Vol 46, No 3 (2019)

Water resources and water objects regime
Features of the balance structure formation of groundwater withdrawal and its effect on river flow at a subsoil water level drawdown
Grinevsky S.O., Sporyshev V.S.
Abstract

The balance structure of the pumpage sourses of riverside water-intakes, developing a subsoil aquifer or intermediate water that hydraulically interacts with it, can show the effect of the processes of water balance adjustment in the unsaturated zone to the accompanying subsoil water level drawdown. In this case, because of the shallow depth to subsoil water, its level drop due to water withdrawal causes a decrease in evapotranspiration and an increase in groundwater infiltration recharge. These processes have their effect on the balance structure of usable water resources as components of natural and involved resources and reduce the impact of groundwater pumping on river flow. Analysis of the operational data of the Sudogda waterintake in Vladimir oblast and geohydrological modeling were used to evaluate variations of the groundwater evaportanspiration losses and infiltration recharge and their role in the water balance structure of reserves of a field and in the impact of groundwater withdrawal on river flow.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):247-258
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Hydrochemistry. Hydrobiology, environmental aspects
Effect of under-ice light intensity and convective mixing on chlorophyll a distribution in a small mesotrophic lake
Palshin N.I., Zdorovennova G.E., Zdorovennov R.E., Efremova T.V., Gavrilenko G.G., Terzhevik A.Y.
Abstract

Data of long-term measurements of under-ice solar radiation, water temperature, and chlorophyll a are analyzed in four phytoplankton groups (green, diatoms, blue-green, and cryptophyte algae) in a small mesotrophic Vendyurskoe Lake (Karelia) in the period of spring under-ice convection. It is shown that, after thawing away of snow cover from lake surface, under-ice illumination increases, water temperature rises, the depth of convectively mixed layer (CML) increases, and microalga photosynthesis intensifies. In the daytime, chlorophyll a extremums appear in the CML, and, unlike the homogeneous characteristics (water electric conductivity, mineralization, etc.), the cells of different phytoplankton species can be used as tracers in studying convective mixing. A prognostic equation is obtained, reflecting an inverse dependence of the coefficients of variation of chlorophyll a concentration in CML on solar radiation fluxes, penetrating under ice bottom surface. A direct relationship was shown to exist between the increase in chlorophyll concentration in CML and its thickness.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):259-269
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Seasonal and interannual fluctuations of phytoplankton primary production in the rybinsk water reservoir: effect of the weather and climatic changes
Kopylov A.I., Maslennikova T.S., Kosolapov D.B.
Abstract

Seasonal and multi-annual dynamics of phytoplankton primary production were examined in the Rybinsk water reservoir (Upper Volga) in 2005–2014. Positive links were detected between the average values of plankton primary production during the vegetation period and abiotic factors of the water environment (temperature, solar irradiation, and concentration of biogenic elements), as well as between the primary production and the index of the North Atlantic Oscillation, excluding the data for the abnormally hot summer in 2010. Water temperature increase (up to 27.9°С) in summer 2010 caused a significant increase in phytoplankton production. Significant increase of phytoplankton primary production was noted in the Rybinsk water reservoir during the analysis period.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):270-277
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Spatial distribution of zooplankton in the Kolsaiskie mountain lakes (Kungey Ala Tau, south-east Kazakhstan) and its connection with environment factors
Krupa E.G., Barinova S.S., Romanova S.M.
Abstract

The values of Clark W-statistics, ∆-Shannon-Weaver, and an average individual mass of specimen were used to characterize the spatial distribution of zooplankton in the Kolsay lakes. With a relatively constant species composition, the interannual dynamics of the size and quantity variables of zooplankton testified to an increase in the eutrophication processes of three of the four Kolsay lakes. Interannual changes in the structure of the zooplankton community were mostly determined by the introduction of allochthonous species of fish, reduction of the water level, and enhancement of biogenic load due to recreational use of the lakes. The effect of very low concentrations of heavy metals on the dimensional variables of zooplankton can be connected with the oligotrophic status of Kolsaiskie lakes.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):278-289
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Hydrochemical peculiarities of the Itkul lake ecosystem and its phytoplankton condition
Likhachev S.F., Sibirkina A.R., Dvinin D.Y., Voitovich G.A.
Abstract

