No 5 (2019)

Plant growing
Usage of the tissue culture method for the development of new forms of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
Barsukova E.N., Klykov A.G., Chikina E.L.

The article presents results of usage of the tissue culture method on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) together with the selective factor – increased concentrations of heavy metal ions in the nutrient medium. On the basis of Izumrud (Russia), Kitavase (Japan), hybrid Izumrud x Kitavase there were developed regenerant lines tolerant to copper and zinc. Negative action effect of copper ions was observed from the second generation in the second posterity of the plants-regenerants, developed from the callus, in the form of the chlorophyll-free mutants. Positive effect of the heavy metals was observed on increasing of rutin content of the plants-regenerants in vitro. Selective evaluation in the field conditions of the samples tolerant to heavy metal let to choose from them the most adaptive to monsoon conditions in Primorskykrai, which combine valuable traits of big grain (weight of 1000 grains – 36-38 g), high seed productivity (1,9-3,2 g) and high rutin content in aboveground mass of plants (2,8-4,3 %).

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):3-6
Growing season and productivity of covered oats
Krotova N.V., Batalova G.A., Changzhong R., Zhuravleva G.P.

Under conditions of the Volga-Vyatka region, which is characterized with the short cool growing season with unstable mode of moistening, 136 acces-sions of covered oats are studied in 2016-2018 on duration of growing sea-son and productivity for the purpose of specification of their classification by precocity, selection of sources for use in breeding on adaptability. Groups of genotypes are determined by precocity: early - the growing season is 65 - 80 days, mid-season – 74-88 days, middle-late - 79-93 days, late-ripening – 80-103 days. It is established that duration of period «seedlings - wax ripeness» is stable in these groups; correlation coefficients in pairs between 2016, 2017 and 2018 years of researches were significant positive (r = 0.60-0.87). The index of productivity was less stable; the dependence of productivity on the growing season varied from weak to average significant (r = 0.25-0.45). The mid-season sources are selected forming stable productivity regardless of a condition of agro-climatic resources: k-3624 II-4032-15C-8C-1C-OC, k-3717 CEV/OBS/PAR, and k-3754 AGA/ESM/SAI//CHI/OBS

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):7-10
Relationships between the main indicators of technological qualities of grain brewing barley and food oats at fractionalization
Pasynkov A.V., Zavalin A.A., Pasynkova E.N., Skorobogatykh N.A., Kotel`nikov N.V.

The range of variability (min – maх) and variability of the main indicators of the technological qualities of grain different fractions of brewing barley varieties Bios 1 (selected in the «Podmoskovie» Science and Production Association) and hulled oats Argamak (selected in the N.V. Rudnitsky North-East agricultural research institute) and their (quality indicators) dependencies between themselves and the yield value is established. To the maximum extent (at largest coefficient of variation - V, %), the fractionation of brewing barley grain and hulled oats varies the 1000-grain weight and the protein content, the minimum is the test weight of both grain crops, extractivity of barley and hull of oats. A wide variation of the mass of 1000-grain weight and the protein content of the grain during fractionation makes it possible to significantly regulate them in the desired direction compared to such indicators as test weight, extractivity and hull of oats. The relationships between the main indicators of the technological qualities of brewing barley grain and hulled oats when fractionated on standard sieves with oblong holes are presented and discussed. A significant negative relationship was found between the extractivity and the protein content in the grain of different fractions of brewing barley. However, both of the studied cultures did not reveal any statistically significant dependencies of the test weight of the grain on the protein content in the grain of different fractions. The dependencies of the content of extractivity in the barley grain, the protein content in the grain and test weight of both the studied cultures and of 1000-grain weight have a complex non-linear character. It is shown that in most cases the dependencies between the main indicators of the technological qualities of barley and oats grains are most accurately (at largest R2) described by second-order equations with clearly defined extremum points that are within the experimental data obtained. Regardless of the folding hydrothermal conditions of the growing season, between the protein content in the grain of different fractions of brewing barley and hulled oats and their (fractions) yield, no statistically significant dependencies were found.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):11-16
Molecular markers of genes for extreme resistance to potato virus Y in varieties and hybrids Solanum tuberosum L.
Biryukova V.A., Shmiglya I.V., Zharova V.A., Beketova M.P., Rogozina E.V., Mityushkin A.V., Meleshin A.A.

