Vol 16, No 1 (2018)

Genetic basis of ecosystems evolution
Genome and stress-reaction in animals and humans
Dyuzhikova N.A., Daev E.V.

Current data on the effects of stress at the level of the cell genomes of the central nervous system and peripheral organs in animals are discussed. Regulatory and structural genomic changes in the cells of the central nervous system under stress are considered as a mechanism for regulating the functions of the brain and peripheral organs that form the organism manifestations of stress. Based on the Yu.Ya. Kerkis and M.E. Lobashev point of view, we consider stress as a special physiological state of the nervous system, affecting the work and integrity of the genome in target cells in animals, and thus playing a major role in microevolutionary transformations.

Ecological genetics. 2018;16(1):4-26
Characterization and identification of naturally transgenic species Linaria vulgaris pathogenic mycromycetes
Sokornova S.V., Gasich E.L., Bemova V.D., Matveeva T.V.

In nature there are species containing homologs of T-DNA genes of agrobacteria (сT-DNA) in their genomes. Such plants are called naturally transgenic ones. Interaction with the microbiota is one of the possible functions of cT-DNA, discussed in the literature. Linaria plants are the most suitable for the investigation of the probable ecological role of T-DNA, since they widely spread. The first stage in the evaluation of plant-microbial interactions involving these plants is the description of isolates with contrasting virulence for toadflax. The search and DNA-barcoding of such isolates of Phoma-like fungi was the goal of this work. 14 strains isolated from the plants of the families Plantaginaceae and Scrophullariaceae were analyzed. The of multilocus analysis included amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacers, a large subunit of RNA, a tubulin gene. Based on molecular data, 9 strains were assigned to the species Boeremia exigua, which has a wide range of habitats and a wide specialization. Strains of this species were virulent against L. vulgaris, but differed in aggressiveness with respect to this plant. Thus, a collection of strains was characterized, which can later be used for a more detailed study of the immune response of the naturally-transgenic L. vulgaris plant in response to inoculation with the B. exigua phytopathogen. As a result of the work, we identified the narrow host range fungi Heterophoma novae-verbascicola, and broad host range pathogens Plectosphaerella cucumerina, Phoma herbarum and Trichothecium roseum. Among them, only P. cucumerina was a weak pathogen of L. vulgaris. These results confirm the early data on the depleted mycobiota of L. vulgaris.

Ecological genetics. 2018;16(1):27-34
Variability in size and shape of wings in longevity-selected strains of house fly (Musca Domestica L.): geometric morphometrics
Akhmetkireeva T.T., Ben'kovskaya G.V., Vasil'ev A.G.

Background. The aim of the study is evaluate the long-term morphogenetic consequences of the housefly mass selection by the lifespan of two formed strains with different longevity.

Materials and methods. Two control groups were detached from the strains Sh gen (short-living adults) after 65th and L gen (long-living) after 45th generations of selection for early or late reproduction. Geometric morphometrics of the fly’s wing shape are made from the configurations of 17 homologous Landmarks positioned on the wings images. The direction and magnitude of the interstrain differences were estimated using the canonical analysis of Procrustes coordinates, which characterized the variability of the wing shape. The degree of intra-group morphological disparity from the values of the first two canonical variables was analyzed by the nearest neighbour point pattern analysis.

Results. Significant interstrain and sex differences in the shape and size of the wing were revealed. The size of the wing plate of males and females of the Sh gen strain and the level of intragroup disparity are significantly larger than in the L gen strain. The pattern of intragroup disparity of the wing shape of the Sh gen adults is characterized by a significant effect of ordinates overdispersion.

Conclusion. A hypothesis has been put forward that the revealed morphogenetic rearrangements in individuals of both strain formed on the base of historically existing potent ontogenetic trajectories of species. It is assumed that the basis for morphogenesis rearrangements are the primary epigenetic changes due to the transposition of the mobile elements of the genome.

Ecological genetics. 2018;16(1):35-44
Ecological genetics of beetles of the genus Adalia: population structure of A. bipunctata of the Crimea depends on climatic factors
Zakharov I.A., Rubanovich A.V.

The composition of 12 populations of Adalia bipunctata L. of the Crimean peninsula was studied. The proportion of black individuals varies from 4.8% to 64.6%. Comparison of the composition of color forms with climatic parameters of habitats showed that the proportion of black individuals in the population positively correlates with the value of moisture during the period of reproduction of beetles (May-July) and negatively correlates with the mean temperatures of these months.

