No 3 (2019)

Articles

Environmental aspects of processing chernozem with high-speed tools

Zvolinsky V.N.

Abstract

The introduction of advanced technologies for the cultivation of crops is usually associated with min-imizing the techniques of basic tillage and replacing them with surface operations, including disking. The use of low-power wide-grip tools, working at a depth of 10...14 cm with high speeds of up to 15...20 km/h, allows you to provide an economic effect, reduce the time for spring work, and reduce the number of service personnel. Sometimes the same effect can be achieved through the use of combined machines that perform several successive operations for tillage, fertilization and sometimes sowing in one pass. In recent years, disc rippers with individual spring-loaded mounting of discs to the frame (diskators) and milling cultivators that fit organically into the combined machines are used for such purposes. However, now long-term observations of the use of these expensive and complex tools, along with high tool traffic, increased working speed and reliability of the process, fuel economy, etc., revealed a number of significant shortcomings in relation to cultivated crops - gradual soil compaction, especially chernozem, decrease in productive moisture, increased contamination of fields, uneven depth of processing, increase in erosion-hazardous particles and, as a result of all this, a tendency to decrease in yield. In addition to high quality crumbling of the soil, drive machines have, especially domestic mills, low productivity, low reliability, high fuel consumption and an increase after passing through erosion-hazardous fractions. This is facilitated by the lack of multi-speed gearboxes on our cutters, which usually make it possible to regulate the quality of crumbling by controlling the kinematic parameter - the ratio of peripheral and translational speeds. The purpose of the study is to identify cases of irrational use of so-called. «Aggressive» tillage tools and identify ways of minimizing possible deficiencies noted. The research methods consist in analyzing the deficiencies arising from the operation of the selected type of tools, identifying the causes of their occurrence and indicating concrete steps to eliminate them. The results of the research are presented on real models currently being produced in Belagromash-Service LLC, for which the load characteristics of the most popular samples are given. In order to avoid the irrational use of the considered modern tools, a number of measures are given to increase the efficiency of their use, the yield of cultivated plants and the efficiency of tools by reducing the negative impact of working bodies on the cultivated soil (for diskators) and the drive for milling machines.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):3-11
pages 3-11 views

Laboratory results of coupler for multilevel sowing of seeds and fertilization

Demchuk E.V., Sabiev U.K., Myalo V.V., CHupin P.V., Koval' V.S.

Abstract

A promising area of research in the field of improving existing and developing new working bodies of agricultural machines is the search for technological and technical solutions to ensure reliable, high-quality sowing of seeds, taking into account the zonal features of grain production. Quality sowing is characterized by two components: a uniform distribution of seed over the feed area and the embedment depth; and the application of mineral fertilizers below the seed level of the main crop. It has been established that the joint application of mineral fertilizers with seeds may entail a salt effect and chemical burn, which leads to a decrease in seedling and yield. The most favorable is the multi-level application of seeds and fertilizers, this allows to form an extensive root system, developing in the direction of the power source. The aim of the research is to increase the yield of grain crops through the use of a coulter, providing multi-level seeding of seeds and mineral fertilizers. To achieve this goal a coulter providing multi-level seeding and mineral fertilizer application, has been developed. Laboratory studies of a prototype coulter were carried out in the soil channel of the Faculty of technical service in the agro-industrial complex of Omsk State Agrarian University, while the thickness of the soil layer between seeds and fertilizers was selected as the studied function. During experimental studies, the main parameters of the proposed coulter were determined. At these mineral fertilizers are located 30...35 mm below the level of seeds of the main crop and are filled with a wet layer of soil, which eliminates direct contact of seeds and fertilizers, and, therefore, chemical burn of seeds.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):12-18
pages 12-18 views

Development of a front-end loader for an MTZ tractor using 3D modeling

Dmitrenko V.P., Adakin R.D., Sockaya I.M., Hot'ko A.A.

