Vol 12, No 4 (2022)


Innovative solutions in the design of waste disposal systems for multi-storey buildings

Zhigulina A.Y., Ponomarenko A.M.


The article is devoted to the problem of creating rational and efficient systems of waste disposal and waste disposal in modern cities and is considered as part of the global problem of rational consumption of the planet’s material resources. The relevance of the development of modern methods for the collection and disposal of waste is due to the catastrophic pace of their increase on a global scale and the obvious irrationality of their burial and incineration. The advantages and disadvantages of traditional and modern improved waste disposal systems for buildings are considered. Conclusions are drawn about the need to form a systematic approach to the disposal of municipal solid waste, as well as the need to create and widely introduce modern waste disposal systems into the practice of urban construction. The introduction of such systems can be interpreted as one of the steps towards rational environmental management.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):4-10
pages 4-10 views

Search for the optimal section area annular section ecentrally compressed elements of reinforcement

Mordovsky S.S., Frantseva D.O.


This article deals with the search for the optimal cross-sectional area of reinforcement of eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete elements of an annular section using the Mathcad software package. The determination of the optimal cross-sectional area of the reinforcement is carried out using the implementation of algorithms for finding the minimum that meets the requirements of the strength and stability of reinforced concrete elements. An analysis of the obtained data is given by comparison with the problem solved in the Handbook to SP 63.13330. The developed programs make it possible to save the designer’s time when choosing the reinforcement section and checking the strength and stability of reinforced concrete elements.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):11-14
pages 11-14 views

Full-scale load testing of prefabricated combined floor of residential building built of the early 1950s

Shepelev A.P., Ibatullin R.R., Pishulev A.A.


A detailed full-scale survey of building structures was carried out as a part of scientific and technical support on changing the functional purpose of building premises built in the 1950s. The purpose of the technical condition survey was to assess the bearing capacity of structures and develop conditions for mechanical building safety. Special attention was paid to the study of floor-to-floor overlapping. Over a long period of operation, numerous changes were made to the original structural solution of the building. These changes transformed the design scheme of static work of structures, floors in particular. Due to the multifactorial and difficult-to-control conditions, it wasn’t easy to determine the actual bearing capacity of the overlaps with the required degree of reliability using the existing calculation methods. Therefore, in order to confirm the proposed design assumptions, full-scale tests of the overlaps were carried out by loading, which confirmed their bearing capacity determined by the calculation. The conducted field tests made it possible to avoid expensive reinforcement of structures and extend the building life.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):15-24
pages 15-24 views


Extraction of petroleum products from wastewater by natural sorbents of the Arctic

Vialkova E.I.


Oil and gas production in the Yamal-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrugs has an adverse impact on the ecological state of the Arctic. In order to prevent pollution of northern water bodies with oil products, local natural materials (peat, moss and reindeer moss) are considered as sorbents. Sorption isotherms were constructed for different initial concentrations of the pollutant (250.50 and 0.5 mg/dm3); regularities of changes in the intensity of sorption of oil products are determined. The sorbents were modified by microwave radiation, which had a noticeable positive effect on reindeer moss samples. Based on the data of a laboratory experiment, the design parameters of filter cassettes were calculated. Efficiency and low cost suggest the economic feasibility of using these materials in wastewater treatment technologies.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):25-33
pages 25-33 views

Methodological approaches to assessing the efficiency of operation of gravity drainage networks with deposits in the tray part of pipes

Prodous O.A., Shlyichkov D.I.


Purpose: On the basis of methodological approaches to assessing the efficiency of operation of gravity drainage pipelines made of polymer materials with deposits in the tray part of pipes, to develop a sequence of hydraulic calculation of pipes with deposits and a methodology for evaluating the efficiency of their operation by the value of the hydraulic efficiency coefficient of the network.

Methods: Based on the developed sequence of hydraulic calculation of drainage pipes made of polymer materials with deposits in their tray part, establish the procedure for calculating the values of the actual characteristics of the hydraulic potential of polymer pipes, which allows calculating for the example given the value of the coefficient of hydraulic efficiency of network operation, according to which a decision is made on the possibility of continuing its further operation.

Results: Analysis of the values of the hydraulic characteristics of new pipes and polymer pipes with deposits in their tray part, for the example given, allowed us to establish significant discrepancies in their values. This made it possible to calculate the value of the hydraulic efficiency coefficient of the pipeline to make a decision on the possibility of continuing further operation.

