Vol 59, No 4 (2019)

Marine Phisics
Correlation analysis of the interaction between oceanic heat fluxes and the geopotential gradient fields in the middle troposphere during meridional and zonal processes
Razorenova O.A., Shabanov P.A.
Abstract

Investigation of the interaction between oceanic heat fluxes and formation of the geopotential gradient fields in the middle troposphere during meridional and zonal processes has been carried out by applying linear correlation analysis. Analysis of the spatial distribution of the correlation coefficients has demonstrated that the structure of the interaction of heat fluxes in the North Atlantic with the geopotential gradient field in the middle troposphere over the Atlantic-European sector differs in periods with the predominance of meridional and zonal circulation forms, which indicates the significant role of the ocean heat flow in the formation and development of circulation regimes in the atmosphere.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):521-528
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Run-up of nonlinear monochromatic wave on a plane beach in presence of a tide
Didenkulova I.I., Pelinovsky E.N.
Abstract

The nonlinear problem of long wave run-up on a plane beach in a presence of a tide is solved within the shallow water theory using the Carrier-Greenspan approach. The exact solution of the nonlinear problem for wave run-up height is found as a function of the incident wave amplitude. Influence of tide on characteristics of wave run-up on a beach is studied.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):529-532
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The bottom sediment suspension under irregular surface wave
Divinsky B.V., Kosyan R.D.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to the study of the of the maximum mutual energy influence of the irregular surface wave spectrum shape on the bottom sediment suspension. Features of the energy frequency distribution of synchronous fluctuations of the series of water flow velocity and concentration of suspended particles are analyzed. It is shown, that in a wide range of passing waves the maximum mutual energy of the synchronous oscillation velocities spectrum and concentrations may occur at low and at high frequencies. In the narrow spectrum of synchronous fluctuations, the maximum mutual energy dominates in the area of basic energy frequency. It is, also, shown, that the geometric shape of the wave groups has a direct impact on the intensity of the suspension. In groups of waves with a symmetrical profile, suspension is more intense compared to groups with a pronounced spatial asymmetry.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):533-543
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Marine Chemiatry
Distribution, fluxes and balance of particulate organic carbon in the Arctic ocean
Vetrov A.A., Romankevich E.A.
Abstract

Particulate organic carbon (POC) is one of main component of carbon cycle in the Ocean. In this study an attempt to construct a picture of the distribution and fluxes of POC in the Arctic Ocean adjusting for interchange with the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans has been made. The specificity of this construction is associated with an irregular distribution of POC measurements and complicated structure and hydrodynamics of the waters masses. To overcome these difficulties, Multiple Linear Regression technic (MLR) was performed to test the significant relation between POC, temperature, salinity, as well depth, horizon, latitude and offshore distance. The mapping of POC distribution and its fluxes was carrying out at 38 horizons from 5 to 4150 m (resolution 1°×1°). Data on temperature, salinity, meridional and zonal components of current velocities were obtained from ORA S4 database (Integrated Climate Data Center, http://icdc.cen.uni-hamburg.de/las). The import-export of POC between the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as well as between Arctic Seas was precomputed by summer fluxes. The import of POC in the Arctic Ocean is estimated to be 38±8Tg Cyr-1, and the export is -9.5±4.4Tg Cyr-1.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):544-552
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Contribution of ion-exchange transformation of the adsorbed complex of atmospheric aerosols to the formation of seawater salt composition
Savenko V.S., Savenko A.V.
Abstract

Data on the total exchange capacity and composition of the adsorbed complex of terrigenous aerosols generated in arid and semiarid regions of the earth were summarized. It was calculated that as a result of change in composition of the adsorbed complex of aerosols occurring during their interaction with seawater, 2.64–4.86 million tons/year of dissolved Ca2+ are additionally enters into the ocean and 2.45–4.51, 0.73–1.34, and 0.08–0.14 million tons/year of dissolved Na+, K+, and Mg2+, respectively, are removed.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):553-557
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Peculiarities of suspended matter distribution on the geochemical barrier water-atmosphere on transoceanic sections
Nemirovskaya I.A., Titova A.M.
Abstract

