Vol 46, No 1 (2019)

Water resources and water objects regime
Hydrological processes in a lagoon-channel estuary during the warm period of the year: a study of the Bolshaya river mouth, West Kamchatka
Gorin S.L., Popryadukhin A.A., Koval' M.V.

Abstract

Based on long-term field studies, we investigated the hydrological regime of the lagoon-channel estuary of the Bolshaya river. This river is located in the Kamchatka Krai, which is one of the most remote and underdeveloped regions of Russia. Numerous observations were made of the estuary and its processes, and the natural environment in which it exists.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):2-13
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The impact of forest fires on the rivers of the Zaigraevskiy district in the Republic of Buryatia
Ukraintsev A.V., Plyusnin A.M., Chernyavskii M.K.

Abstract

Forest fires significantly influence hydrological and hydrochemical regimes of rivers. Based on forest fire statistics and characteristics of river networks, areas for monitoring of river conditions were selected in the Zaigraevskiy district of the Republic of Buryatia. An inverse correlation between precipitation levels and numbers of fires was identified. During 2012, abnormal water levels and flows in the Bryanka river were related to the challenging forest fire situation in the previous year. Finally, macro- and micro-component analyses of water showed that chemical runoff into the rivers increases with pyrogenic damage to water catchment areas.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):14-23
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Hydrophysical processes
Dynamics and water structures in the estuary of the Partizanskaya river (Nakhodka Bay, Sea of Japan)
Semkin P.Y., Tishchenko P.Y., Lobanov V.B., Sergeev A.F., Barabanshchikov Y.A., Mikhailik T.A., Pavlova G.Y., Kostyleva A.V., Shkirnikova E.M., Tishchenko P.P., Chizhova T.L.

Abstract

Herein, we report field studies of the seasonal and daily dynamics of the mixing zone in the micro-tidal mouth of the Partizanskaya river. The position of the mixing zone was determined according to the volume of river run-off. The upper boundary of the mixing zone was observed at 5 (at a river run-off of 73.67 m3/s) to 12.5 km (at 7.7 m3/s) from the mouth bar. The estuary is characterized by a two-layer circulation of water, which results in a halocline with a salinity gradient of up to 30% per 1 m. Variations of salinity in the rifts caused by tides reaches 27% over 3 h.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):24-34
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Hydrochemistry. Hydrobiology, environmental aspects
Population, biomass, and production of heterotrophic bacteria in reservoirs of the Upper Volga
Kopylov A.I., Kosolapov D.B., Rybakova I.V.

Abstract

Populations, biomasses, and production rates of planktonic, epiphytic, and benthic bacterial communities were defined in two reservoirs of the upper Volga, and their contributions to total numbers of bacteria and productivity were estimated. Populations and production rates of heterotrophic bacteria in 1-cm3 samples of bottom sediments exceed fouling of higher aquatic plants by a factor of 101–102, and in the water layers by a factor of 103–104. In mesotrophic Rybinsk and eutrophic Ivankovskoye reservoirs, benthic bacteria account for 90.4% and 98.8% of the total biomass, and 99.5% and 95.8% of total heterotrophic bacterial products, respectively. In these reservoirs, dissolved organic carbon accounts for 9.55% and 1.19% of the biomass and 4.12% and 0.45% of production, and epiphytic bacteria account for 0.05% and 0.03% of the biomass and 0.03% and 0.02% of production. These findings suggest important roles of benthic bacterial populations in reservoirs of the upper Volga.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):35-42
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Transformation of organic substances in the conjugate series of surface waters of North Karelia
Drozdova O.Y., Ilina S.M., Anokhina N.A., Zavgorodnyaya Y.A., Demin V.V., Lapitskiy S.A.

Abstract

In this study, compositions of organic matter were investigated in the conjugate series of natural waters, including that from soil water, wetlands, streams, and lakes. In determinations of compositions of aliphatic and benzoic acids and humic substances, humic substances comprised the bulk of dissolved organic carbon, with 28% in lake waters and 57% in waters of wetlands and a weighted average molecular mass of 1 kDa. Aliphatic and benzoic acids comprised ≤ 2% of the total carbon content of water-soluble organic compounds. Transformations of dissolved organic matter occurred in a series of surveyed waters. Specifically, compositions and specific characteristics are dynamic, and increases in the fraction with a molecular weight of < 1 kDa were associated with photo- and bio-degradation of macromolecular organic compounds.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):43-50
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Estimation of long-term Ph changes in lakes of the Caucasus using a bioindication method based on diatomaceous analysis
Razumovskii L.V., Razumovskii V.L.