Conclusion: For the specific conditions of the task, a sequence of hydraulic calculation of pipes made of polymer materials with deposits in their tray part has been developed. It is proposed to conduct special studies on pipes made of different types of materials with deposits in their tray part to establish acceptable values of the thickness of the sediment layer in the tray part of the pipes for subsequent assessment of the possibility of their further operation.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):34-41
pages 34-41 views

Quantitative characteristics of surface runoff from railway tracks

Teplykh S.Y.


Analysis is carried out and the nature of surface runoff filtration in the ballast prism of the railway track is considered, as well as options for water migration in the upper and lower structure of the ballast prism are considered. The formula of flow rate of rain, melt and filtration runoff is obtained. The formula for surface runoff consumption from the railway track was clarified, and the total surface runoff flow rates for the areas of railway transport facilities were determined. It was found that when surface water seeps through the upper and lower structures of the path. Two lateral ejections occur. The proposed methodology for determining the flow rates of surface runoff from railway tracks allows using an adapted methodology proposed not for residential zones, which is relevant for 90% of the railway bed located in the Russian Federation, in particular, the Kuibyshev railway road located in the forest-steppe and semi-steppe zones.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):42-51
pages 42-51 views


Ways to increase the thermal power of the convector

Anciferov S.A., Chirkova E.V., Pryadilov A.V., Goshkoderya L.V.


The necessity of improving the production of heating devices in order to ensure their nominal thermal power is substantiated. The features of the manufacture of convectors "Universal" by the burnishing method are considered. The damages of the edges of the plates that occur during the expansion of the pipe during burnishing are investigated. The most promising direction for improving the quality of convector production has been identified - cold stamping of plates. The analysis of the shortcomings of plate stamping was carried out, the main reasons for the decrease in the thermal power of convectors were identified, and measures were developed to eliminate them. To increase the objectivity of the results of the study, tests were carried out with two different casings of convectors on a test bench. The optimal degree of plate tension has been determined and confirmed experimentally.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):52-59
pages 52-59 views


Dumps and landfills from of carbonate rock waste of the river Sok quarry

Chumachenko N.G., Tyurnikov V.V., Kalinina M.G.


The article is devoted to wastes generated at extraction, crushing and sorting of carbonate rock in order to obtain the finished product which is crushed stone. The article presents the information of carbonate rocks on the river Sok deposit. As a result of production at the Sok quarry two groups of waste are formed: overburden rocks and waste dumps; dolomite and limestone meal. The volume of overburden rocks and dumps is constantly increasing. Dolomite and limestone meal formed by crushing and sorting of rocks, with inclusions of crushed stone are sent to the dumps of cuttings without dividing into types. Most of the production waste is placed in the dumps directly in the territory of the quarry. Crushing waste is placed along the left bank of the river Sok. Significant volumes of accumulated and constantly formed crushed stone production wastes are harmful for the local environment. To solve environmental problems, it is necessary to study these wastes and develop construction materials using these wastes.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):60-66
pages 60-66 views


Improvement of methods for organizing recycling during reconstruction of buildings and structures

Alpatov V.Y., Acri E.P., Selezneva Z.V.


The problems of utilization of construction waste during the reconstruction of buildings and structures are considered. The methodological approaches to the processing of construction waste are studied, including the recycling of products of processing of concrete and reinforced concrete, which is currently one of the most priority areas of business in the construction industry. As a possible project, a mini-plant was chosen - a crushing and screening complex DSK-48-13, offered by the Obukhov Scientific and Industrial Company of the city of Nizhny Novgorod. An analysis of the project for the construction of a mini-plant for the processing of construction waste DSK-48-13 in the Samara region was carried out. The rationality of using the products of processing of concrete and reinforced concrete is substantiated.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):67-74
pages 67-74 views

Approximate analytical method for calculating the heating process of concrete structures in heating formwork

Vytchikov Y.S., Nedoseko I.V., Saparev M.E., Chulkov A.A.