Potato virus Y (PVY) are among the most harmful viral pathogens that reduce the yield and quality of potatoes. The number of modern varieties resistant to a wide range of PVY strains is very limited, therefore, the selection of potatoes in this direction does not become irrelevant. Molecular markers of the Ry genes are universal tools for identifying new sources of resistance among existing biodiversity of potato genotypes. Since potato varieties and hybrids containing Rysto tend to exhibit cytoplasmic male sterility associated with γ mitochondrial DNA, the definition of cytoplasmic types is important. In the article, molecular markers of the Ry genes — YES3-3A, YES3-3B, RYSC3, Ry186 were used for screening foreign and Russian varieties and hybrids potatoes from the collections of Lorch Potato Research Institute and N.I.Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources. Molecular screening and analysis of рedigree revealed that russian varieties and hybrids of potatoes characterized by extreme resistance to PVY were obtained on the basis of foreign varieties Alwara, Arosa, Bison, Bobr, Roko, as well as backcrosses of the Hungarian selection – donors of the Rysto gene linked to cytoplasmic male sterility, and forms 128/6 – a donor of the Ryadg gene, derived from S. stoloniferum. The marker RYSC3 coupled to Ryadg was found in interspecies hybrids of N.I.Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources – 8-1-2004, 8-3-2004, 8-5-2004, 135-5-2005, 135-3-2005, having the same origin with the participation of S. okadae species K-20921 Hawkes et Hjerting and S. chacoense K-19759 Bitt. The marker Ry186 of the gene Rychc is rare. It is present in 5% of the potato genotypes. Molecular screening revealed samples of potatoes with markers of the Ry genes. They are of particular interest for further breeding. Data on the presence of Ry markers of genes in potato varieties and hybrids, serve as valuable information in the selection of initial forms for hybridization.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):17-22
Intensification of the breeding process and acceleration of the introduction of apple cultivars into production
Sedov E.N.

Russian Research Institute of Fruit Crop Breeding (VNIISPK) is the main supplier of new apple cultivars for the middle zone of Russia. 54 zoned apple cultivars of different dates of maturing have been created at the Institute and included in the State Register of breeding achievements. The reasons of a very long period from the beginning of the breeding process (hybridization) to the wide introduction of a cultivar into broad production are considered in this pa-per. Examples of acceleration and intensification of the breeding process are given. If in 1950s at VNIISPK it took 39-49 years (43, on the average) from the hybridization to transfer a cultivar to the State Register, then in 1980s-1990s it took just 18-23 years (21, on the average). The techniques and methods of reducing this period are given in this paper. Often not less period passes from the inclusion of a cultivar in the State Register (zoning) before introduction of a cultivar in wide production. To reduce this period, it is proposed in the original institution to lay plots of small production cultivar testing of 20-30 trees in each of the 3 repetitions (60-90 trees) for each new cultivar and the control cultivar simultaneously with the transfer of a cultivar to the State Register.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):23-26
Resistance of raspberry caltivars to temperature stress factors of the winter period
Evdokimenko S.N., Sazonov F.F., Danilova A.A., Podgaetsky M.A., Mironova N.V.

The results of researches of winter hardiness cultivars and selected forms of raspberry in the field and laboratory conditions have been presented. The study was conducted in FSBSI All-Russia STIHNG and its Kokino Base Station (Bryansk region). The objects of research were 20 cultivars and 10 selected forms of raspberry of various genetic-geographical origin. The main purpose of the work was to study the resistance of cultivars and selected forms of raspberry to temperature stress factors of the winter period and the identification of the most winter-hardy genotypes. As a result, it was established that the cultivars Peresvet, Bal’zam, Beglyanka, Rubin Bryanski and nine selected forms showed high field winter hardiness. When modeling damaging winter factors, it was revealed, that the cultivars Gusar, Lazarevskaya, Vol’nitsa, Meteor and selected forms 32-16-1, 1-15-1, 1-2-2, 6-12-2 well tolerated frost-35°C in the middle of winter. The cultivars Gusar, Meteor, Vol’nitsa and selected forms 32-16-1, 1-4-2, 1-15-1, 1-2-2, 2-12-1 distinguished by reliable resistance to component III of winter hardiness. Among the studied raspberry assortment, the genotypes with a high level of bud resistance to IV component of winter hardiness were not revealed.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):27-31
Plants defence
Preparations used in the fight against wireworms and aphids on potato
Dolzhenko O.V., Shorokhov M.N., Krivchenko O.A.

In the North-West region of the Russian Federation, studies have been conducted to study the biological efficacy of combination products in the fight against wireworms and aphids - carriers of viruses on potatoes. Studied the effectiveness of new products not yet included in the State catalog of pesticides: Bombard, CS (130+90+60 g/l), Wibrans Max, CS (262.5+25+25 g/l), as well as combined insecticides - by spraying during the growing season - Dexter, KS (115+106 g/l) and Eforia, KS (106+141 g/l). These preparations provide effective protection of potatoes against wireworms and aphids and can be recommended for use after their state registration and inclusion in the State Catalog of pesticides and agrochemicals permitted for use on the territory of the Russian Federation.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):32-36
Development of a new algorithm for obtaining highly effective bio-fertilizer from mixtures of peat and bird droppings
Rabinovich G.Y.

