No 4 (2019)

Plant growing
Plyustransgression in winter wheat breeding on frost resistance and productivity
Grabovets A.I., Fomenko M.A.
Abstract

The results of breeding on the Don using transgressive variability during 1985 - 2018 are presented. The location is a chernozem steppe with frequent frosts, insufficient and unstable moistening over the years. The technology of breeding is common. Used pedigree and bulk method. New when laying a breeding nursery was sowing up to 45 thousand untreated ears of a designed planter (to eliminate weeding during threshing ears), determining the frost resistance of plants that have been hardened in the field, in bundles placed in plastic bags, in low temperatures, determining their viability for three days after freezing by the Don method. A large layer of studies ( more than 11,000 populations) was analyzed, starting with F1 and ending with the completion of formation for each. It is confirmed that transgression, the result of the recombination, is observed in populations whose parents do not have extreme severity of the trait. It is established that populations should be heterogeneous with long-term formation. This happens when parents have very few common genes, when there is no restriction on recombination due to too large differences in components. With the presence of overdominance in F1 in many studied populations, it is possible to predict the appearance of transgressions (in our case for frost-resistance and productivity) with an average frequency of 0.25-4.36%. With the incomplete and complete dominance of the trait of the best parent, the excess of parents in F2 on average over the population, intermediate inheritance in F2 traits are also possible, but an order of magnitude less than when overdominated. This should be accompanied by large volumes of study of the breeding material in the first stages and the pressure of stresses of various kinds. Of the 38 varieties that at various times included in the State Register of Russia, 29 were transgressive recombinants for winter hardiness and productivity. They all withstand minus 18⁰ С on the tillering knot

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):3-7
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To question about breeding naked oat Virovets
Batalova G.A., Loskutov I.G., Shevchenko S.N., Zhuikova O.A., Krotova N.V., Tulyakova M.V.
Abstract

The aim of the research was to develop a cultivar of naked oat with improved traits of productivity and grain quality for cultivation under climate change conditions and utilization in breeding practice as a source of useful economic properties. The pre-flag leaf’s area was found to render a considerable effect on the formation of the number of grains and grain weight in the panicle and on the total biomass (r= 0.78-0.85), while the area of leaves depended on the duration of the period from seedling emergence to wax ripeness (r = ‒0.79) and on agroclimatic conditions during the growing season (HTC, r = 0.76).  The flag leaf’s pigments (Chl a, Chl b, Car) were observed to have a sizable effect on the weight of 1000 grains during the period from flowering to milk ripeness (r = 0.79-0.88). The new naked cultivar ‘Virovets’ (1h07) with improved levels of productivity and grain quality (1000 grain weight: 29.2 g; crude protein content: up to 19.8%; oil of the oleic-linoleic group: 7.71%, grain volume weight: 670 g/l; pubescence: weak) was developed to be cultivated for food and feed purposes and be used in naked oat breeding as a source of high grain quality.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):8-11
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The effect of time and depth of planting on obtaining the planned potato yields
Vasiliev A.A., Gorbunov A.K.
Abstract