Abstract

The paper deals with the design of a front loader using three-dimensional modeling, and its manufacturing. The area of use of the front loader is individual farms with a small but regular need for the volume of transported goods. The existing loaders have greater productivity and correspondingly high cost, which is not suitable for individual farms. The task is to design a simple and reliable front loader that can be aggregated with an MTZ tractor. The loader must have a maximum load capacity of 1000 kg with a safety factor of 2...2,5. The front loader was designed and manufactured. The design was carried out in a three-dimensional CAD software SolidWorks, the calculation of the maximum load was made by the finite element method. During calculations, the optimal geometrical parameters of the loader parts, capable of withstanding a given load with minimum stresses, were determined. The kinematics of assemblies and parts were made and tested allowing the structure to perform its functionality correctly along a given trajectory. The front loader was made on the basis of an individual farm. The available materials for the production of this loader were: channel, pipe, angle bars, 40 mm thick solid metal and standard units - hydraulic cylinders and high pressure hoses. Tests for loading logs have shown that the device is reliable and has good performance. No complaints and comments on the work of the loader were noted. The measures to improve the loader are outlined. These are the development of a rotary assembly of a vertical stand, reinforcement of the boom anchoring axis, development of tractor stoppers. This will allow mobile work with a load of more than 1000 kg.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):19-28
pages 19-28 views

Structural ways to reduce the damage of planting potatoes bulbs when using a chain-spoon planting machine

Kazakov S.S., ZHivaev O.V., Nikulin A.V.

Abstract

The paper presents the theoretical basis for assessing the impact of damage to planting bulbs on yield. It gives the data on the study of the amount of damage to potato bulbs by chain-spoon planting apparatus and discusses the ways to reduce them. Studies have shown that when installing a guide in the case of the planting machine, productivity increases up to 10 bulbs per second and potato bulbs are damaged within the agrotechnical requirements, while the speed of the potato planter increases by 35 % (up to 10,8 km/h). Analysis of the results shows the need to identify for the potato planter machines working bodies and technological processes, causing less damage to the planting material. Special attention should be paid to reducing the level of severe external damage to bulbs (cracks, crushing, cutting). The aim of the work is to improve the quality of the process of planting potato tubers with the substantiation of the optimal parameters of the chain-spoon planting apparatus. During the studies it was found that with an increase in the frequency of planting, the number of damages to bulbs increases, and an increase in the frequency of planting over 5,7 bulbs per second in both fractions leads to a sharp increase in the number of damages to bulbs. To solve the problem of reducing the number of damaged potato bulbs, a structural way to solve the problem was proposed. It consists in installing a guide for bulbs, which allows reducing damage to potato bulbs to the limits of agrotechnical requirements.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):29-34
pages 29-34 views

The results of the study of the rigidity of tires of tractor wheels and its effect on tractor vibrations

Zolotarevskaya D.I.

Abstract

The work is devoted to a theoretical study of the rigidity of pneumatic tires of tractor wheels and analysis of its influence on the vertical oscillations of tractors. Mathematical modeling of the patterns of deformation of elastic tractor wheels and soil using experimental data was performed. These experimental data on the patterns of deformation of the studied soils were obtained in our works earlier in field trials, when normal stresses at the contact of the wheels and the soil, as well as the density and humidity of the soil loosened before the wheel passes and after successive wheel passes along the same track were meas-ured. According to the developed computer program, which allows to calculate the rigidity of tires of tractor wheels, one-factor and full factorial computer experiments of three types were carried out. In computer experiments of the first type, the dependence of tire stiffness of a number of elastic wheels under the MTZ-82 tractor on the soil operation from air pressure at different vertical dynamic loads on the axes of the respective tractor wheels was investigated. According to the results of computer experiments of the first type, the regression equations, reflecting the dependencies studied, were found. In computer experiments of the second type, the tire stiffness of various sizes on tire pressure with constant vertical dynamic loads on the axles of the wheels was investigated. According to the results of computer experiments of the second type, the regression equations were found, reflecting the corresponding dependencies. High values of correlation relations for the obtained regression equations indicate a great closeness of relations in the correlation dependences found. In computer experiments of both types, the deviations of the wheel-soil interaction values, found using tire stiffness values obtained by calculation, are within the limits of measurement accuracy of experimental data. Computer experiments of the third type are performed using the experimental data obtained in authors works. The vertical oscillations of the axles of the MTZ-82 tractor for different values of the rigidity of the tires of the front and rear wheels were calculated. The graphs that characterize these fluctuations were built. The results of the study show that with an increase in tire stiffness, the amplitudes of the vertical axes of the tractor axles decrease. This helps to improve the smoothness of the tractor and reduce its sealing effect on the soil. By calculation, it was found out that wheels with 18.4R38 tires are optimal on the rear axle of the MTZ-82 tractor.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):35-44
pages 35-44 views