VNIIMZ has long and fruitfully been working on the creation of bio-fertilizers and multifunctional bio drugs produced by the method of directional bioconversion. This article reflects the innovative elements of a fundamentally new technology for producing promising bio-fertilizers. The development of a new bioconversion algorithm for peat and bird droppings mixtures was aimed at creating a competitive bio-fertilizer with favorable acidity, a high number of agronomically beneficial microflora, the presence of nutrients in a form available for plants and microflora, and was done by choosing the most effective bioconversion process. Compared 3 different process parameters, laid three times. Their assessment was carried out according to the content in the initial peat and bird droppings mixtures and in the final products (variants of the biological fertilizer) ammonifying and amylolytic microorganisms, sanitary indicative microflora (enterobacteria), fungi, actinomycetes, on the activity of oxidoreductases, on the level of agrochemical parameters. The algorithm for conducting the fermentation process includes acid hydrolysis of the initial mixture and two temperature stages. At the first stage, proceeding at 55-60ºС within 24 hours, the necessary ecological bio-fertilizer is achieved, characterized by a minimum of sanitary and representative microflora - enterobacteria and low content of spoilage microorganisms - fungal flora. At the second stage of bioconversion, occurring at a temperature of 36-39 ºС for 96 hours, the microflora actively develops, participating when using this fertilizer in the formation of soil structure, a high level of its effective fertility. During the development process, the choice was made of the option of conducting a fermentation process, which differs from the others by a higher content of agronomically beneficial microflora, a minimum of microorganisms of the genus Enterobacter and a high content of key nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) for plant growth.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):37-40
The impact of anthropogenically -controlled factors on the formation of root mass and yield of rice under drip irrigation in the lower volga region
Kruzhilin I.P., Dubenok N.N., Ganiev M.A., Rodin K.A., Nevezhina A.B.

The results of studies on the influence of water or nutrient regimes of the soil on the formation of the root system of rice when watering drip system. Thus, while maintaining the water regime of the soil not less than 80% of HB in the 0.6 m layer, the root mass was in the three years in the 0.4 m layer – 4.96, and 0.6 m - 5.64 t/ha. In the variant where soil moisture was maintained at least 80% HB and the depth of soil wetting until the end of the tillering phase by 0.4 with a further decrease to 0.6 m, the plants differed in maximum foliage and habitus, which contributed to an increase in the root mass of aerobic rice in the layer of 0.4 m to 5.40, and in the layer of 0.6 m – 6.14 t/ha. In the variant of the water regime of the soil with a moisture content of not less than 80% HB from sowing to the end of the tillering phase in a layer of 0.4 m, followed by a decrease to 0.6 m, and from wax to full ripeness of grain not less than 70% HB the volume of roots compared to the second option for three years in a layer of 0.4 m became less by 0.18 t/ha, and in a layer of 0.6 – 0.20 t/ha, but more than the first in a layer of 0.4 m by 0.26 m and 0.6 m – 0.30 t/ha. Also had a great influence on the root system of aerobic rice. Thus, its lowest value, 5.46 t/ha for the three years, was formed when making N95P62K75 (5 t/ha). Making N114P74K90 (6 t/ha) increased root weight by 0.48 t/ha regarding the N95P62K75 dose (5 t/ha), but was below making N137P90K108 (7 t/ha) – 0.60 t/ha. In the result of the conducted researches it was established that maximum yield of grain (of 6.95 t/ha) was obtained in variant water regime of soil 80% of NV in layers of 0.4 and 0.6 m, making N137P90K108 (7 t/ha). The minimum yield, 4.88 t/ha, was obtained in the variant of soil water regime of 80% of NV in a layer of 0.6 m with the introduction of N95P62K75 (5 t/ha).

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):41-43
Animal husbandry
Sorption of metals on glauconite in conditions of gastrointestinal tract of calves
Filippova O.B., Kiiko E.I., Maslova N.I.

