No 6 (2019)

Plant growing
The responsiveness of Triticum aestivum L. variety for inoculation by cells of endophytic strains Bacillus subtilis.
Kuramshina Z.M., Khairullin R.M., Smirnova Y.V.

In this study, we tested the effect of two strains of bacteria B. subtilis 26D and 11ВМ on three varieties of wheat Triticum aestivum L.: Omskaya 35, Kazakhstanskaya 10 (spring), Volzhskaya qualitative (winter).The peculiarity of the plants response to endophytic inoculation depended on the strain of the microorganism, the concentration of cells in the preparation, and the variety of wheat during the experiment in Petri dishes. Both strains showed a strong growth-stimulating effect when seed was inoculated with suspensions of bacteria with a concentration of 106 cells/ml. There was no effect when seed cells were inoculated with bacteria at a concentration of 109 cells / ml. Plants varieties Omskaya 35 were most responsive to inoculation with endophytes. The variety was well responsive to the inoculation of bacteria cells at different concentrations. The variety Volzhskaya quality had the least growth stimulation. Plants of this variety responded well when grown in soil, unlike experiments in Petri dishes. The variety Kazakhstanskaya 10 was less responsive when growing plants in Petri dishes. There was no difference between the size of the shoots of inoculated and non-inoculated plants of the variety Kazakh 10, only stimulation of root growth was observed. It was concluded that there is a pronounced responsiveness of wheat varieties to the effect of endophytic strains of bacteria B. subtilis 26D – the basis of biofungicide (Fitosporin-M) and this must be considered when using biofungicide for wheat cultivation.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):3-6
Yield of crops and productivity of grain-beet crop rotation in the central black-earth region of Russia when applying fertilizers for a long time
Minakova O.A., Alexandrova L.V., Podvigina T.N.

Aim of the investigations is to determine influence of fertilizers’ application during a long period (from 1936 to 2017) on yield of crops and productivity of grain-arable crop rotation under conditions of the Central Black-Earth region forest-steppe. Object of the investigations is yield of a main crop product in grain-beet crop rotation (sugar beet, winter wheat, barley, oats, clover). Application of fertilizers in the long-term experiment (from 1936 to 2017) revealed that prolongation of fertilizers’ using period considerably increased their total efficiency. With direct effect of fertilizers, average for 9 rotations yield of sugar beet roots increased by 21.6-31.9%. After-effect of fertilizers was the greatest for barley which average yield increased by 18.4-36.4% in comparison with the control over the period under investigation. The least response showed oats and clover (10.1-18.4 and 12.7-18.2%, accordingly). For direct effect and after-effect of fertilizers, the best dose of fertilizers was N135P135K135 + 25 t/hectare of manure. In crop rotation, barley and clover demonstrated the most rapid after-effect (18 years), winter wheat showed the slowest one (27 years). Direct effect of fertilizers for sugar beet was the greatest after 45 years. Between I and IX rotation, increase in yield (by 7.80-50.4 %) and crop rotation productivity (by 10.9-25.4 %) for most of the crops was noted; the system N135P135K135 + 25 t/hectare of manure had the greatest positive influence.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):7-10
Nature of the inheritance of number of fertile nodes in determinant forms of vegetable pea
Kotlyar I.P., Ushakov V.A., Pronina E.P., Kaygorodova I.M.

For the first time the character of the inheritance of the determinant form with four productive nodes (variety Pervenets with a dwarf stem). The analysis of first-generation hybrids obtained from crosses of indeterminate forms with determinant samples (DTR-2 and DTR-4) showed that all the plants had a phenotype with the usual type of stem growth and the formation of buds in the axiles of stipules. When the DTR was crossed all the plants corresponded to the phenotype of DTR-2. In the second generation in the combination (indeterminant x DTR-2) a splitting was foynd in a ratio of 3:1; in F2 (the indeterminant x DTR-4) in the phenotype the plants were divided into four phenotypic classes, that indicates the presence of two genes; in (DTR-2 x DTR-4) the discrepancy was due to the early emission of buds and corresponded to 3:1. The inheritance of the feature «number of productive nodes» (CNC) in the Pervenets variety is due to two genes, one of which is not related to determination. This is confirmed by the analyzing crossing and calculation of the deviation of the correspondence of the actual splitting according to theoretically expected, using the χ2 (hi-square) method. According to the obtained data, crossing was done [DTR-2 x VZR-28-11 (early budding)] resulting in a new variety with a limited type of stem growth, number of fertile nodes – 4, suitable for mechanized harvesting.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):11-14
Dynamics of accumulation of oil and fatty acids in the seeds crops of brassicaceae
Prakhova T.Y.