Abstract

To analyze processes that may lead to long-term changes in pH, lake sediments from five small lakes in the Western and Central Caucasus were studied according to diatomaceous complexes from sediment cores. A proprietary principle of hydrological parameter unification was used to reconstruct numerical pH values. In isotopic dating experiments, a series of numerical pH values for 2000–130 years were generated for the lakes. These data indicate an absence of noticeable changes in pH in the lakes of the Western Caucasus and alkalization processes in the lakes of the Central Caucasus.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):51-57
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A study of long-term changes in Black Sea ecosystems based on data assimilation of remote measurements in a numerical model
Dorofeev V.L., Sukhikh L.I.

Abstract

Herein, we present a simulation of the dynamics of Black Sea ecosystems using a three-dimensional interdisciplinary model that assimilates satellite color scanner measurements. Calculations were performed for the fifteen years from 1998 and a set of 3-d biogeochemical fields of the Black Sea were generated on a regular grid with a discreteness time of 1 day. Analyses of core biogeochemical parameters of the marine ecosystem were then performed. The qualities of received fields were evaluated using comparisons with existing data from in situ measurements.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):58-69
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Spatio-temporal variability of organic matter contents in the waters of the Caspian Sea
Agatova A.I., Torgunova N.I., Serebryanikova E.A., Dukhova L.K.

Abstract

We analyzed spatio-temporal changes in concentrations and elemental compositions of dissolved organic matter in the waters of the Caspian Sea over the period 2010–2015. These studies showed that over the past 5 years of lowering of sea levels, mean concentrations of Corg and Norg remained virtually unchanged, whereas concentrations of Porg decreased more than three-fold, suggesting a qualitative change in organic matter. Based on data averages, concentrations of Corg, Norg, and Porg in Southern waters were slightly higher than in the North and Middle-Caspian waters during the monitoring period. In deep areas at the border region of hydrogen sulfide occurrence, concentrations of Corg, Norg, and Porg increase. Hence, the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the deep waters of the Derbent and South Caspian basins, and the corresponding increase in organic matter contents, indicates no radical improvement of vertical mixing of the sea in these areas during the eight years of our regression model. Moreover, according to the carbohydrate distribution, organic substances of petroleum hydrocarbons contribute considerably to a common pool.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):70-81
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Physical and chemical properties of bottom sediments in surface waters of Central and South Vietnam
Zakonnov V.V., Gusakov V.A., Sigareva L.E., Timofeeva N.A.

Abstract

In this study, physical and chemical characteristics of bottom sediments in inland waters of Central and Southern Vietnam were investigated, initially according to granulometric compositions, organic matter contents, bulk densities, and natural moisture contents. The main types of sediments in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, former quarries, and ponds were then identified, and similarities between of physical and chemical properties were identified between bottom sediments from water bodies of Vietnam and those from the Volga cascade reservoirs. Moreover, we show common dependencies in the formation of bottom sediments in reservoirs from humid, arid, and tropical monsoon climates.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):82-90
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Effects of external water exchange between bays of lakes on chemical indicators of water
Lozovik P.A., Zobkov M.B., Borodulina G.S., Tokarev I.V.

Abstract

External water exchange between bays of Onega (Petrozavodskaya and Kondopozhskaya bays) and Ladoga (Hijdenselga gulf) lakes was estimated according to chemical compositions, water inflows, and runoff volumes in bays. Periods of water exchange in Petrozavodskaya bay, Kondopozhskaya bay, and Hijdenselga gulf were 0.13, 1.02, and 1.15 years, respectively. Under these conditions, water exchange was 2–3 times higher than that calculated without considering the inflow of lake waters. Water exchange in the Petrozavodskaya bay was confirmed by seasonal variations in isotope compositions.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):91-101
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Pollution of the Uglovoy Bay with heavy metals and petroleum products during february 2010–2016
Petukhov V.I., Petrova E.A., Losev O.V.

Abstract

We analyzed the pollution of Uglovoy bay with heavy metals and petroleum products during 2015–2016. According to maximum allowable concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Hg, As, Pb, Cd, and petroleum products, we identified an area of hypoxia developing at the north-eastern coast of the bay, with heavy metal accumulation in the dissolved form. We concluded that the river is the main source of pollutants in this bay, and surveys of ice cores showed a high degree of heavy metal accumulation. Although ice sheets accumulate contaminants, these are released into water. Herein, we provide an estimate of water pollution at the entrance to the Uglovoy bay with heavy metals and petroleum products over the years 2010–2016.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):102-113
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Water use, economic and legal aspects
Development of principles and norms to regulate non-navigational use of international water flows
Nikanorova A.D., Egorov S.A.

Abstract

Under conditions of water deficit due to pollution and climate change, the international community pays special attention to international laws and regulations for non-navigational use of international water flows. In this article, we provide insights into historical aspects of international public law in the sphere of regulation of international water flows for hydroelectricity, irrigation, and fishing. Herein, we analyze and identify prospects for the future development of a new branch of international public law for the regulation of international relations regarding non-navigational use of trans boundary water flows, and their protection and conservation.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(1):114-120
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