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Vol 13, No 4 (2013)

Articles
BRAIN'S IMMUNE SYSTEM AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY: THE MEANS FOR ITS CORRECTION
Dmitrienko E.V., Akimoto N., Naoe S., Noda M., Rybakina E.G., Korneva E.A.
Abstract
The review has represented the results of published data on a range of issues related to the structure and functions of the brain's immune system. The peculiarities of microglial cells and astrocytes have been discussed. The features of the reactions of innate and adaptive immune response in the brain have also been discussed. Authors' own data about the influence of nucleotide nature drug after traumatic brain injury have been presented.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):7-18
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REACTIVE CHANGES OF THE RAT BRAIN CELL ELEMENTS DUE TO CIRCULATORY HYPOXIA
Droblenkov A.V., Naumov N.V., Monid M.V., Sosin D.V., Penkov D.S., Proshin S.N., Shabanov P.D.
Abstract
The research is devoted to establishment of a complex of the main structural, spatial and quantitative reactive changes of cellular elements of anterior cingulate cortex and the midbrain paranigral nucleus located in different conditions of forbrain circulator hypoxia. The data obtained will help to present differences in reactivity of the brain cells in relationship with each other and with a wall of a blood capillary, and also can be used as a basis for modeling pharmacological correction of posthypoxic conditions. Histologic sections of forward medial part of the paranigral nucleus and layers of the V-VI pregenual cingular field of adult rats in 7 days after occlusion of both general carotids were examined. The sections of intact animals and sham-operated animals were studied too. In the sections, stained after Nissl, the ratio of the low-changed, hypochromic, picnomorphic and shadow neurons, quantity of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microgliocytes and endotheliocytes, the viable low-changed and hypochromic neurons, astrocytes and microgliocytes cell bodies area, length of astrocytes axial shoots, distance from bodies of viable neurons and astrocytes to a wall of capillaries, the gliocyte-neuronal index were determined by methods of identification of glial fibrillar acid protein and Iba1-protein. The cellular elements of the surviving brain in different conditions of circulator hypoxia were established to characterize by a range of the expressed pathological changes. Neurons were in process of picnotization, lysis and transformation into shadow cells. Cells of the nuclear zone of hypoxia trended to death or picnosis. The neurons located outside the hypoxic area and being affected by only humoral influence of the glutamate-calcium cascade, were inclined to sharp swelling. Microgliocyte reaction in the form of poorly expressed increase in their number and structural signs of activation was an early diffusion manifestation of the forbrain focal hypoxia. Endotheliocytes proliferation in terms of early ischemic influence did not connect with a cascade reactions chain and was observed only in hypoxia focus. The concentration of viable neurons and astrocytes near blood capillaries, and also the increase of number of satellite glial forms were adaptation mechanism and condition for survival of cells under various conditions of ischemic influence on the brain.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):19-28
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PROTEIN GENE PRODUCT 9.5 (PGP 9.5) AS A FUNCTIONAL MARKER IN NEUROMORPHOLOGY
Korzhevsky D.E., Kolos E.A.
Abstract
The aim of this review is synthesis of the available published datas about protein gene product PGP 9.5 — one of the selective neural markers. This paper describes the history of its discovery, structure and properties. Presents datas demonstrating its application in experimental studies of the central and peripheral nervous system, and the possibility of use protein PGP 9.5 as a diagnostic marker in clinical pathomorphology.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):29-35
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THE VARIATION OF THE E-AT THE BIOREGULATORS IN HYPERTENSION
Kelina N.Y., Kulikova O.A., Mamelina T.Y.
Abstract
The changes in the indicators of e-antibodies to endogenous биорегуляторам in the blood serum of patients with essential hypertension.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):36-41
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INVESTIGATION OF THE ROLE OF SEMAPHORIN 3A IN THE THYMUS AT NORMAL CONDITIONS AND TUMOR GROWTH
Kisseleva E.P., Lyamina I.V., Tzvirkun S.A., Rutto K.V., Kudryavtsev I.V., Lioudyno V.I.