The aim of the research is to study the dynamics of the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in seeds the oil of Brassicaceae crops in relation to the conditions of the Middle Volga region. The object of research was the Camelina sativa variety Yubilyar and the Sinapis alba variety Lyutsiya. Samples for analysis were taken every 10 days, starting from the moment of seed formation. In the initial stages of seed formation in Camelina and Sinapis alba, the fat content is almost the same and varies from 3.2 to 3.8%. Then the intensity of the oil-accumulating process in crops of cabbage changes and the fat content the seeds increases by 2-3 times. The maximum oil content (27.2 and 39.8%) in of Sinapis alba and of Camelina sativa is noted when the seeds reach full maturity. As the seeds mature, the synthesis of linoleic and linolenic acids increases, their content decreases by 29.1 and 17.2%. The content of oleic acid in oil is also reduced by 9.0% in camelina and only 4.6% in mustard. The content of erucic acid increases, regardless of culture.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):15-18
The study of the method of culture in vitro as a method of vegetative propagation of coniferous trees
Krasnoperova V.V., Bucharina I.L.

Research is aimed at improving the technology of vegetative propagation of coniferous trees in vitro by selecting optimal media for sterilizing the explants of vegetative parts of plants, and using growth regulators to obtain callus and stimulating the root formation of test-tube plants. The objects of study are the vegetative parts of conifers: the buds and parts of the annual shoots. Plant objects sterilized and planted on nutrient media of different composition according to the scheme of experiments. Laboratory studies were conducted, on the basis of which successful use of sodium hypochlorite was noted compared with other reagents for sterilization of explants. According to the results of the experiments, a Woody Plant Medium nutrient medium was identified which promotes the best survival of the explants of conifers. The effect on growth survival of explants and their viability in culture in vitro, growth regulators such as 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.4-dinitrophenol in nutrient media was also determined. With the further cultivation and reproduction of coniferous plants, this technique allows to obtain planting material that most economically preserved in the offspring the economically valuable traits and properties of the parent plant.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):19-22
Plants defence
Diversity of virulence phenotypes of Puccinia triticinain different agroclimatic zones of the North Caucasus
Volkova G.V., Kudinova O.A., Vaganova O.F.

The phenotypic composition of the North Caucasian population of wheat leaf rust pathogen (Puccinia triticina Erikks.) in various agro-climatic zones of the region in 2016-2018 is analyzed. 233 single pustule isolates were studied, of which 212 virulence phenotypes were identified. In all the years of research, a high level of population diversity was established (the Shannon index (Sh) was 0.92-0.99). The dominant phenotype in 2016 was the PHRS phenotype, which was identified in the southern foothill, western Azov and eastern steppe agro-climatic zones. In the population of 2016, phenotypes with a high and medium number of virulence genes prevailed. In 2017, the most represented are the phenotypes of DCRL, LBLL (Western Azov zone) and PCQB (Northern zone). Avirulent phenotype BBBB was common for populations of 2016–2018. In 2016, a phenotype with virulence to Lr9 (TLGS) was first detected. In 2017 and 2018, phenotypes virulent to the Lr24 gene (PKTT, SFGQ, CFPQ, TKTS, MKTT, LKSR) were detected in the populations of the fungus. A high level of population differences in phenotypic composition between the years of research was established (Rogers index (R) was 0.96 -0.99).

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):23-26
Effect of heavy metals on oxidative processes in soybean seedlings
Sinegovskaya V.T., Terekhova O.A., Lavrent`yeva S.I., Ivanchenko L.E., Golokhvastov K.S.

The article shows the effect of oxidative stress on the activity and multiple forms of ribonuclease (EC 3.1.) And peroxidase (EC of seedlings of cultured soybean grown under the influence of heavy metals. In this regard, the activity of the antioxidant peroxidase enzyme and the content of malon dialdehyde, which characterizes the degree of lipid peroxidation, was determined in soybean seedlings of varieties Lydia. The increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) under the influence of heavy metals indicates that the toxicity of these pollutants appeared through the stimulation of the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which led to the development of oxidative stress. Studies have established that under conditions of oxidative stress caused by cadmium sulfate, ribonuclease activity in soybean seedlings increases. Studies have established that under conditions of oxidative stress caused by cadmium sulfate, the ribonuclease activity in soybean seedlings increases. The biogenic elements Cu and Zn reduced the activity of ribonuclease, and Cd significantly increased it due to the emergence of new forms of the enzyme, which indicates the ability of soy sprout cells to withstand the effects of heavy metal cadmium plant stressor. At the same time, the enhancement of lipid peroxidation is a signal that is realized by changes in the peroxidase and ribonuclease activity, which protects the plant cell from stress.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):27-30
Remediation of agro-sod-podzolic soil contaminated with nickel
Lednev A.V., Lozhkin A.V., Pozdeev G.A.