The article contains the results of the study of surface waters (31 cruise of the R/V “Akademik Nikolai Strakhov”, December 2015–January 2016) and the particle size distribution of aerosols and surface waters (42 cruise of the R/V “Akademik Boris Petrov”, January–April 2017). It was found that aerosol flows increased in arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula and the number of particles 0.3–0.5 µm decreased in the sequence (particles/l, 2017): Bab El-Mandeb Strait (135190)>Gulf of Aden (102854)>Red Sea (91612)>North, Baltic Sea (76468)>Indian Ocean (64113)>Malacca Strait (46491)>Mediterranean Sea (28397)>East Atlantic (14803). The biotic factor between the distribution of suspended matter and organic compounds prevails in the open waters of the Indian Ocean, in the northeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, as well as in areas with increased water productivity (the Arabian Sea). Circumcontinental zonality led to the dominance of the terrigenous component in the suspension of coastal waters. The transition of the phytoplankton community from the winter (2016) to the spring (2017) led to a decrease in the suspension content, in 8 times on average. The absence of the correlation between the content of the suspension and organic compounds in some areas indicated different sources of their forming. Despite the high concentrations of hydrocarbons in individual samples in 2016 (up to 50–70 µg/l), their average content remained almost unchanged: 10.5 µg/l (2016), 8.7 µg/l (2017). The determination in the composition of hydrocarbons of weathered petroleum alkanes indicated the influence of petroleum pollutants.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):558-568
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The content of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in deep-water biocenoses of coralline algae of the South China sea
Cherbadgy I.I., Propp L.N.
Abstract

The study on the influence of the depth of habitation on the content of organic carbon (Corg), organic and mineral forms of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the biocenosis of coralline algae, was carried out in spring in the South China Sea at depths of 5 to 150 m. It was shown that with an increase in depth to 150 m, the content of Corg in the tissues decreased from 72 to 42 g/m2. The content of N also decreased with depth, but to a lesser extent — from 15 to 10 g/m2, while the content of P increased linearly from 0.75 to 4.29 g/m2. The atomic ratio C/N/P in the biocenosis at depths of 5–10 m does not vary significantly and is on the average 187:31:1, which is comparable to the mean values obtained for mass species of reef-building corals. Unlike organic carbon and nitrogen, the phosphorus content in the algal biocenosis increased with depth more than 5 times. Correspondingly, the C/N/P ratio becomes 24:5:1 at a depth of 150 m. Such depth-dependent increase in the proportion of phosphorus in the biocenosis, with a simultaneous decline in the contents of organic carbon and, to a lesser extent, nitrogen, can be explained by release of phosphorus during destruction of the organic matter in the biocoenosis of coralline algae with the formation of insoluble calcium phosphates.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):569-578
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Sources of coastal waters pollution near Sevastopol
Gruzinov V.M., Dyakov N.N., Mezenceva I.V., Malchenko Y.A., Zhohova N.V., Korshenko A.N.
Abstract

The results of current ecological investigations of marine waters in Sevastopol region are presented. The main sources of water pollution described for Sevastopol Bay and other part of coastal line from cup Lukull till cup Foros were described. The position of Waste Water Treatment Plant underwater outlets, the volume of waste-waters discharges and the degree of their purification were estimated. With the help of the side-scan sonar, the state of the heads of the sewage treatment plants in the region was examined. The features of the vertical distribution of hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics are shown. The preliminary estimation of the currents near the sewages outlets were studied using autonomic buoys and mathematical modeling. Based on historical data and results of recent cruises in 2016–2017 the nutrient concentration, and total petroleum hydrocarbons and organic matter by biological oxygen demand BOD5 content were described. The nutrients content for all studied forms was much lower then Maximum Allowed Concentration and no significant difference between different parts of Crimea coastal waters were marked. Marine waters pollution by TPHs is much higher in Sevastopol region and in Kerch Strait in comparison with Yalta port.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):579-590
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Algorithm for calculating the mineralization of river waters and salinity of estuarine waters from conductivity data
Tishchenko P.Y., Stunzhas P.A., Pavlova G.Y., Mikhailik T.A., Semkin P.Y., Chichkin R.V.
Abstract

The empirical relationship between the mineralization of riverine waters and specific conductivity normalized to 15°C was obtained in testing Razdolnaya River water from March 2013 to April 2014. It was shown that the obtained equation made it possible to calculate the water mineralization to a satisfactory accuracy for rivers of calcium -carbonate type using data on the specific conductivity and temperature obtained with a hydrological probe. It was found that the anthropogenic impact of NO3 and NH4+ ions on the composition of riverine water caused no significant error when using the empirical relationship. The data of the experiments showed that the salinity measurements in estuarine waters by conductivity using the oceanographic logarithm could have resulted in great errors depending on mineralization of the riverine water. The algorithm was proposed for including corrections to obtain reliable salinity values in estuarine waters.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):591-599
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Marine Biology
Benthic Harpacticoida of the Cara sea: species composition and bathymetric distribution
Garlitska L.А., Chertoprud E.S., Portnova D.A., Azovsky A.I.
Abstract