Abstract
Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) an axon guidance factor also possesses some immunomodulatory activity. It is known to be produced by human thymic epithelial cells and to reveal chemorepellent activity towards human thymocytes. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of Sema 3A and its receptors in murine thymus as well as to assess their changes during experimental tumor growth. With the help of Reverse Transcription-PCR assay we showed that Sema 3A mRNA was expressed in the thymus of intact mice and in thymocytes mRNA of the following Sema 3A receptors: Neuropilin-1, Plexins A1-A3 were expressed in thymocytes and no Plexin A4 mRNA. Sema 3A revealed its chemorepellent effect towards murine thymocytes in vitro and this effect was mediated via Neuropilin-1 receptor. Sema 3A did not influence thymocyte adhesion and their transmigration across the monolayer of to endothelial EA.hy926 cell line. We hypothesized that Sema 3A may enhance thymocyte egress to periphery and be responsible for the development of thymic involution during tumor growth. But we were not able to show any difference in the protein Sema 3A level in thymic stroma between hepatoma 22a-bearing mice and control animals, as well as no significant difference in the percentage of Neuropilin-1 positive thymocytes during tumor growth. The data obtained do not support the initial idea of Sema 3A participation via its chemorepellent activity in the enhancement of thymocyte egress to periphery during tumor growth.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):42-48
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CHOLINERGIC STRUCTURES OF THE CINGULATE CORTEX OF THE RAT BRAIN
Korzhevskii D.E., Grigorev I.P., Novikova A.D., Kovalchuk V.A., Kirik O.V.
Abstract
Cingulate cortex of the brain is involved in various regulatory processes of the central nervous system and its defects are observed in some psychopathologic states. The present study is aimed to description of distribution and morphologic characterization of cholinergic structures of the cingulate cortex of the brain by revealing of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. A lot of ChAT-immunoreactive fibers and some ChAT-immunoreactive neurons are found in the cingulate cortex. Small and mostly spindle-like neurons were observed predominantly in II-III layers. Fibers have many varicosities, but we failed to find any ChAT-immunopositive terminals, which supports the non-synaptic release of acetylcholine from varicosities. In the area of the cingulum with highly extensive ChAT-immunostaining, some small, mostly unipolar ChAT-immunopositive neurons were found, which have not previously been described.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):49-53
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THE PULMONARY HEMODYNAMICS REGULATION IN NORMAL CONDITIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL PATHOLOGY
Evlakhov V.I., Ovsiannikov V.I., Poyassov I.Z., Shaidakov E.V.
Abstract
In the review the mechanisms of the pulmonary blood flow regulation in the normal conditions and experimental pathology are discussed. The modern information, concerned neurohumoral and biophysical regulatory mechanisms of the pulmonary vessels is represented. The role of the endothelial cells in the active pulmonary vessels dilatation following increasing of the pulmonary flow is stressed. The hemodynamics mechanisms of the pulmonary artery pressure and flow changes following pressor and depressor arterial pressure shifts and myocardial ischemia are summarized.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):54-65
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FRACTIONS OF HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS IN A BLOOD OF RECIPIENTS BEFORE TRANSPLANTATION OF A LIVER AND AFTER IT
Shoutko A.N., Gerasimova O.A., Yeimova L.P., Granov A.M.
Abstract
The results presented in the study provide the first evidence that the proportion of CD133+34 -, CD133+/CD34+ and CD34+133 -cells in a blood of patients with a chronic disease of a liver is regularly changed, and their average number are increasing after liver transplantation. The findings are discussed in a context of a possible physiological role of fractions of cells in maintenance of viability of an organ.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):66-70
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OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN THE CORD BLOOD PLASMA OF THE PRETERM INFANTS
Harmaza Y.M., Kozlova N.M., Artsiusheuskaya M.V., Petrovich V.A., Sapotnitski A.V., Shyshko G.A., Slobozhanina E.I.