In 2014-2017  In the northern forest-steppe zone of the Chelyabinsk region The influence of planting dates and the depth of seed placement of potatoes on the size and quality of tubers was studied. During the study period, physical soil maturity in the first decade of May was observed twice in 2014 and 2017. The early planting of potatoes (May 5) was accompanied by an increase in the harmfulness of rhizoctoniosis (in the Rosara variety - by 22.8%, Kuzovok - by 63.7%) and the Colorado potato beetle (by 26 and 43%, respectively) compared with the May 12-15 planting. . The seedlings of the early variety of Rosara potato on May 30 in 2014 were damaged by frost (–1.0 ° C). From meteorological and phytosanitary positions, the optimum term for planting potatoes in this is the beginning of the second decade of May. Planting potatoes on May 12-15 with embedding of seed material to a depth of 5-6 cm ensured the formation of the planned yield of 40 t / ha with a planting scheme of 70x19 cm (Rosara - 41.4 t / ha, Kuzovok - 44.6 t / ha), and in the variety Kuzovok - additionally with the scheme 75x27 cm (38.3 t / ha). The planting of potatoes on May 25-29 provided a predetermined level of productivity (40 t / ha) of the Kuzovok variety in all variants of the experiment, and the Rosara variety in the variant of thickened planting. However, the starch content in Rosara tubers decreased by 1.60%, Kuzovok - by 1.26%, starch collection from 1 ha decreased by 0.60 and 0.37 t / ha, respectively, and the accumulation of nitrates in tubers increased by 25.8 and 52.5% compared with the optimal landing period. The advantage here was a deep embedment of seed tubers: an increase in the yield of the Rosara variety averaged 0.88 t / ha, Kuzovok - 1.23 t / ha. During the late planting period (June 5–12), there was a significant decrease in productivity (Rosara - by 3.49 t / ha, Kuzovok - by 5.18 t / ha) and the quality of potato tubers compared to planting from May 12-15. The starchy content of tubers decreased by 1.87 and 2.11%, the collection of starch from 1 ha to 1.10 and 1.45 t / ha, respectively, and the accumulation of nitrates increased 2.05 and 2.19 times. The planned yield of 40 t / ha was achieved only in the variety Kuzovok in thickened planting variants. At the same time, deep seeding of seed material increased the yield of the Rosara variety on average by 1.39 t / ha, and the Kuzovok variety - by 1.90 t / ha. Early landing (May 5) in 2014 and 2017. did not lead to an increase in potato productivity compared to planting in the second decade of May. At the same time, the yield decrease of the Rosara variety was 5.82 t / ha, Kuzovok - 2.75 t / ha. The planned yield of 40 t / ha was noted only in the variant of the thickened planting of the variety Kuzovok.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):12-17
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Methods of increasing of false flax productivity (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) in the conditions of the Non-black soil region of Russia
Vinogradov D.A., Mazhaisky Y.A., Evtishina E.V., Lupova E.I.
Abstract

The false flax in the Non-black soil region, including the Ryazan region, is not a traditional crop, along with other oily, such as oil flax, coleseed, types of mustard. Expansion of the areas to sowing restrains because of the lack of the developed recommendations about technology of its cultivation. It also is the basis for researches. The purpose of researches is to study features of formation of false flax productivity, Yubelyar sort, and to optimize basic elements of sort technology (norms of seeding, sowing time) for obtaining high and stable productivity of oily seeds of the crop in the conditions of the Non-black soil region of Russia.Researches are conducted in the Ryazan State Agrotechnological University, on the test fields of the Agrotekhnopark - educational scientific-innovative center (ESIC) of the Ryazan district, the Ryazan region, on gray forest soils. According to the results of the tests it is possible to conclude that for a stable harvest receiving of the false flax it is necessary to have not less than 420 plants per 1 m ² for gathering and to consider the optimum density 400-450 plants per 1 m ². Further increasing of the norms of seeding, more than 8 million pieces of germinated seeds per hectare, led to formation of strongly thickened density that finally reduced productivity and quality of the seeds. The optimum norms of seeding of false flax seeds should be considered 7,0 million germinated seeds per hectare. Setting of the norms up to 8,0 million pieces per hectare significantly didn't increase productivity of the crop, and led to an excessive expense of seeds, sowing qualities of seeds worsened. The danger of grounding of the crop and diseases attacks increased. The best sowing time in the tests is the first ten days of May.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):18-21
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The effect of low positive temperature on the content of low molecular weight antioxidants in the organs of a vegetable chrysanthemum plant
Gins M.S., Gins V.K., Kononkov P.F., Baikov A.A., Pivovarov V.F., Fotev Y.V., Gins E.M.
Abstract

The use of the rapid amperometric method made it possible to promptly measure and evaluate the total content of water- and ethanol-soluble antioxidants in extracts from Chryzantemum coronarium L. plants. The effect of optimal and low positive temperatures on the accumulation of low molecular weight antioxidants: ascorbic acid, phenolic compounds, soluble carbohydrates, carotenoids in various organs of vegetable chrysanthemum plant were investigated. In the leaves of the studied varieties, the content of flavonoids was two times higher than in the stems, while the accumulation level of condensed and polymeric polyphenols in the stem was three times higher than the level of their accumulation in the leaves. The maximum total antioxidant content was found in the inflorescences, whereas in other organs of the plant they accumulated 2-3 times less. Under the conditions of hypothermia in November, the amount of ascorbic acid, photosynthetic pigments and the total antioxidant content remained at a higher level in the upper photosynthesizing leaves. The data obtained indicate the important role of low molecular weight antioxidants in the protection of plant cells under the action of low positive temperatures.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):22-26
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Plants defence
Integrated effect of fertilizer application and protective measures on weed infestation and potato yield
Shpanev A.M., Smuk V.V., Fesenko M.A.
Abstract

