacts with the release factor eRF1 in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We identified EСM23 gene whose overexpression decreased viability of sup45 nonsense mutants. We also showed that ECM23 overexpression had antisuppressor effect but the level of eRF1 protein was the same as that in the wild-type cells. The mechanisms by which ECM23 influence viability of sup45 mutants are discussed
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):42-48
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Overexpression of genes encoding asparagine-glutamine rich transcriptional factors causes nonsense suppression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Nizhnikov A.A., Kondrashkina A.M., Antonets K.S., Galkin A.P.
Abstract
Previously, we have carried out a search for genes, whose overexpression causes nonsense suppression on the background of modified SUP35 variants expression in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we analyzed the influence of genes encoding N/Q-rich transcriptional factors on this process. We demonstrated that GLN3, MCM1, MOT3 and REB1 genes overexpression affects nonsense suppression in S. cerevisiae
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):49-58
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Rol-GENES of Agrobacterium rhizogenes
Pavlova O.A., Matveyeva T.V., Lutova L.A.
Abstract
The review summarizes the information about rol-genes, which constitute a part of the T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes Ri-plasmid. Structure of each of the rol-genes, their regulatory sequences, and the possible roles of rol-genes when they are being transferred into the plant are discussed
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):59-68
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MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF CELL DIVISDION GENES AND ADJACENT GENES IN THE CYANOBACTERIUM PLEUROCAPSA SP. CALU 1126
Skopina M.Y., Chizhevskaya E.P., Andronov E.E., Pinevich A.V.
Abstract
For the first time for cyanobacteria of the “Pleurocapsa” group (Pleurocapsa sp. CALU 1126), nucleotide sequences of cell division gene ftsZ and adjacent genome sites were determined. The comparison of this locus indicates differences in phylogeny traced by separate genes
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):69-76
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Theoretical analysis of the predictability indices of the binary genetic tests
Rubanovich A.V., Khromov-Borisov N.N.
Abstract
A set of formulas for the indices of performance and predictive ability of the binary genetic tests is presented. Their dependence on disease prevalence and population frequency of a genetic marker is characterized. It is shown that a marker with the odds ratio OR < 2.2 has an initially low prognostic efficiency in every sense and at any frequencies of the disease and the marker. A marker can be a good classifier, when OR > 5.4, but only when its population frequency is rather high (>0.3). The formulas are presented that allow to obtain indirect estimates of absolute and relative risk of the disease for the carrier of a marker in the case-control studies
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):77-90
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Study of population frequencies of genes polymorphism associated with preeclampsia-associated genes polymorphism
Glotov A.S., Vashukova Y.S., Nasykhova Y.A., Glotov O.S., Mazur A.M., Kurilov R.V., Pekhov V.M., Khrameyeva Y.Y., Ivashchenko T.E., Baranov V.S.
Abstract
Using high-density microarrays, we analyzed polymorphism of more than 1500 genetic markers associated with risk of a wide range of multifactorial diseases. Based on functional annotation of genes by bioinformatics resources DAVID and GFINDer we selected a group of 31 genes, whose products are associated with the risk of preeclampsia. Population frequencies of alleles and genotypes for the following genes: ACE, ADIPOQ, ADRB2, ADRB3, AGT, APOE, CRP, CTLA4, CYP1A1, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, EDNRA, ESR1, ESR2, F5, HLA-DQA1, HSPA1A, IL1A, IL1RN, IL6, IL6R, LEP, LEPR, LPL, MTHFR, NOS3, PON1, TAP2, TGFB1, TNFA, VEGFA were established. Comparative analysis between the Russian and Central European population groups revealed statistically significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies for 6 genes: CYP2D6, CTLA4, AGT, NOS3, PON1, ADRB2. The data suggest similar basis of genetic risk of vascular diseases in pregnancy in Russian and European populations and may be used for other genetic and epidemiological studies
Ecological genetics. 2013;11(1):91-100
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