Algorithm for managing the operation modes of a machin and tractor unit

Kalachin S.V.

Abstract

At the present stage of development of agricultural production to replace the existing agricultural machinery comes new, based on robotization technological processes with elements of autonomous decision-making systems. The basis of which are the control algorithms, based on the technology of constructing mathematical models of the control object, taking into account its laws of functioning. The aim of the research presented in the article is to develop an efficient algorithm for controlling the operating modes of the machine and tractor unit based on the high-performance method of exploitative control. The solution of the problem is based on the methods of mathematical modeling and programming in the Python language. Control of the intensity of change in the operational parameter is the most highly effective among the known methods of exploitative control. The practical implementation of whom allows you to manage operation modes of the machine and tractor unit with prediction over time due to the implementation of preemptive control actions. In addition, the algorithm for controlling the modes of operation of the machine and tractor unit on the basis of this method, by time complexity, is the most preferable in comparison with similar known control algorithms.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):45-50
pages 45-50 views

Schematization of operational loads on the carrier system of wheeled agricultural vehicles

Klepcov V.I.

Abstract

The article presents an approach to the schematization of the processes of random stationary and non-stationary loading of the vehicle structural frame from the side of the wheels and traction coupling devices, as well as deterministic loading from the operating functional systems. In order to reduce the amount of input data for calculating durability, it was proposed, first, to identify loads that are linear combinations of each other, and second, to replace the correlation table of average and amplitude values obtained by processing the original implementation with linear combinations of correlation tables of shorter sections. The expression of some components of the load through other components by multiplying by some predetermined constant allows to reduce the number of independent arguments and, therefore, the duration of the calculation. Similarly, the optimization of the correlation table of the entire record consists in finding the intervals of the same record with such correlation tables that, after applying simple transformations (summation and multiplication), are able to reproduce the original correlation table with a given error. Then the calculation of durability can be performed only for the intervals found, and with the results of the calculation to do the same operations as with the correlation tables. The calculation time can be reduced, the results of the calculation of fatigue life from the schematized realizations will be equivalent to the results of the calculation of the fatigue life from the original realizations by virtue of the theory of linear summation of damage. The approach was tested when schematizing the loading of a combine harvester (ZUK) of the sixth class, developed at Rostselmash, the errors in calculating the durability of the schematized loads were estimated. The reduction of the computation time from schematized implementations in comparison with the initial implementations is shown.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):51-57
pages 51-57 views

Study of thermal radiation of the elastic-damping elements of the air suspension of the seat on the hydropulsator test bench

Lyashenko M.V., Pozdeev A.V., Golyatkin I.A., Iskaliev A.I.

Abstract

Air suspension of seat is one of the most important components of the system of vibration protection of the human operator of the vehicle. All vibrational energy transmitted through the suspension of the seat from the cab floor to the driver is stored, absorbed and later dissipated by means of elastic damping elements, turning into heat. An assessment of the intensity of thermal radiation from the air spring and the shock absorber during operation may further improve the design of existing seat suspension systems. As an example, we can mention the possibility of vibrational energy recovery, which in regular passive suspensions turns into heat when extinguished. The article presents the results of tests of the air suspension of the seat of the company Sibeco on a single-support test bench with a hydraulic drive manufactured by the Indian company BiSS. The purpose of the test is to study the thermograms of the surfaces of the elasticdamping elements during operation. An experimental setup, which includes the metal elements of the connection of the actuator of the hydropulsator test bench with a shock absorber and the suspension of the seat as a whole, as well as a force sensor built into the design of the stand, is described. The working diagrams of the shock absorber and air suspension of the seat at each fixed point in time of one minute are obtained. To measure the values of temperature and read surface thermograms the Testo thermal imager was used. The study was conducted on the harmonic mode of exposure. During processing and analyzing the obtained data, the nature of the heating of the outer surface of the shock absorber and the air spring, as well as the fact of reaching stabilization temperatures, were revealed. In conclusion, the reasons for the discrepancy between the intensity of thermal radiation of the air spring and the shock absorber of the seat suspension are given.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):58-63
pages 58-63 views