The results of the research have revealed integrated effect of the mineral fertilizer application and protective measures influence on weed infestation and potato yield. This effect was developed on the second half of the vegetation and expressed in more stronger inhibition of plant development (from 36,6 to 20,4 and 11,1 g/m2 on low, medium and high levels of mineral nutrition, respectively), in the reduction of species diversity (from 12 to 10 and 10 species/m2) and number of weeds (from 69 to 42 and 32 species/m2). The highest biological (biomass reduction – 95,3%, the number of weeds – 79%) and economic (yield increase – 228 с/ha or 107%) effect was achieved by the high rates of mineral fertilizer application and combined protective measures of potato crops from weeds. This variant was characterized by the greatest profitability (125,3%), whereas chemical protection providing double treatment of potato plantings with herbicides, even at the middle and high level of mineral nutrition, was less effective (102,6 and 109%) in economic terms.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):27-30
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Ecology
Biological potency of soil, yelding ability and quality of potato depending on the use of microbiologic specimen
Zhevora S.V., Fedotova L.S., Timoshina N.A., Knyazeva E.V., Shabanov A.E.
Abstract

The article presents the results of research on the effectiveness of microbiologic specimen against the background of various doses of mineral fertilizers, and without them. The results were obtained in two short-term experiments for the period from 2015 to 2018.Goal of research: to increase the productivity and quality of potatoes with the integrated use of full and reduced by 30 and 50% doses of mineral fertilizers in combination with various microbiologic specimen by increasing the biological activity of the soil and better nutrient absorption.In the field test (2015-2016, sod-podzolic sandy soil), the yield of potatoes was 24.1-27.9 t / ha (when using mineral fertilizers N45-90P45-90K60-120). When N45P45K60 was combined with preplant treatment of tubers with microbiologic specimen (Azolen, Agrinos «1» and Biocomposite-correct), it increased by 27.6-28.5%, including the increase from microbiologic specimen - 3.5-4.4 t / ha or 14.5-18.3%. In the field test (2016 and 2017-2018, sod-podzolic sandy soil), the maximum yield of potatoes (34.0-35.7 t / ha) was obtained using the microbiologic specimen Extrasol both separately for preplant treatment of tubers, and in combination with foliar application of Agrinos «2» and Extrasol on the background of the full dose of fertilizers N90P90K90. In this case, the yield increase from the biologic specimen was 6.5-8.2 t / ha or 23.6-29.8%.In the variant with a 30% reduced NPK dose and the use of Agrinos [N60P60K60 + Agrinos 1+2 (5+2.5 l / ha)]: the yield level was 4.6 t / ha (17%) higher a full dose of NPK. At the same time high starchiness and vitamin C content, excellent culinary qualities, low levels of nitrates in products; conditional income was 42.3 thousand rubles / ha higher than NPK background, low cost (6.8 rubles / kg), high cost recovery (3.25) and profitability of production 64% were observed.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):31-35
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Pedology
The consumption of nitrogen of perennial legume-grass mixture on the second year of life (study with 15n)
Shmyreva N.Y., Zavalin A.A., Sokolov O.A., Litvinsky V.A.
Abstract

On the eroded sod-podzolic soil of the drive-separated part of the slope in the 3rd rotation of the crop rotation, the consumption of nitrogen fertilizer by herbs increases by 20%, soil nitrogen by 67%, and symbiotic by 23% compared to its lower part. This reduces the immobilization of nitrogen fertilizer, and increase its gaseous losses. Localization of nitrogen fertilizer increases grass consumption of nitrogen fertilizer by 14%, soil nitrogen by 7-10% and symbiotic nitrogen by 26-53% compared to the scattered method of its application. With local application of nitrogen fertilizer grass better (1.1-1.2 times) use nitrogen fertilizer, it is more (1.1-1.2 times) is fixed in the soil and less (1.6-2.6 times) is lost in the form of gaseous compounds compared to the scattered method of its application. This increases the productivity of herbs by 6-11%, the content of raw protein in the phytomass by 0.3-1.1% and reduces the amount of nitrates by 7-16%.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):36-38
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Maximum humus horizon thickness as a criterion for identifying the soil standards of the plain Сrimea
Ergina E.I., Gorbunov R.V., Stashkina E.F.
Abstract