Data on benthic harpacticoid copepods from the Voronin Trench (central part of the Kara Sea) are reported for the first time. Harpacticoids accounted for 1–25% of total meiofauna, their abundance varied from 6 to 102 ind/10 cm2 and decreased with depth. Totally, 42 nominal species have been found, 15 species are new for the Kara Sea, and at least eight species are new for science. Several species are first records for the Arctic waters (Cylindronannopus bispinosus, Haloschizopera clotensis, H. bathyalis, Metauntemannia pseudomagniceps, Mesocletdemus duosetosus, M. parabodini, Proameira echinipes, Cletodes tuberculatus). Ameiridae, Argestidae, Pseudotachidiidae, Miraciidae and Ectinosomatidae are the most species-rich families. Joint analysis with data on shallow-water stations (Yenisei Gulf, southern Kara Sea) revealed three assemblages occupying different habitats. The assemblage inhabiting shallow silts (20–62 m in depth) was the poorest one, the shallow sands were more species-rich, while the deepest stations (92–698 m) was the richest one. The latter assemblage had the composition of families typical for the deep-sea areas. The known fauna of the Kara Sea includes 82 harpacticoid species, most of which have been also reported from north Atlantic and/or western Arctic waters.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):600-611
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The scleractinian corals live in Arctica and in high latitude of North Atlantic
Keller N.B., Oskina N.S., Savilova T.A.
Abstract

Only two species of Scleractinian corals dwell Arctic ocean, to the west of Barents Sea: Lophelia pertusa (Linné, 1758) and Flabellum macandrewi (Gray,1849). The geographic distribution of the first of them is cosmopolitan, the next lives only in Atlantic ocean. Our analysis of hydrodynamics situation in which this species inhabit lead us to conclusion, that for corals L. pertusa, which dwell on the coarse ground, the high mobile water is favorable. The species Fl. macandrewi, which lives on loose deposit, also be under the sway of the influence of the power water flows, which break their fragile skeleton. But their uncommon capability for quick skeleton regeneration permit them adapt to that disturb situation. We state one opinion that the presence of corals Fl. macandrewi may be one marker of aggressive dynamical waters. In the central parts of North Atlantic the Scleractinian corals are completely absent. The cause of it consist in geological youth of this region, in higher percent of fresh water and also in intensive development of phytoplankton.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):612-616
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Marine Geology
Mineralogical characteristic of quaternary sediments (sand fraction) from the southern extremity of the Chukchi plateau, Arctic ocean
Kolesnik O.N., Kolesnik A.N., Vologina E.G., Maryash A.A.
Abstract

The data on mineralogical analysis of fine sand fractions in sediments accumulated in the southern part of the Chukchi Plateau during the Quaternary are presented. The associations and downcore distribution of the rock-forming and accessory minerals in relation to other characteristics are considered. The established climatically controlled mineralogical features, i. e. periodicity of warmings and coolings, can be used in solving a number of genetic problems, stratigraphic subdivision of sediments and paleoreconstructions.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):617-640
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Lithological and biogeochemical investigations of the North Atlantic sediment system (data from the 49th cruise of the R/V Akademik Ioffe)
Novichkova E.A., Savvichev A.S., Bashirova L.D., Kozina N.V., Klyuvitkin A.A., Politova N.V., Novigatsky A.N., Lein A.Y.
Abstract

Marine sediments and samples of suspended particulate matter from the North Atlantic were studied. It is shown that modern sedimentation in this area is controlled mainly by the efficiency of autochthonous marine phytoplankton and sediment supply by the system of near-bottom currents, as well as by means of the ice-rafting. The studied sediment sections were formed in the North Atlantic during the Middle Pleistocene to Holocene. The highest sedimentation rate, up to 58.3 cm/kyr, is established for AI-3359 core, collected in the area of the Gardar and Björn Drifts. This makes the core very interesting for detailed paleoreconstructions. AI-3378 and AI-3415 cores are characterized by low sedimentation rates. Nevertheless, they are of interest for spatial paleoreconstructions on a continuous timeline. The general pattern is established for the first time for the sediments from the central North Atlantic: biogeochemically significant processes are detected only in the thin surface layer (0–2 cm) and almost completely cease at depths of 90–180 cm. The processes are probably controlled by the position of the sampling stations and the composition of organic matter (OM) but not related to the age of the sedimentary layer. The low microbial activity in the sediments is most likely the result of a lack of OM.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):641-655
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Geology and prospects of oil and gas bearing of east — Canadian continental margins
Zabanbark A., Lobkovsky L.I.
Abstract