The results of many years field experiment on the remediation of agro-sod-podzolic loamy soil (albeluvisoils) contaminated with nickel are analyzed. Various doses of ameliorants and fertilizers were studied as ameliorative additives: limestone and phosphorite flour, superphosphate, sodium sulfide, peat and zeolite. Studies have shown that the introduction of all studied reclamation additives into contaminated soil significantly reduced the content of mobile forms of nickel in it. The highest efficiency during the entire observation period was shown by limestone flour at a dose of 12 t/ha; it reduced the degree of its mobility by 48-69%. Nickel pollution had a strong toxic effect on plants, which led to a sharp decrease in their productivity (by 76-87%) and increased accumulation of nickel in the grain. The introduction of the studied ameliorants and fertilizers significantly improved these indicators, but they still did not reach the control (without pollution), which indicates the presence of a very serious problem of crop production on land contaminated with nickel.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):31-35
Consumption of soil nitrogen by plants in the use of fertilizer, green manure and biopreparation (study with 15n)
Zavalin A.A., Chernova L.S., Sapozhnikov S.N., Kovalenko A.A.

In a model experiment on a sod-podzolic medium loamy soil enriched with a stable nitrogen isotope 15N, the use of soil nitrogen by spring wheat studied when ammonium nitrate was introduced, mustard biomass and seed inoculation with the associated nitrogen fixer Rhizoagrin were introduced. It has been established that plants consume nitrogen primarily from recently applied nitrogen of fertilizer. When making biomass of mustard and inoculating seeds with Rhizoagrin, spring wheat uses soil nitrogen, with the integrated use of these components and applying ammonium nitrate — soil nitrogen and fertilizer. The accumulation of plant biomass predominantly increases from recently applied nitrogen of fertilizer, both separately and when combined with green manure and seed inoculation with a biopreparation and is 14-28% relative to the control without fertilizers. When applying nitrogen fertilizer, as well as when combined with green manure and biopreparation, the concentration of nitrogen in spring wheat increases up to 1.5 times. There is a clear upward trend in the concentration of nitrogen in plants with the addition of mustard biomass and it increases with inoculation of seeds with Rhizoagrin. As a result, the accumulation of total nitrogen in plants increases when nitrogen fertilizer is applied, and the use of mustard biomass and biopreparation increases this indicator by 1.2 times, which is due to the presence of nitrogen compounds available to plants in the nutrient medium. The accumulation in plants of 15N characterizes the consumption of soil nitrogen by plants, when introducing nitrogen fertilizer, this indicator is less, and using only biomass of mustard and Rhizoagrin is equivalent to control without fertilizers, indicating large amounts of mineralized nitrogen consumption from the soil when using the last two components, and that nitrogen fertilizer is not a factor in the mineralization of soil organic matter. The use of mustard biomass for spring wheat and seed inoculation with Rhizoagrin leads to the consumption of soil nitrogen by plants during the initial growing season.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):36-39
Animal husbandry
Genetic factors affecting genetic variance in coarse-wool sheep
Ozerov M.Y., Tapio M., Kantanen J., Marzanova S.N., Koreckaya E.A., Lushnikov V.P., Marzanov N.S.

The life activity of the rural population in the world is 70% dependent on the traditional animal farming systems based on the domestic livestock breeds. Consequently, it is very important to preserve and enhance the local breeds of animals resistant to any diseases and better adapted to the changing environmental conditions. The environmental factors affecting the genetic structure in 24 coarse-wool breeds of sheep reared in 9 countries of Europe and Asia have been studied. The genetic surveys of twenty microsatellite loci were carried out. The most significant environmental factors causing the genetic variance in the analyzed sheep breeds appeared to be the geographical latitude and the annual mean temperature. The genetic variance of the coarse-wool sheep breeds was generally higher at low geographical latitudes, which corresponds to the data obtained for the other vertebral species. Therefore, the protection of sheep populations inhabiting the areas at the low geographical latitudes can better maintain the intraspecific diversity. This fact should be especially considered when planning the programs to conserve the biodiversity of farm animals. The breeds of sheep reared near the centers of domestication are distributed in the low latitude ranges. They have a higher genetic variance. Therefore, they can serve as the source of genes contributing to adaptation under the conditions of global climate change.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):40-44
Forest resources of the Krasnoyarsk region in feeding cows
Tereshchenko V.A., Ivanov E.A., Ivanova O.V., Permyakova G.V., Semenovich A.V.