The use of electric heating of concrete during construction in winter makes it possible to create an optimal thermal regime in which the hardening process takes place, and to obtain a structure of the required quality. When developing a system for automatic control of the heating process, it is necessary to determine the law of regulating the power of heaters. This article presents a method for calculating the thermal heating regime of concrete structures in heating formwork, the essence of which is to reduce the boundary value problem of thermal conductivity to a system of equivalent integral equations. To solve this problem, a theoretical study was carried out, a theoretical study of the heat transfer process in concrete structures heated during winter concreting was carried out, and a mathematical description of this process was presented in the form of a system of differential equations. After the transformations of the above system of equations and the application of the Green function of the second kind to it for the plate and rod, an approximate solution of the equivalent equation was obtained. As a result of the application of the asymptotic method to the solution of the integral equation, an analytical solution of the problem under consideration is obtained. The resulting solution makes it possible to determine the temperature fields on the concrete surface, as well as the value of the specific heat flux from electric heaters. In order to automate the process of performing the thermal calculation of heating concrete structures with the help of heating forms, a program for calculating temperature fields in heating forms has been developed based on the solution obtained, which makes it possible to effectively solve the tasks of monitoring and controlling the concrete hardening process. The developed program makes it possible to calculate temperature fields not only at constant heater power, but also when it changes with the help of regulators. The presented method of thermal calculation with a hardware and software complex for regulating the power of electric heaters allows solving a fairly wide range of tasks related to maintaining a constant temperature field.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):75-84
pages 75-84 views


Alexander Naumov is an outstanding Leningrad urban planner: facets of art (1930−1980s)

Vaytens A.G.


This article is devoted to the facets of art and public activities of Alexander Naumov (1907–1997), an urban planner, scientist and teacher. He was one of the authors of the post-war General Plans of Leningrad, according to which the city developed up to the end of the 1980s. Special attention is paid to the role of A.I. Naumov as a theorist of urban planning.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):85-95
pages 85-95 views

Preservation of the architectural heritage of Kuban: problems of ecologization and selection of new materials for restoration

Gulyan D.O.


The problem of preserving the architectural heritage as one of the most important priority tasks of our time is considered. Separate illustrations of the historical buildings of Krasnodar with the protected status of cultural heritage are presented. The need to take urgent measures for the rational use and exhibition of architectural heritage from an environmental point of view was noted. On the basis of the analysis carried out, the concept of "greening of monuments" is disclosed, which includes both the simultaneous preservation of architectural and urban planning monuments, and the natural environment. Much attention is paid to the choice of materials, replacing them with new ones without reducing their historical and artistic and aesthetic value for the restoration, repair and restoration of individual parts of architectural heritage objects. Special attention is paid to the strategy for preserving this heritage, identifying the main issues in the context of creating a comfortable living environment.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):96-101
pages 96-101 views

Transdisciplinary tools in modern urban planning theory (by the example of the concept of "urban vegetation")

Zheblienok N.N., Vasilyeva K.A.


The changes in theoretical urban planning concepts under the influence of transdisciplinarity are investigated. On the example of the definition of "urban vegetation", the variability of the use of linguistic and content structures for its description is discussed. A brief review of texts illustrating the transition from the concept of "resource assessment" (which is centered on the analysis of the consumer value of individual natural components of the urban environment) to the concept of "anthropo-eco-system" (focused on a qualitative assessment of the current state of individual components of the system) is presented. The theme of “natural components” inherent in the past decades is giving way to a modern view of “system components of various origins”. The question is raised about the need to rethink a number of theoretical foundations of urban planning in order to deepen their internal links with the socio-economic and cultural agenda.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):102-109
pages 102-109 views

Methodological aspects of designing new settlements (national practice of the XX - beginning of the XXI centuries)

Zheblienok N.N., Malinina S.V.


The article is devoted to the synthesis of methodological experience in the design of new settlements and cities in the twentieth century. On the example of the texts of recommendations and guidelines the process of deployment of algorithms for solving planning problems is investigated. The vector of development of professional thought, set by the scientific community in the period of the active urban development on the basis of a retrospective understanding of the practical material, has undergone changes. In the process of transformation of the institution of urban planning the links between scientific and practical echelons of urban planning community weaken, implementation of scientific thought results into the practice of design and understanding between the generations of urban planners becomes more complicated. The paper suggests the trend of growing gap between theoretical concepts and practice of urban planning that has been evolving since 1980-1990s up to the present time. It is argued that without a systematic reflection that takes into account the generalized academic experience and the practice of solving current problems, the qualitative implementation of modern urban planning solutions seems unattainable.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):110-123
pages 110-123 views

Modern trends in temple architecture

Kosenkova N.A., Litvinov D.V., Kosenkova E.V.