When identifying the main categories of soil in the structure of the regional Red Book of soils, it is necessary to focus on typical soils formed taking into account the zonal soil-ecological conditions of the territory. The criterion for the extraction of soil standards can be the initial, pre-agrogenic thickness of the humus horizon, which fully realizes the soil-forming potential of natural factors of climax full-profile soils. But the search for such sites is associated with a number of methodological difficulties. A way out of this situation can be a mathematical modeling of the formation of the humus horizon of soils, which allows you to quantify the legitimacy of the allocation of soil standards in the structure of the Red Book of soils of the Crimea. The proposed method allows going to the cartographic models for determining the maximum thickness of the humus horizon. Analysis of the presented material allows asserting that in the majority of modern soils of agricultural lands of the Crimea, the profiles are destroyed by 30% compared with the calculated maximum thickness of the humus horizon, which takes into account the zonal soil formation processes. That predetermines the search for soil standards only in areas that did not function previously in agrogenic conditions, most often, these are protected areas that take into account the peculiarities of the zonal process of soil formation.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):39-42
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Animal husbandry
Biocorrection enzymatic and microbiological processes in the rumen, intermediate metabolism of sheep by applying to the feeding of oxidant and organic iodine
Fomichev Y.P., Bogolyubova N.V., Mishurov A.V., Rykov R.A.
Abstract

The inclusion of dihydroquercetin – antioxidant in the diet of sheep separately and in combination with organic iodine had a significant pronounced effect in accordance with their biological properties on enzymatic and microbiological processes in the rumen, intermediate metabolism and resistance of the sheep organism, which characterizes them as important functional additives to diets of directed action. Under the influence of dihydroquercetin (DKV) in combination with organic iodine (OJ) in the rumen, a slight increase in the pH of the chemical was observed with an increase in its oxidation, +ORP, ammonia content and the number of microorganisms, mainly due to infusoria. When included in the diet of one DKV normalized pH himus, decreased its oxidation, increased –ORP, increased the number of microorganisms due to both infusoria and bacteria. At the same time, there was a decrease in the content of VFA and ammonia in the himus. These substances had a significant impact on the microbiota of the scar. Under the action of DKV+OJ in the rumen content, the number of lactobacilli increased 10 times, Kmafanm 4 times, decreased the number of ectoparasiticides sticks at 98.9%, the number of fungi of the genus Candida, mold and yeast 65.3% and only under the influence of DKV, the number of lactobacilli increased 11.5 times, Kmafanm 21 times, fell ectoparasiticides sticks to 92,2 %, the number of fungi, moulds and yeasts, on the contrary, increased in 2.2 times. Under the action of DKV+OJ in blood serum there was an increase in the content of globulins and a decrease in triglycerides, bilirubin and, respectively, the activity of ALT and AST, and under the action of only DKV there was an increase in serum albumins while reducing globulins, resulting in А/G ratio of 0.99. There was also a decrease in triglycerides and bilirubin and, respectively, ALT and AST activity. DKV+OJ and DKV separately reduced the number of leukocytes in the blood by 22.7 and 27.1%, increased the number of red blood cells by 13.9 and 16.5% and hematocrit, respectively, indicating an improvement in sheep health.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):43-47
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Effects of biologically active substances in the pre- and postprandial period on the biochemical parameters of the blood in laying hens
Vertiprakhov V.G., Grozina A.A., Borisenko K.V.
Abstract