An important factor in increasing the productivity of dairy cattle is to ensure the full value of diets by improving the quality of feeds and enriching its with a complex of additives from alternative sources, in particular from the richest forest resources. Scientific-economically experience by studying the effect of feeding coniferous flour on milk productivity and metabolic parameters of cows and determining its optimal dosage was carried out in the conditions of LLC Plemzavod Tayozhny Sukhobuzimsky district of the Krasnoyarsk territory. Three groups of milking cows (control and two experimental) of the Black-Motley breed of the second calving, 5 heads in each group were formed for the experiment on the principle of analogues. The duration of the experiment was 100 days. According to the scheme of studies, the control group received the main diet, the 1st experimental group in addition to the main diet received coniferous flour at a dosage of 50 g/head/day, the 2nd experimental group – coniferous flour at a dosage of 100 g/head/day. Research and data processing were carried out according to generally accepted methods. As a result of researches positive influence of coniferous flour on milk productivity and technological properties of cow milk was established. The analysis of the obtained data allowed to determine the most effective dosage of coniferous flour for the diet of cows – 50 g/head/day, which contributed to an increase in milk yield for 100 days of lactation by 15.6%, the milk fat amount – by 29.8%, the milk protein amount – by 17.1%, milk of basic fat content – by 29.4%, improvement technological properties of milk.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):45-49
Free-ranging european bison – genetic pool reserve
Simonov G.A., Gusarov I.V., Simonov A.G., Tyapugin E.A.

The objective of the research was to protect and increase population of European bisons and to explore economically favourable effects under the new habitat conditions of the Russia’s European North. The subject of the research was purebred European bisons, inhabiting Vologda region. A high resistance of European bisons against helminthosis, flexibility and adoptability within new habitat conditions with gaining required phenotypic traits were ascertained. Oxen live weight reachs 900 kg, withers height – 180 cm, hoof width of fore limb – 100 mm, of hind limb – 80 mm. Maximum skin thickness is spotted at head front – 13 mm, at neck – 9 mm, at shoulders – 9 mm, at tarsus, basipodium, metacarpus and metapodium – up to 7 mm. The skin is thinner at abdomen and sides – up to 6mm. Hence, in terms of skin thickness European bison surpasses cattle in all body areas by 2-4 mm. In addition rich rumen microfauna is stipulated by a wide nutrition range in comparison with cattle. In Vologda region European bisons consumes more than 100 plan species. It should be noted, woody forage is used throughout the year period, making up 5% in summer period and up to 70% in winter months. Dry matter digestibility of natural diet varies 53-67.5%, while fibre digestibility riches 69%. In should be highlighted, that protein share in bison meat exceeds that in average fat cattle meat by two times. Amino acids content per 1 kilo of bison meat varies from 183.8 to 195.3 g, of which nonreplaceable amino acids are 103.9 to 117.3 g, hence, muscular tissue contains less collagen and elastin. The facts, displayed here above, signify special value of these large hoofed animals’ genetic pool, which can be used for cattle breed improvements. Species immigration anticipates not only European bison inclusion into plantivorous community of the region, but biocenosis in general. The habitat of frre-ranging European bison population in Vologda region by its natural specifications and rich forage base is viable and prospective for protected species recovery and proliferation. Climate and geographic location of the region and forage capacity provide for good living conditions as well as species’ merits exertion.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):50-52
Veterinary science
The effect of interferons-α and –γ and their combination with dimethyl dipyrazolyl selenide on the immune status and functional state of the reproductive system of cows in adverse ecological conditions
Shakhov A.G., Shaposhnikov I.T., Brigadirov Y.N., Kotsarev V.N., Skorikov V.N., Ermakov T.I., Karmanova N.V., Tarakanova K.V.