Since its inception, religious buildings have undergone significant changes – they have changed in accordance with the needs of society. This was reflected in the achievements of scientific and technological progress and changes in the social way of life of society. Temples of ancient civilizations differ significantly from modern temples – first of all, in scale. Modern religious buildings meet the requirements of economy, as well as other requirements of sustainable development. For the new architecture of the XXI century, these requirements are necessary. One of their characteristic features of sustainable development is adaptability, which is also reflected in modern temple architecture. It is most characteristically expressed in the religious buildings of those confessions, the theological concept of which allows the buildings to be freely adapted to the requirements of modernity.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):124-128
pages 124-128 views

Historical environment as a prototype of a new urban typology

Malakhov S.A., Busel Y.K.


The prerequisites of transition from the typology of high-rise residential development of dormitory districts, remote from the epicenter of urban activity, to the typology of mixed functionality, interpreting the morphological and symbolic codes of the metropolis historical heritage are considered. The criticism of modernist strategy is based on the understanding of functional zoning as an excessively rigid model of the city. The historic environment with its hierarchical structure of space and parcellation into yards and blocks provides an opportunity for fractal organization of neighborhoods and self-government. The article hypothesizes possible translation of the codes of historic environment into the basis of modern typology of compact buildings, preserving human scale of environment and effective size of neighborhoods.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):129-141
pages 129-141 views

Principles of psychogeography in the urban environment design

Kаrakova T.V., Vorontsova Y.S.


The article is devoted to the analysis of the specifics of such a method of studying the urban environment as psychogeography, as well as to the study of the tools of interaction between a person and the urban environment. Attention is paid to the perception of the urban environment by a person, the influence of this environment on the behavior of citizens. The issues of human influence on the formation of the urban environment are touched upon. The aspects of the inclusion of psycho-geographical research in the work of architects and designers are considered.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):142-146
pages 142-146 views


On the development of the functional structure of school forum spaces

Kuznetsova A.A., Zhdanova I.V.


The functional structure of a modern school building is complex and multifaceted. In recent projects, a number of clusters can be distinguished: educational, administrative, auxiliary and school-wide. Analysis of the development of the last of the above is of the greatest interest. The inclusion of areas such as lobbies, seating stairs, media library rooms, areas for installing lockers, atriums and transforming spaces of concert halls into the structure of school-wide spaces allows architects to model the environment of a school building, taking into account the modern needs of the younger generation. The study pays special attention to the transformation of this type of spaces and their development in domestic practice, starting with typical projects of the Soviet period and ending with modern designs of school buildings.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):147-156
pages 147-156 views

″Alba Capra″ interactive walking models

Rakov A.P., Ratieva Y.S.


The construction of schemes for converting rotational motion into a step is an old and very well-known geometric, as well as mechanical problem. Ever since James Watt invented the steam engine, there has been a problem of creating a hinge mechanism that converts circular motion into linear motion. The great Russian mathematician Paphnutiy Lvovich Chebyshev initially could not solve this problem. However, in the process of studying it, he developed a theory of approximation and synthesis of mechanisms. Using the latter, he could choose the parameters of the lambda mechanism in such a way as to obtain one of the best schemes in the world. The topic has become relevant again in connection with a new round of development, the development of mechanical engineering and robotics.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):157-161
pages 157-161 views


Design and construction of multifunctional high-rise complexes as a stage to creation of vertical cities

Veretennikov D.B., Kozlova M.A.


The article raises the question of comfortable living environment in modern megacities, by building high-rise multifunctional complexes, which are an effective and rational means of increasing the density of urban development and the environment as a whole, while creating its multi-level per unit area of urban territory. The article presents examples of foreign and Russian experience in the construction of multi-level urban complexes. Attention is drawn to the fact that the design and construction of skyscrapers inevitably leads to the improvement and development of relevant technologies and competencies. The improving of building technologies in future cities will be able to produce a wider range of services both above the surface and in the urbanized underground without large losses of the resources of the cities themselves and for the benefit of future generations. It is noted that there are two opposite directions of the vertical development of the city (horizontal and vertical).

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):162-171
pages 162-171 views

Architecture of the workers' settlement of the Kuibyshev metallurgical plant in the 1950s

Samogorov V.A.


The history of construction and features of the architectural and planning organization of the workers' settlement Metallurg, which was formed near the industrial district of Bezymyanka on the basis of the largest metallurgical plant in the 1950s, are considered. Its architecture reflected the features of Stalinist architecture and corresponded to the prevailing guidelines of that time for the development of the classical heritage. As a result, another version of the socialist city was implemented, based on attaching workers to production. The planning organization of the working settlement was based on the identification of the main highway with social and consumer services, the quarterly principle of residential development with courtyard spaces, and a single style of buildings.

Urban construction and architecture. 2022;12(4):172-181
pages 172-181 views

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