Ecological genetics. 2018;16(1):45-48
Ecological genetics of beetles of the genus Adalia: populations of A. bipunctata of NorwAy and Kola peninsula
Zakharov I.A., Rubanovich A.V.

The composition of 5 populations of Adalia bipunctata L. of the Norway and two populations of the Kola Peninsula was stu died. The proportion of black color imago in them varies from 0% to 35.7%. The composition of the populations of A. bipunctata inhabiting the Arctic Circle is described for the first time. Standard correlation analysis did not reveal a significant dependence of the proportion of black individuals, both on the latitude of habitats, and on their climatic parameters. Application of the logistic regression method to these data made it possible to show that the abundance of black morphs is positively associated with the average winter temperature, and is negatively correlated with summer moisture and mean temperature. Basically, these data are determined by the peculiarities of the Bergen population, where the greatest concentration of melanists is observed, and the climatic conditions (according to the average winter temperature, humidity and annual amount of atmospheric rainfall) differ sharply from the conditions of all other studied places on the coasts of Norway and the Kola Peninsula.

Ecological genetics. 2018;16(1):49-52
Human ecological genetics
Association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and squamous cell lung cancer depending on the duration of smoking in men
Gordeeva L.A., Mun S.A., Voronina E.N., Polenok E.G., Magatina A.D., Titov V.A., Ragozhina S.E., Vafin I.A., Romanova E.L., Glushkov A.N.

Background. Squamous cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most common form of lung cancer among men smokers. Mediators and products of inflammation can contribute to the initiation of carcinogenesis in smokers. The aim of study is to investigate the association between IL1B(rs1143634, rs16944), IL1RN (rs2234663), TNFA (rs1800629), IL6 (rs1800795), IL10 (rs1800896) genes and SCLC depending on the duration of smoking in men.

Materials and methods. We studied 324 patients with SCLC and 168 healthy men smokers. The typing of the IL1RN(rs2234663) gene polymorphism has analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Detection of the IL1B (rs1143634) and IL6 (rs1800795) polymorphisms have performed by restriction fragment length analysis, as a restriction enzyme TaqI was used. The IL1B (rs16944), TNFA(rs1800629) and IL10 (rs1800896) genes polymorphisms have determined through TaqMan-real-time PCR.

Results. The study showed, the age, duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked per day were the main risk factors for SCLC in men (p < 0.0001). The IL6 -174G allele was detected an additional risk factor of SCLC at a smoking duration of less than 35 years (OR = 1.68; 95 % CI: 1.12-2.51; pcor = 0,04). No association of IL1B (rs1143634, rs16944), IL1RN (rs2234663), TNFA (rs1800629), and IL10 (rs1800896) genes with the risk of SCLC in men was identified.

Conclusion. The duration of smoking and rs1800795 IL6 gene polymorphism may influence on the susceptibility to SCLC in men. Our results can be useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms of development of SCLC.

Ecological genetics. 2018;16(1):60-69
Opinions, discussions
A molecular genetic research of the Triticum sinskajae A. Filat. et Kurk. by RAPD analysis and by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the variable intergenic region of the petN-trnC-GCA chloroplast genome and intron of the histone H3.2 gene
Kuluev A.R., Matnijazov R.T., Kuluev B.R., Chemeris A.V.

Background. Triticum sinskajae A. Filat. et Kurk. was discovered in the early 70th in the last century at the regular reproduction in the Central Asian and Dagestan VIR-stations of T. monococcum samples.

Materials and methods. The objects of the study were 4 species of diploid wheat — Triticum urartu Thum. ex Gandil. (lines k-62477, k-62465), Triticum monococcum L. (lines k-20970, k-39471), Triticum boeoticum Boiss. (lines k-59161, k-28132, k-40118) and Triticum sinskajae A. Filat. et Kurk. (line k-48993).

Results. We found differences between T. sinskajaeand T. monococcum in the variable region of the histone gene H3.2, and the RAPD analysis showed the presence of unique polymorphic loci in T. sinskajae.

Conclusion. In gene ral, T. boeoticum, T. monococcum, and T. sinskajae are most likely to be closely related species of diploid wheat, whereas T. urartu is quite significantly different from them.

Ecological genetics. 2018;16(1):53-59

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