We present the results of the hydrochemical analysis in Lake Itkul, which is the natural monument in the Chelyabinsk Region and an important recreational facility for the population of the Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk Regions. The water of Lake Itkul is fresh in terms of chemical composition, has low-alkaline medium reaction, and is very soft and saturated with oxygen. The water content in biogenic substances such as ions of nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate is low. Description and analysis of ecological groups of phytoplankton species of Lake Itkul are provided. The phytoplankton of Lake Itkul comprises eurybiontic and neutral species having wide geographical distributions. Analysis of ion contents of the zinc, copper, manganese, and nickel in the water and organs and tissues of the common roach indicated high residual concentrations of nickel in fish skin and bones, above allowable values. The content of iron, manganese, and other secondary elements in water was significantly lower than their maximum allowable concentrations, reflecting the absence of industrial water discharge within the lake water intake.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):290-297
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Cesium-137 in the salt lakes of Сrimea
Miroshnichenko O.N., Mirzoeva N.Y., Sidorov I.G., Gulin S.B.
Abstract

The content of the man-made radioactive nuclide 137Cs was investigated in different groups of the salt lakes of Crimea peninsula. One of the main sources of 137Cs was determined to be the North-Crimea channel, which supplied the Dnepr water to Crimea until 2014 with a high content of radioactive nuclides of Chernobyl origin. The other source of 137Cs is the Black Sea water owing to its drainage and direct connection with the coastal salt lakes of Crimea, which demonstrates a positive correlation between 137Cs concentration and water salinity.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):298-302
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Concentration and composition of hydrocarbons in the river Ural mouth zone in the period of high water
Nemirovskaya I.A., Konovalov B.V.
Abstract

High concentrations of hydrocarbons were detected in the surface water suspended solids of the near-mouth zone of the river Ural during periods of high water level. On average, 198 and 270 μg/l suspended solids were detected in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Weathered oil alkanes were prevalent in the composition of hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon content was low in sands with an average of 7.8–14.6 μg/g. Terrigenous high-molecular mostly stable alkanes predominated in their composition. The interannual variability of the content of organic compounds is connected with the river runoff and the supply of oil contaminants is connected with the flood water. The Ural River’s runoff during high-water periods is expected to significantly affect the ecological conditions of the North Caspian Sea.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):303-307
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Analysis of ecotoxicological condition of Amur bay (the sea of Japan) based on chemical and toxicological indicators
Cherkashin S.A., Simokon M.V., Pryazhevskaya T.S.
Abstract

Data on the Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents in the bottom sediments of Amur Bay are presented. Contamination of bottom sediments is particularly heavy near the central part of Vladivostok, where the concentration of all metals, except for Cd, exceeds the threshold levels, at which negative biological effects are possible. Biological tests of marine crustaceans were conducted between 2003 and 2014 on water toxicity in this most contaminated bay water area. However, only in August 2003, September 2003, and July 2007, the survival rate of mysids in the surface water of the entire inner area was credibly lower than that in the outer part of the bay. In the following years, the ecotoxicological condition of the bay water improved owing to the decrease in contamination.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):308-317
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The interaction of land waters with the environment
Effect of moisture exchange in the northern Atlantic on european Russia moistening and annual Volga runoff
Malinin V.N., Gordeeva S.M.
Abstract

The interaction between hydrological cycle components in the ocean–atmosphere–land system was considered. Calculations were made with the use of various reanalysis archives, and regularities in the interannual variability of evaporation and precipitation in the North Atlantic and their effect on the zonal transport of water vapor onto the European continent were considered. Statistical models of the annual average total moisture flow at the meridional section 5° E as a function of evaporation in the North Atlantic were constructed. The contribution of the zonal transport of water vapor at the meridian 5° E to the variance of the total precipitation over cold and warm seasons in the Volga basin was determined. Models with a small number of parameters were constructed for forecasting the annual runoff of the Volga as a function of precipitation by methods of multiple regression and decision trees.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):318-332
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Water use, economic and legal aspects
Compromise solutions for planning and managing augmentation to downstream water of Volgograd hydropower installation. 2nd Tactic planning and operating department
Bolgov M.V., Buber A.L., Komarovsky A.A., Lotov A.V.
Abstract

The discussion on developing new computer technologies for problems analysis and support of decision-making is continued regarding water resources available for the users of the water utilization system of the Lower Volga and the entire Volga–Kama reservoirs cascade. Thus, this second part examines the objectives of the tactic planning to determine augmentation to the downstream water of Volgograd hydropower installation (special augmentation) and develops an algorithm for defining special augmentation based on the inflow forecast in the spring high water (April–June). This algorithm will aid in the operating management of the reservoirs for implementing the already set strategic goals.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(3):333-344
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