The ion-exchange properties of the enterosorbent prepared on the basis of a modified concentrate (50%) of glauconite from the Bondar deposit were studied under conditions of passage of calves through the gastrointestinal tract.Chemical modification of the mineral was carried out by transfer to the Na-form.Experienced calves daily for 6 and 9 days fed enterosorbent in the amount of 0.2 g/kg body weight. The character of excretion with excrement of metal ions accumulated on the active surface of glauconite was studied. The results of the assessment of its sorption capacity in relation to Ni (toxicant), Cu (micronutrient) and Ca (macronutrient) are presented.The sorbent showed high efficiency against nickel - up to 60% of the total amount is excreted from animals. With respect to copper, average efficiency (13%). The sorbent accumulates in the digestive tract of animals for 3-4 days.Under the conditions of copper deficiency in the ration feed, this contributes to its better assimilation from inorganic forms. Feeding animals with an enterosorbent at the indicated dose does not affect the excretion of calcium from their bodies.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):44-48
Predisposition to nasal bleeding in horses
Glazko V.I., Erkenov T.A., Alrafy R., Glazko T.T.

The predisposition of horses to nasal bleeding significantly affects their performance and requires special control especially in the breeding work aimed at improving the breed, improving its working qualities. One of the causes of such bleeding is spontaneous nucleotide substitutions in the D'-D3 domain of von Willebrand factor. In this paper, the presence and distribution of mutations in the domain D'-D3 of this factor is analyzed (c.2826 A>C in exon 22, leading to the replacement of lysine by asparagine) in Russian horse breeds (Russian Trotter, Russian Saddle horse, Russian Heavyweight, Altai, Karachai horse breeds).The highest frequency of this replacement was found in the Russian Trotter and Russian Heavyweight. To clarify the possible relationship of the spread of this mutation with the population-genetic relationship between horse breeds on 26 fragments of genomic DNA, flanked by inverted repeats sections of microsatellites (GA)9C, (AG)9C and (GAG)6C (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats – ISSR-PCR markers) polylocus genotyping was performed, genetic distances were calculated and corresponding dendrograms were constructed. It turned out that the prevalence of the detected mutation is not related to the population-genetic proximity of breeds. However, given the fact that historically in the formation of the Russian Trotter and Russian Heavyweight took part Orel horse breed, it is possible that the high frequency of this mutation in the Russian Trotter and the Russian Heavyweight may be due to its presence in the group of Oryol horses that are the source for these breeds.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):49-53
The use of granules of food protein concentrated non hydrolyzed at growing piglets
Lugovoi M.M., Kapitonova E.A., Habibulina N.V.

This article presents a study of the effectiveness of concentrated non-hydrolyzed feed protein granules (CNHPG) on the productivity dynamics and the quality final prod-ucts when included in the diets of suckling pigs and weaned piglets. Concentrated non-hydrolyzed feed protein granules represent a new type of soy protein concentrate free from antibiotics, hormonal remedies and GMOs. This feed supplement can be included either individually to the basic ration or into the composition of mixed feeds as the main highly digestible protein source with the original amino acid composition. The results of the research showed that CNHPG contribute to an increase in piglets average daily gain of 2.0-2.7%, reduce feed costs for obtaining a unit of production by 0.1-0.3 kg, as well as an additional gross gain in body weight from 8.2% to 14.6%

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):54-57
Veterinary science
Endogenous intoxication markers of deep-pregnant cows as predictors of pneumonia in newborn calves
Kalaeva E.A., Chernitsky A.E., Kalaev V.N., Alhamed M.

The aim of the work was to analyze the indices of endogenous intoxication in deep-pregnant cows and to identify the possibilities of their use as predictors of bronchopulmonary pathology in newborn calves. 29 cows were examined for 239-262 days of gestation and 29 newborn calves of the red-and-white Holstein breed. Bronchitis developed in all calves during the first month of life, and in 7 newborns it was complicated by pneumonia. Markers of endogenous intoxication of cows were analyzed: total and effective albumin concentration, serum MMP content, Kalf-Kalif leukocyte index of intoxication (LII); toxicity index (IT), the ratio of intoxication (CI). The MMP level in cows whose calves did not develop pneumonia was 0.408±0.152 units. Cows whose calves developed pneumonia showed a significantly higher content of SMP (0.615±0.977 units, p <0.05). Correlation between the concentration of the MMP and the probability of pneumonia (rs=0.536, p<0.005) was found. The leukocyte intoxication index of Kalf-Kalif and the toxicity index (IT) in both groups of cows varied significantly; no differences between groups were found. The coefficient of intoxication in cows whose calves developed pneumonia (CI=26.5±8.4), statistically significantly (p<0.05) exceeded CI in cows whose offspring had uncomplicated bronchitis (CI=17.2±6,8). Correlation between the CI in cows and pneumonia in their offspring (rs = 0.568, p <0.001) was found. The content of the MMP in blood of pregnant cows can serve as a predictor of pneumonia in newborn calves (AUC=0.782, sensitivity – 85.71%, specificity – 81.82%, critical value > 0.547 units). The diagnostic value of the CI predictor is rated as very good (AUC=0.812); sensitivity – 71.43%, specificity – 86.36%, critical value > 22.5. The concentration of SMP in the blood of cows and CI in the period of gestation allows us to predict the development of bronchopulmonary pathology in their offspring with high accuracy.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):58-62
The influence of genetic and immunologic factors on indicators of innate immunity daughters
Eryomina M.A., Ezdakova I.Y.