Obtaining friction pairs of mechanical seals made of composite material of the TiC-SiC system

Kachenyuk M.N., Smetkin A.A., Somov O.V.

Abstract

The development of new materials and coatings with increased wear resistance, used in friction pairs, is an urgent task. Its solution is aimed at ensuring reliability and dependability of work during operation. One of the new and promising functional materials for the manufacture of dense and durable parts and products subjected to intensive wear during operation is the powder material of the TiC-SiC system, ob-tained by an energy-saving and more productive than hot pressing method - spark plasma sintering (SPS). The aim of the work was to obtain and study experimental samples of friction pairs made of a composite material of the TiC-SiC system by the method of mechanical activation and SPS. The goal is aimed at solving problems of increasing the service life of the mechanical seal of the centrifugal pump 16-08-140SP diesel engine cooling system D-160 (180) for the tractor T10. The processes of consolidation of powder mixtures, including containing aluminum oxide. It has been established that the introduction of aluminum oxide prevents compaction during sintering and increases the porosity of the material. The optimum sintering temperature corresponds to 1350 °C. The resulting material has high hardness and wear resistance. Parts of a friction pair for a pump mechanical seal were manufactured and tested. Bench tests of parts showed that the wear rate with dry friction is 4,49 ∙ 10-9 mm of wear / mm of the friction path. When working in the coolant, there is an additional burnin, which reduces wear, friction coefficient and increases the tightness of the mechanical seal. The developed material has an earnability, so the surface is smoothed during operation, which is not typical of other ceramics of this purpose.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):64-69
pages 64-69 views

Method of improving the service properties of the plowshare frame using abrasion-resistant surfacing materials and polymer composites

Mihal'chenkov A.M., Mihal'chenkova M.A., Petrakov M.A., Gucan A.A.

Abstract

The presence of intensive cultivation of agricultural crops in modern agriculture contributes to the in-creased wear rate of plowshares due to high plowing speeds. The use of well-known hardening methods is reduced to the use of hard alloys as coatings for working surfaces, which currently does not allow that currently does not allow to achieve a significant increase in the resource of the ploughshares, especially their frame (if the ploughshare is composite). The reason for this is the absence of an anti-abrasive coating over the entire volume of the friction surface of the part, which limits the working condition, which reaches 50 or more millimeters (undercutting-blade area). Such a significant value allows the use of various technological options to improve the resistance to abrasive wear, including the use of abrasion-resistant materials of different nature. Therefore, the task was to develop and test in real conditions the hardening technology, which provides a significant increase in abrasive resistance and durability, while maintaining the geometric parameters established by the technical conditions when performing agrotechnical requirements for tillage. The proposed technological process of hardening consists in surfacing the blade on the back side of the frame of the composite plowshare with a hard alloy. On the working surface, two rollers of increased hardness are formed along the edges of the blade and undercut areas, and the gap between them is filled with a glue-resin abrasive resistant composite. In this case, the entire area of the working surface (friction surface) of the undercutting-blade part is covered by reinforcing coatings (weld metal and composite). As a result of testing the developed hardening technology with the use of high-hardness alloys and an abrasion-resistant epoxy-based polymer composite with gravel filler, the durability of parts was increased by a factor of 1,6 compared with factory-made components.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):70-75
pages 70-75 views

The results of the analysis of the continuous input of additives in the lubricating system of the engine operating on gaseous fuel

Utaev S.A.