Abstract
The differences in reactive oxygen species levels and protein oxidation degree in the cord blood plasma from full-term and premature newborns were studied using fluorescent probes. A correlation was found between reactive oxygen species levels and protein SH-groups, as well as the plasma total antioxidant activity in premature infants. Our results suggest that analysis of oxidative stress markers in newborn cord blood could be a useful laboratory diagnostic and prognostic test for assessing the newborns’ health and their ability to adapt to the changed environmental conditions.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):71-76
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REVIEW OF HIV RNA CONCENTRATION OF BLOOD AND CERVICOVAGINAL SPECIMEN AMONG HIV 1A INFECTED WOMEN IN SAINT-PETERSBURG/RUSSIA
Samarina A.V., Dementeva N.Y., Lisitsyna Z.N., Rakhmanova A.G., Belyakov N.A.
Abstract
Original review of HIV RNA in blood/cervicovaginal pair specimen among HIV infected childbearing women in Saint-Petersburg, Russia. Blood, leucocytes and sperm impurity wasn’t criteria for exclusion due to main goal of investigation is to assess correlation between HIV RNA in blood and cervicovaginal specimen as risk factor of HIV sexual transmission. The manuscript provides correlation between leucocytes in cervicovaginal specimen and HIV RNA.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):77-86
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HIV INFECTION AND TUBERCULOSIS. PROBLEMS OF CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL CORRELATIONS
Zinserling V.A.
Abstract
HIV-infection in combination with tuberculosis remains as a important medical problem leading to high lethality. In a present paper are analyzed 122 autopsy cases of HIV infection in 2012, including 63 cases with tuberculosis. Was demonstrated that tuberculosis was the leading cause of death in 51,6% of cases. In some cases the clinical diagnosis was not sufficiently valid. At present there are no absolutely reliable methods allowing to reveal mycobacteria in tissues. Clinico-pathological manifestations of tuberculosis were very variable and frequently were not corresponding the existing classifications. The lesions of CNS (in 22,4%) and intestine (in 15,3%) were of special importance and usually were not recognized clinically. Among the most forward looking issues for study are evaluated the importance of mycobacterium genotype and the whole complex of concomitant infections.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):87-91
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MODELING OF OLIGOMERIZATION AND FIBRILLOGENESIS OF BETA-2 MICROGLOBULIN MUTANT FORMS
Arteeva I.V., Egorov V.V., Gorshkov A.N., Garmay Y.P., Aleinikova T.D., Shavlovsky M.M.
Abstract
A study has been performed in order to develop the approaches for therapy of amyloidosis using a model object — amyloidogenic protein human beta2-microglobulin (β2m). The aim of the study was to obtain protein variants with amino acid substitutions modulating fibrillogenic properties of β2m which potentially could inhibit fibrillogenesis of the wild-type protein. The study consisted of the two steps: a) computer modelling of β2m associative properties when introducing amino acid substitutions in the primary structure resulting in a change in the degree of molecular symmetry and b) experimental investigation of selected protein variants properties by appropriate genetic constructs design and obtaining the desired recombinant β2m variants. Based on computer calculations virtual variants with double substitutions at the N- and C-terminal regions of the protein molecule have been selected that could potentially provide alterations of monomer the associative properties. These variants have been obtained as recombinant products resulting from expression of genetic constructs specially designed. To obtain the construct with substitutions in the central region of the protein molecule an original double polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed yielding the intermediate extended primer — a β2m gene fragment with target substitutions which was used as a forward primer in the second PCR. It has been shown that recombinant β2m variants are capable to form fibrils.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):92-100
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Volya Georgievna Artamonova
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):101-102
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German Mikhaylovich YakovlevK 80-LETIYu SO DNYa ROZhDENIYa
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):103-104
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Nikolay Antonovich Yaitskiy K 75-LETIYu SO DNYa ROZhDENIYa
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(4):105-106
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