The paper presents the results of biochemical blood tests in chicken Hisex White, 46 weeks of age when biologically active substances are added to the diet: an enzyme preparation (Axtra PRO, 100 g/t), an acidulant containing fumaric acid (Menacid 330, 100 g/t), flavor enhancer (Garlic allicin, 100 g/t). It was established that biochemical blood parameters in the experimental period do not have significant deviations from the control, with the exception of alkaline phosphatase activity, which decreases when the protease is added to the feed by 47.8%. An increase in lipase activity is observed by 66.7% with the addition of an acidulant to the feed and by 45.8% – a flavor enhancer. It should be noted that of all the studied parameters, the activity of trypsin is the most labile in the postprandial phase, in some cases lipases and glucose content, which increase respectively compared to the state before feeding 1.7-2.1 times, by 35.7% and by 20.0-21.0%.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):48-51
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The change in the functional status of native and cryopreserved spermatozoa of bulls under the influence of caffeine
Chistyakova I.V., Kuzmina T.I., Denisenko V.Y.
Abstract

The aim of the study is to study the effect of caffeine on the functional status of native and thawed bovine spermatozoa. Incubation of intact non-frozen bovine spermatozoa during 4 hours with caffeine increased the number of capacitated and acrosome-reactive cells, while the incubation in the presence of combination prolactin/ guanosine triphosphate did not affect the proportion of uncapacitated, capacitateded, and acrosome-reactive cells. Pre-incubation of spermatozoa and the subsequent freezing led to the increase in number of capacitated spermatozoa and acrosome-reactive cells in thawed samples, incubated with the caffeine, and there was no effect on functional status of spermatozoa incubated with prolactin and guanosine triphosphate. Thus, pre-incubation of spermatozoa before freezing with the caffeine altered their functional status after thawing (the decrease in the number of capacitated cells), while the combined action of prolactin and guanosine triphosphate did not affect indicator. 

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):52-54
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Veterinary science
Studying the harmlessness of triolact in experiment on white rats
Shabunin S.V., Vostroilova G.A., Parshin P.A., Korchagina A.A., Grigorieva N.A., Khokhlova N.A.
Abstract

The aim of the research was to study the effect of the complex antimicrobial drug Triolact on blood morphological and biochemical parameters of white rats in a subacute experiment. It was established in the course of the experiment that the dose of 500.0 mg/kg is the threshold dose, and 100.0 mg/kg is the maximum no-effect dose. Triolact does not have a negative effect on the clinical status, morphological and biochemical parameters of animal blood  in case of repeated intragastric administration for 14 days in doses of 100.0 mg/kg and 250.0 mg/kg both during the application of the drug and in the recovery period. The changes caused by the dose of 500.0 mg/kg are reversible (increase of α-globulin level by 6.9%, creatinine - by 22.9% and urea - by 15.1%), as these indicators in experienced animals returned to normal within the 10 days recovery period. It can be concluded that the  determination of the toxic dose in the format of the present experiment was failed, taking into account the morphometric analysis, macro- and microscopic examination of organs, and studying the morphological picture of blood and biochemical parameters.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):55-58
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Healing of induced previous damage to skin under the influence of autological cells stromal-vascular fraction
Slesarenko N.A., Borhunova E.N., Vologjanina N.V.
Abstract

In the experiment on Guinea pigs, the course of reparative skin regeneration after application of a flap wound under the influence of cellular suspensions from autologous stromal vascular fraction was studied. The material was investigated by clinical observation, light - optical studies of biopsy material, macro-and microscopic morphometry. Cell material was obtained by liposuction from the withers of the animal. Autologous adipose tissue was used to prepare a cell suspension containing a set of cells (fibroblasts, pericytes, acrophages, fat cells, endothelial cells) that make up the stromal-vascular fraction. The findings suggest that the use of cellular product leads to faster (compared with the control) healing of the defect, the formation of regenerate, morphologically similar to the surrounding intact skin. In the structure of the regenerate microscopically found restoration of the structural zones of the skin: the epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat. In the Central part of the regenerate, a small portion of the scar structure was preserved, the area of which is significantly less than that of the control analogues. Thus, the use of cellular products enhances the processes of reparative regeneration and is an effective way of therapeutic effects in the treatment of skin wounds.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):59-62
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Prognostic usefulness of changes in hemostatic parameters of dogs with parvoviral enteritis
Baruzdina E.S., Soboleva E.N.
Abstract