The aim of the research is to study the influence of genetic and immunological factors of bulls on the immunological parameters of daughters at razdoe (from the first lactation to the second). The object of research was cows-daughters of bulls, previously evaluated by genetic and immunological indicators. It was revealed based on the survey findings that in the cows in group II in the period of the second lactation, the lymphocyte and basophil concentrations decreased by 9.23% (р≤0.05) and 1.54% (р≤0.05), respectivley, while the monocyte concentration increased by 6.23% (р≤0.001). It may be related with an increase in the animal body compensatory responses at the reference-type parameter of the neutrophils’ phagocytic activity reduced by 10.7% (р≤0.05) and 14.6% (р≤0.05) for the animals in group I and group II, respectively. With respect to the animals in group II, the negative relationships between the lymphcyte and monocyte counts in the first lactation and the neutrophil and eosinophil counts in the second lactation, comprising -0.501 (р≤0.05) and -0.567 (р≤0.05), respectively, were ascertained. The less quantity of the significant relationships in group I can indicate the less intense state of the immune system in the daughters of the bull sires, which are characterized with the steady-state genetic and immunological parameters, in the period of increasing the milking frequency early in lactation (from the first to second lactations), what can serve as an additional criterion, given the consolidation in the offspring of sires stable indicators of animal health.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):63-66
Changes of indises of fresh and deconserved sperm of stallions after their vaccination against Siberian plague
Naumenkova V.A., Kalinova A.V.

The aim of the work is to find out the influence of vaccination of stallions against Siberian plague on the sperm quality and its criostability. Vaccination of stallions against Siberian plague led to the decrease of the sperm quality.During the first week productivity of sperm decreased in 10%. In freshly diluted sperm mobility decreased on average 12%, survival – on 38% (Р>0,99), membrane safety - on 20 % (Р>0,95). Recovery was observed not earlier than in 28 days. Particularly sharply vaccination affected the sperm quality after crioconservation: sperm mobility decreased on average 35 % (Р>0,99), survival – on 45% (Р>0,99), membrane safety – on 46 % (Р>0,99). Rejection of sperm doses in post-vaccination period were 50% because of the decrease of quality below normative level. Number of pathological types of sperm increased in 45 days after vaccination: on 27% (Р>0,95) in fresh sperm and in 34% (Р>0,99) in deconserved. In case of cryoconservation of stallions’ sperm it is necessary to take into account the recovery period of antiepizootic measures.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):67-70
Improvement of the soybean harvesting process as a way to increase the quality of seeds
Prisyazhnaya I.M., Snegovsky M.O., Prisyazhnaya S.P.

The quality of seeds is the most important factor in increasing the yield of agricultural crops, including soybean. However, on the average, up to 20–25% of soybean seeds, sown in the Amur re-gion, are substandard. At the same time, one of the main reasons for the decline in the quality of seed material is significant crushing and damage of soybean during harvesting and processing. Up to 10 different marks of combines, which allow a high degree of crushing of bunker grain, are used in harvesting soybean in the Amur region. The crushing of grain by combines of different marks varies in the range from 6,9 to 15,1 percent. Combines of Russian and foreign production are mainly single-drum by design and collect the threshed soybean grain in one bunker, while they do not separate seeds according to the biological diversity inherent in soybean. As a result, soybean yield losses reach 2,7-3,3 c/ha. In order to reduce grain losses from the crushing and obtaining high-quality seeds, a new device, based on a two-stage threshing combine with double-flow cleaning and with two bunkers, has been developed. The study of the operating modes of the threshing and separating device for threshing, separation and damage of soybean seeds along the length of the combine thresher was carried out in order to select and preserve the part of the biologically valuable and high-quality soybean seeds from the crushing during combine harvesting of soybean with reduced grain moisture (less than 12%). The conducted research with the use of the complete factorial experiment method and processing the results made it possible to create mathematical models of separation and seed damage, on the basis of which a nomogram was built to determine separation and the content of damaged soybean seeds, which are obtained in the zone of the first drum, depending on the techno-logical adjustments of the threshing apparatus, grain feed and grain moisture.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;(5):71-75

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