Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy is a scientific peer-reviewed medical journal published quarterly since 2002 under supervision of professor Petr Dmitriyevich Shabanov, MD, PhD, Head, Dept. of Pharmacology of S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy. The journal is published with the assistance of "The St. Petersburg scientific organization of pharmacologists" and "The St. Petersburg scientific organization of physiologists, biochemists, pharmacologists of I.M. Sechenov".

The journal publishes original papers reporting fundamental, medical experimental and clinical research, literature reviews, lectures, case reports, and information on all relevant issues of clinical pharmacology, drug therapy and related subjects.

Topics focused on key issues in basic and clinical pharmacology.

The journal is aimed at researchers, physicians, educators of medical academic institutions, scientists, pharmacologists, druggists  and all specialists in related fields of medicine including residents, research fellows, and medical students.

Our mission:

  1. Integrate Russian scientific efforts and vast experience  in development and use of medicines of various groups with international science and create international space for discussion and opinion sharing scientists in the field of clinical pharmacology and drug therapy.
  2. Provide physicians with actual and qualitative scientific information on the most modern and effective medicines.



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Vol 21, No 1 (2023)

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Toxicology of carbon nanostructures. Part 2. Nanoscale materials based on graphene sheets
Litasova E.V., Iljin V.V., Brusina M.A., Piotrovskiy L.B.

The review is a continuation of the previously published one on the toxicity of spherical nanostructures of carbon, namely fullerenes and nanoonions. This review considers data on the toxicity of carbon nanostructures in sp2-hybridization of carbon atoms, which can be considered as formed from graphene sheets, and nanostructures formed by carbon atoms in sp3-hybridization, namely, nanodiamonds. Unfortunately, it should be repeated the conclusion made in the previous review that at the moment there is not enough data to use carbon nanostructures in practice, and therefore it is necessary to develop more effective and informative tests on animals, taking into account the characteristics of each type of nanomaterials.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2023;21(1):5-22
pages 5-22 views
Immune status and cytokine spectrum as predictive signs of the severity of the disease and the effectiveness of intensive care in patients with coronavirus infection COVID-19
Sadykov V.F., Poltavtseva R.A., Chaplygina A.V., Bobkova N.V.

The pandemic caused by a new strain of SARS-CоV-2 coronavirus has swept the whole world, however, despite the developed strategic directions for the treatment of coronavirus infection and intensive research in all countries, effective methods for treating this severe pathology have not yet been created. The list of drugs against COVID-19 practically does not use compounds that affect the renin-angiotensin system, in the functioning of which the ACE2 coronavirus binding receptor plays a central role. It is assumed that the virus, causing a decrease in the density of ACE2 receptors, leads to disruption of RAS activity. This review presents current research on the response of the immune system to infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, describes adaptive and innate cellular mechanisms, and describes a number of predictors of severe COVID-19.

To write this review, a search was made in the PubMed database and the scientific electronic library The selection of articles was carried out manually with the main goal of synthesizing data and describing the mechanisms of influence of SARS-CoV-2 on the renin-angiotensin system, and, as a result, on the activation of the adaptive and innate immune response. This review includes 53 publications, including methodological recommendations of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, data from ongoing clinical trials and patents. Data from selected scientific sources were structured and visualized.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2023;21(1):23-34
pages 23-34 views
Prospects of pharmacological regulation of aquaporin function in CNS diseases
Ponamareva N.S., Novikov V.E., Pozhilova E.V.

The review analyzes the results of scientific research on the role of aquaporins in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases and the possibility of their pharmacological regulation.

Aquaporins (AQP) are proteins involved in the transmembrane transport of water and other substances. They form the water channels of cell membranes and are widely represented in various mammalian cells, including the membranes of human brain and spinal cord cells. To date, about 300 types of proteins of the aquaporin family have been discovered, of which 13 (AQP0–AQP12) have been identified in human cells. Localization of different types of AQP in CNS structures, their functional activity and involvement in the development of CNS diseases differ. There are mainly three types of AQPs in the central nervous system: AQP1, AQP4 and AQP9. The results of scientific research indicate the most important role of AQP in maintaining water-salt homeostasis and ensuring physiological processes in the central nervous system, and also confirm the role of AQP in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases of the central nervous system (cerebral edema of various genesis, invasion of tumor cells and the formation of peritumorous edema, in the development of autoimmune diseases — opticomyelitis, Alzheimer’s disease). Pharmacological regulation of the functional activity of aquaporins can influence the course of these diseases. Therefore, there is a natural interest in drugs that can change the expression of AQP.

Proteins of the aquaporin family provide transmembrane transport of water and play an essential role in the development of pathological conditions of the central nervous system. They can be potential targets for pharmacological effects in a number of diseases of the central nervous system. The search and study of drugs affecting the expression and functional activity of AQP is pathogenetically justified and is a promising direction in the development of pharmacotherapy strategies for cerebral edema, malignant brain tumors and other CNS diseases.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2023;21(1):35-48
pages 35-48 views

Original articles

The effect of taurine on state of experimental gestosis in rats
Savanteeva-Lyubimova T.N., Sivak K.V., Stosman K.I., Aleksandrov A.G.