The aim of the work was to study the prognostic usefulness of changes  in hemostatic parameters of dogs with parvoviral enteritis.Compared the results of a study of the blood of the dead (n = 4) and the surviving dogs (n = 11) on days 3 and 5 of illness between 2 and 6 months of age among themselves and with the results of blood tests of healthy dogs in the control group (n = 10).On the 3rd day of the disease, we can identify as markers of an unfavorable prognosis a decrease in platelet count to 285,97±14,84х109/L, an increase inMPV to 8,5±1,7 fl and PCT to 0,53±0,02%, an increase in SIAP with ADP to 131,67±9,28% and ristomycin to 127,77±14,71%, a decrease in disaggregation with ADP to1,03±1,03% and ristomycin to 0,08±0,08%, an increase in the amount of fibrinogen to 5,2±0,49 g/l  and SFMC to 12,97±1,15 mg/100ml along with a decrease in the activity of antithrombin to 105,3±3,16%.On the 5th day of illness, such parameters as a progressive decrease in platelet count to227±15,64 х109/L  are associated with a decrease in the MPV to 5,5±1,2 fl  and PCT to 0,21±0,03%, a decrease in SIAP with ADP to 31,67±12,03%, collagen to 15,53±4,26%  and ristomycin to14,8±5,6%, reduction of disaggregation with all inductors, lengthening of PT from14,17±0,24  to18,5±2,9 sec., TT from9,07±0,58  to 26,37±1,57 sec. and APTT from18,03±1,54 to 26,37±1,57 sec., increase in SFMC to17,3±1,17mg/100ml, a decrease in fibrinogen to 2,73±0,89g/l  and antithrombin activity to 88,63±14,93%.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):63-66
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Storage and processing of agricultural produce
Textural properties of dough and sensory characteristics of bread enriched with crushed seeds of the safflower
Kutsenkova V.S., Nepovinnykh N.V., Andreeva L.V., Qingbin G.
Abstract

Bread is most popular product among population. Nowadays more people refuse traditional wheat bread in favor of bakery products with various functional additives. Safflower seeds as a non-traditional vegetable additive is rich in high-grade vegetable protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (including linoleic and linolenic acids), dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. In this work, bread fortified with crushed safflower seeds were developed with the recipe as follows: wheat flour (564 g), safflower seeds (60 g), salt (10 g), yeast (54 g), vegetable oil (13 g), sugar (35 g), drinking water (284 g). Effects of addition of safflower seeds on texture properties of dough and the sensory properties of bread were evaluated as well. Results indicated that wheat flour fortified with 10 % safflower seeds showed 7 % lower of the water-absorbing capacity than that of the control sample (no safflower substituted), which is explained by the hydrophobicity of safflower seeds due to the high fat content. Change of rheological parameters of experimental sample was found due to specific chemical composition of safflower seeds. In terms of the quality of the bread, the safflower fortified bread had smooth, crack-free surface, uniform color and light yellow color in the fracture, taste and smell are peculiar to this type of product, with a pleasant subtle flavor and flavor of safflower seeds. In addition, the porosity, acidity, form stability and humidity of the novel bread were also increased, as compared to the control sample. Novel safflower seed fortified bread has been developed with better flavor and appearance. The processing conditions for this bread were determined as well.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):67-72
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Mechanisation
New design universal working bodies of tillage and seeding equipment
Lachuga Y.F., Akhalaya B.K., Shogenov Y.K.
Abstract

New designs of tillage and seeding equipment are presented. Technological and technical deficiencies of the existing working bodies for surface tillage and sowing techniques of row crops are noted. To eliminate the shortcomings, new universal working bodies of tillage and sowing units have been proposed, which provide for the mechanization and automation of working processes of tillage and seeding of various row crops. Their technological and technical advantages over the existing traditional working bodies are given. The technical characteristics of the new working bodies are presented, which allow to simultaneously perform four operations: cultivation, fissure, seeding and leveling the field surface. Execution of the sieve in the form of two discs with rollers on its inner surface allows cutting a slit along the sides from the vertical axis of seed placement, at a depth of almost twice the sowing depth to improve the water-air regime, with simultaneous compaction of the soil by the rollers. The final operation to level the soil across the entire width of the cultivator's paw grip is carried out by embedding a train. Also presented is the design of a modernized pneumatic sowing unit for various sowing methods, ensuring the simultaneous sowing of seeds of several types of row crops with their placement at different planting depth in accordance with agrotechnical requirements

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(4):73-76
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