The results of studying the effect of interferons alpha and gamma and their combination with dimethyl dipyrazolyl selenide on the immune status and functional state of the reproductive system of cows in adverse ecological conditions are presented. The positive effect of the drugs, especially their combination, on erythropoiesis and the immune status of animals, which was manifested by an increase in the content of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, leukocytes, total immunoglobulins, serum bactericidal and lysozyme activity, absorptive function of phagocytes, relative amount of T lymphocytes, and a decrease in the level of circulating immune complexes was stated. An increase in the immune status of animals at the effect of immunocorrecting drugs was accompanied by a decrease in the pathology of calving and postpartum complications and favorably affected the functional state of their reproductive system. The cows which were introduced interferons and their combination with dimethyl dipyrazolyl selenide demonstrated a shorter period from calving to successful insemination, as well as the insemination index and fertility, compared with the animals of the control group, which were not introduced any drugs.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):53-57
Determination of the concentration of high-molecular water-soluble polymer used in the development of a new type of feed additive
Bydanova V.V., Grudina N.V.

High molecular weight water soluble nanoscale polymers (HWP) have different functional functions and different applications. For the first time in livestock, we applied GDP in feeding ruminants to increase their dairy and meat productivity. When developing an innovative feed additive based on nanosized anionic polymers, it is necessary to study their properties, for this purpose it is necessary to determine the presence of these polymers in aqueous solutions. Currently, there are several basic methods for determining the concentration of HWP in water. However, they have significant disadvantages, including complexity of execution, duration of the process, use of aggressive reagents, necessity to use expensive equipment. Our rapid method of quantifying anionic HWP is simple, accurate and inexpensive. The method is based on the flocculating properties of polymers. The method envisages preparation of basic and auxiliary solutions of golden ochre pigment and saturated solution of mixture of sodium and potassium chloride salts, determination of time of gold ochre pigment settling in «idle» test and in analysed solutions. Formulas for calculation of ochre sedimentation rate and polymer concentration are given. The method can be used in the concentration range of anionic polymers 0.0001 ÷ 0.5 mg/ml. The express method is intended for specialists of chemical laboratories of industrial and agricultural enterprises, scientific and medical institutions.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):58-60
Storage and processing of agricultural produce
Investigation of terms for application of surface active substances in the manufacture of crystalline glucose
Khvorova L.S., Andreev N.R., Lukin N.D.

The successful outcome of the existing methods for the crystallization of glucose to greatly depends on the conditions of the stage of nucleation of crystals. The study was conducted with the aim to improve ways of nucleation during the crystallization of glucose. According to the theory of crystallization the rate of nucleation formation in the highest degree depends on the surface tension (ST) of solutions. Theoretical and practical interest is presented the role of ST in the process of crystallization of glucose. Studies have been carried out to determine the surface tension of glucose solutions depending on the concentration of dry substances (DS) and temperature. As a result of research, it has been determined that the ST of glucose solutions increases with an increase in the concentration of DS and a decrease in temperature. When testing aliphatic alcohols as a surface-active substances (surfactants), it was found that ST solutions decrease 2.5 times. The accelerating effect of aliphatic alcohols on the nucleation of crystals was expressed in a decrease in the induction period from 210 minutes to 120 minutes, respectively, in pure solutions and in the presence of surfactants. Tests of various types of seed crystals have revealed that large (> 200 μm) and small (<60 μm) hydrated glucose crystals moistened with alcohol are most effective for crystallizing anhydride glucose under polythermal conditions. The proposed method can significantly save the consumption of glucose for seed, improve the conditions of crystallization and improve the quality of glucose microbial purity.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):61-64
Study of microwave operational regimes for thermal processing and disinfection of inedible raw stock of animal origin
Zhdankin G.V., Storchevoy V.F., Novikova G.V., Umansky P.M.

It is known that the technical process of animal products treatment includes a number of operations resulting in obtaining finished products and inedible non-food wastes used for production of animal feed. Therefore for agrarian enterprises of average capacity development of technologies and technical processing means of inedible wastes of animals slaughtering is actual. In this connection there were developed several microwave types for thermal processing of raw stock differing principally in operation and structure. There were researched operational microwave modes for thermal processing of wastes of animals slaughter, description of the operating mode of the combined resonator for thermal processing inedible wastes of meat raw material in the continuous operation. Combined resonator is presented as a variety of the cylindrical one but with a hemispherical base providing raw stock supplying to the resonator under ensuring electromagnetic safety. There are obtained regression models on the basis of which the operation conditions of the installation are optimized. The article presents the description of the technology and installation for thermal processing of inedible raw stock of animal origin by the influence of the electromagnetic field energy of microwave frequency in the continuous mode. There are considered features of dielectric heating of multicomponent raw material in the grinding process in the resonator chamber. Analogues of mi-crowave installations are considered.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(6):65-69

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