Abstract

The issue of ensuring the reliability of internal combustion engines is an urgent complex task, solved in different directions. Important among which are the operating conditions, the type of fuel used, monitoring the condition of engine oils, as well as the rationale for the service life of oils. When improving the design of tractors, it is necessary to take into account the issue of increasing their reliability and durability during operation. The studies show that 40-45 % of failures of agricultural machinery are caused by engine breakage. It is rational to solve the problem of improving the reliability of the engine, determining the state of the aggregates and machine parts on the content of wear products in the oil during engine operation, and making informed decisions to improve the condition of the oil. In order to improve the performance properties the additives are used. In order to determine the effect of the continuous use of additives to the oil, a cylinder was designed, comprising a housing, a cylindrical element for the additive, a cap, an inlet nozzle and an outlet nozzle. The element located inside the housing is filled with an additive. Engine oil lubrication system is supplied from the outside, i.e. in the annular gap between the housing and the element for the additive. In the housing, due to the temperature difference, the process of oil diffusion and additives take place. The purpose of the development of the laboratory setup was to study the influence of external factors on the process of continuous input of additives and the determination of their rational values. Studies have shown that the base number with continuous input of additives increased 1,5 times higher compared to samples of oils, used without a device for continuous input of additives. A device for introducing the additive with a filter element was tested. The operating mode of the installation was set according to the results of studies T = 85 °C, ν = 2 m/s and the concentration of mechanical impurities was 0,25 %. Operational tests of the device were carried out over a period of time until the base number dropped below 2 mgKOH/g. It follows that the oil life cycle increases on average by 15-20 %.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):76-80
pages 76-80 views

Improvement of quality indicators of machines for post-harvest grain processing

Tsedashiev T.V., Eltoshkina E.V.

Abstract

The key place in agricultural production of Russia is given to production of grain. Unacceptably high level of losses of grain at various stages of its production, beginning from cultivation and finishing with postharvest processing, has negative impact on volumes and economy of grain farm. For creation of cooling installation of grain, to the meeting high requirements the test piece is developed and made. For creation of cooling installation of grain, to the meeting high requirements the test piece is developed and made. To confirm theoretical prerequisites there was a need of carrying out the pilot studies. An important link in this number of tasks is obtaining various experienced dependences, including criteria. As a result of the conducted pilot studies for confirmation of analytical calculations the dependences allowing to receive quality indicators of process when functioning the pilot unit are received. This knowledge significantly expands information content borders in the field of technical means and technologies of mechanization of postharvest processing of grain. What promotes development and design of the cars working at the innovative principles.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):81-84
pages 81-84 views

Evaluation of the technical level of the agricultural tractor TK-3-180 when it is included in the robotic complex

Lavrov A.V., Zubina V.A., SHevcov V.G., Godzhaev T.Z., Vyaznikov M.V.

Abstract

Is given. It is shown that «Agropilot» precision agriculture system ensures driving accuracy no worse than ± 0,05 m, the «Edelweiss» modular unified technical vision system allows to control an autonomous platform. The automated control system for shifting gears and ranges can operate in one of three modes: full automatic, semi-automatic and manual. The upper-level onboard information and control system provides automatic control of the machine-tractor unit in unmanned mode throughout the shift work. The influence of the technical level of the tractor on its performance, working speed and shift factor is considered. As a result of studies of the influence of the technical level of the tractor elements on the shift performance, it has been revealed that the design of the tractor can give an increase in productivity to 37,2 %.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):85-90
pages 85-90 views

Evaluation of the impact of technological processes

Rudenko N.E., Kulaev E.V., Rudenko V.N., Nosov I.A.

Abstract

The analysis and the results showed that the technological process depends on several factors: the coefficient of variation of depth of seeding, the frequency of single-seed feed, the degree of soil crumbling, the degree of removal of moist soil to the surface, etc. There is no integral indicator for assessing the quality of technological process performance. To solve this problem, an analytical dependence of the performance indicator is proposed. It takes into account all the determining factors for each process. The performance indicator has a digital value from 0,4 to 0,9, which determines the quality of the technological process: unsatisfactory, satisfactory, good. In addition, it is possible to clearly identify the factors, which increase the performance indicator, that need to be improved.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2019;(3):91-94
pages 91-94 views

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