BACKGROUND: Gestosis (preeclampsia) is an important problem of modern obstetrics. Despite the improvement of methods of prevention and treatment, there is an increase in the rate of this pregnancy complication. In this regard, the search for new approaches to the treatment of preeclampsia is an important problem of modern perinatology.

AIM: The aim of this study is studying of the effect of taurine on experimental gestosis in rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preeclampsia was induced on female rats by sodium nitrite and lipopolysaccharide. 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid was administered at a dose of 44.3 mg / kg (in terms of taurine) from the 16th to the 19th day of pregnancy. The number of implantation sites, resorption sites, live fetuses, weight of placentas and fetuses, lactate dehydrogenase activity, content of lactic and pyruvic acids, nitric oxide, malondialdehyde and creatine were evaluated.

RESULTS: It has been shown that 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid leads to normalization of the metabolic processes (the level of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, lactate and lactate dehydrogenase activity) in the body of pregnant female rats with induced preeclampsia in the last trimester of pregnancy. Taurine reduced the quantity of resorption, increased the weight of placentas and fetuses. Along with a correction of the lactate level, pyruvate and lactate dehydrogenase activity, it was observed a decrease of creatine level in placentas.

CONCLUSIONS: Obtained results allows us to recommend taurine, which has antioxidant, antihypoxic, membrane stabilizing, detoxifying, osmoregulating and diuretic effects, for the treatment of placental disorders with preeclampsia.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2023;21(1):49-56
pages 49-56 views
Effect of intragastric administration on the morphology of laboratory rats’ gastrointestinal tract
Gushchin Y.A., Makarova M.N., Shabanov P.D.

BACKGROUND: In preclinical studies on laboratory animals, oral administration with special probe for test substances is very in demand. Most studies are devoted to the psychophysiological and clinical-biochemical reaction of the animal’s body to this effect, but extremely few studies consider the effect of the manipulation itself on the development of pathology in the tissues of the gastrointestinal tract associated with the inevitable mechanical impact of the probe on the mucous membranes.

AIM: To identify pathological changes in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract of laboratory rats that are associated with the effects of intragastric administration of the tested substances, and compare the data obtained with the frequency of spontaneous diseases.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of pathomorphological observations obtained from Wistar rats involved in the course of scientific work carried out at NPO Dom Pharmacy in the period from 2018 to 2021 were used. 1400 sentinel animals were analyzed, and the same number of intact rats. Intact animals were gavaged with a control substance (distilled water) for 14 days.

RESULTS: In less than 5% of clinically healthy animals, inflammatory diseases of insignificant intensity and prevalence in all parts of the intestine can be detected. As a result of the anipulation of intragastric administration, an almost twofold increase in the number of cases of catarrhal esophagitis and gastritis, erosive and ulcerative lesions of the mucous membrane of the esophagus and stomach in its glandular part and hyperkeratosis in its non-glandular part was noted.

CONCLUSIONS: The type and frequency of occurrence of the background pathology of the gastrointestinal tract of laboratory rats were determined. It has been proven that repeated traumatization of the mucous membrane associated with mechanical contact of a solid metal probe with the epithelium provokes the development of inflammatory diseases of the esophagus and stomach, without affecting the underlying parts of the intestine.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2023;21(1):57-68
pages 57-68 views
Chronic mental stress in early ontogenesis increased risks of development for chemical and non-chemical forms of addiction
Pyurveev S.S., Nekrasov M.S., Dedanishvili N.S., Nekrasova A.S., Brus T.V., Lebedev A.A., Lavrov N.V., Podrezova A.V., Glushakov R.I., Shabanov P.D.

BACKGROUND: Exposure to acute or chronic stress contributes to the occurrence of various disorders of the central nervous system, psycho-emotional sphere, as well as increases the risks of development of various forms of addiction.

AIM: The aim of the study is analyze the influence of maternal deprivation on voluntary alcohol consumption in adolescents and to determine the degree of the signs of compulsive behavior in experimental animals.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were taken in the research. A maternal deprivation model was carried out from day 2 to day 12 of the postnatal period (MD). Compulsivity (compulsive tendency) was evaluated in the ball burial test. Voluntary alcoholization with 10% ethyl alcohol solution in a two-bottle test was employed. Level of progesterone in blood plasma was determined by enzyme- immune analyses.

RESULTS: Changes in the level of progesterone in blood plasma in MD and control group of animals were detected. In the test of two bottles 10% of ethanol solution presented on days 2 and 3, statistically significant differences in consumption were determined in contrast to the control group. In the test of balloon diapering, MD group of animals showed a statistically proved significant increase in compulsiveness both before the beginning of voluntary alcoholization and on day 3 from the start.

CONCLUSIONS: The increase in compulsivity and voluntary ethanol consumption was significantly higher in the MD group, that is comparable to the increased level in blood plasma progesterone samples.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2023;21(1):69-78
pages 69-78 views

Lectures for doctors

Modern concepts about sleep disorders and methods of their correction
Selizarova N.O., Napalkova S.M., Anisimova N.A., Okovityi S.V.

Modern ideas about the physiology of sleep and the pathogenesis of insomnia, as well as methods for its correction are presented. The classification of hypnotics by chemical structure, requirements for an ideal hypnotic, mechanisms of action, side effects, indications for use and features of the pharmacokinetics of individual representatives of hypnotics are given.

Reviews on Clinical Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. 2023;21(1):79-89
pages 79-89 views

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