At the limit of the East-Canadian continental margin there are three oil and gas regions from north to south: Labrador Sea shelves, margins of the Great Newfoundland Bank and the continental margin of Nova Scotia. In each of these distinguishing regions are a number of sedimentary basins completely plunging under the water. At the shelf of Labrador Sea distinguishing the following large sedimentary basins: Saglek, Hopdale and Havke, at the margin of Newfoundland Bank it is known the basins: Jeanne d’Arc, Flemish Pass and Orphan. At the Nova Scotia shelf there are Nova Scotian and Sable basins. It is remarkable at the lofty latitude like of Labrador Sea region the age of the productive sediments beginning from more ancient rocks (Paleozoic), than in basins situated in law latitude (Mesozoic). In consequence of this the stratigraphy diapason of oil and gas bearing of the north latitude is considerably wide. The prospect of oil and gas bearing in all region is related principally with continental slopes and turbidites sediments in its. Late Jurassic and early Cretaceous reservoirs would be the aim for deep drilling sediments. Wide distribution of late Cretaceous and early Tertiary prospects reservoirs of oil and gas is quite really so far as they are bedded in the shallow horizons. Also the prospect of oil and gas bearing at the margin of the basin is related to late Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments, to deposits of fan and diapirs salt.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):656-669
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Influence of temperature variability in the near-bottom layer on the results of geothermal measurements in the Kvitøya trough (Barents sea)
Sukhikh E.A., Akhmedzjanov V.R., Ermakov A.V.
Abstract

According to a study of the water column thermal variability in the Kvitøya trough (the northern part of the Barents Sea) substantial water temperature fluctuations in the near-bottom layer were found, both the seasonal and interannual, which affect the distribution of temperature in the upper layer of bottom sediments, and therefore the results of geothermal measurements. The contribution of temperature fluctuations on the water-sediments boundary to the values of the conductive heat flow measured during 25th cruise of the RV “Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov” was calculated. Endogenous heat flow was determined.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):670-678
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Research Methods and Facilities
Complex instrumental underwater observations technology development relating to the ecosystems of the Russian Arctic
Rimsky-Korsakov N.A., Flint M.V., Pojarkov S.G., Anisimov I.M., Belevitnev Y.I., Pronin A.A., Tronza S.N.
Abstract

The article touches upon the methodological problems of underwater investigation of the bottom fauna, plants, micro and meso-relief of the Russian Arctic in connection with the study of regional ecosystems. The methods and technical means of underwater observations used in the Arctic expeditions of the Institute of Oceanology are considered. Technical solutions that increase the effectiveness of sonar and visual inspection of the bottom surface are proposed. The results of experimental studies are given.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):679-683
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Information
Ecological studies of the Russian exploration area on the Mid-Atlantic ridge on the 39th cruise of RV Professor Logachev
Galkin S.V., Molodtsova T.N., Minin K.V., Kobyliansky S.G.
Abstract

During the 39th cruise of RV Professor Logachev ecological studies of the Russian exploration area in the Central part of the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge were conducted. New data on the composition and structure of benthic communities as well as composition and distribution of ichthyofauna were obtained.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):684-686
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Studies of the ecosystems associated with hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in the Bering sea (82nd cruise of RV Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev)
Galkin S.V., Mordukhovich V.V., Krylova E.M., Denisov V.A., Malutin A.N., Mikhailik P.E., Polonik N.S., Sanamyan N.P., Shilov V.A., Ivin V.V., Adrianov A.V.
Abstract

During the 82nd cruise of RV Akademik M. A. Lavrentyev a multidisciplinary study of the ecosystems associated with hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in the Bering Sea was conducted. New data on the composition and structure of benthic communities of the Piip's Volcano are obtained. On the Koryak slope of the Bering Sea, a new cold seep region was discovered. Chemosynthesis-based communities on the Koryak slope are the northern-most of their kind in the Pacific, and the Koryak population of Calyptogena is the northern-most Recent population of pliocardiines in the World Ocean.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):687-690
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Expedition studies of the Baltic sea ecosystem in the 34th and 36th cruises of the research vessel "Academic Nikolay Strakhov"
Paka V.Т., Shchuka S.А., Ezhova Е.Е., Polunina J.J., Kondrashov А.А., Korzh А.О., Krechik V.А., Chechko А.V.
Abstract

In the 34th and 36th cruises of the r/v Akademik N. Strakhov, performed in the summer and autumn of 2017, the structure of the waters was studied on transects located along the route of inflow of saline North Sea waters into the Baltic Sea. Vertical profiling was performed with intervals between stations no more than 2 miles, in the free-fall mode, from the sea surface to the bottom. Reliable data on a thin structure at all depths, including a thin bottom layer, were obtained. In addition to the sections, new data were obtained on the bottom topography, as well as on the influence of advection of saline aerated waters on the composition, structure and distribution of biological communities in the Baltic Sea.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):691-694
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Chronicle
Mikhail Vladimirovich Flint (70-th birthday)
Oceanology E.
Abstract

On 19-th March 2019 M.V. Flint one of the leading Russian biooceanographers celebrated his 70-th birthday. His scientific interests embrace wide range of problems related to understanding of structure and productivity of marine and oceanic ecosystems, mechanisms which determine their variability, role of climatic and anthropogenic factors in formation of contemporary appearance of marine natural complexes.

Океанология. 2019;59(4):695-696
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