Vol 17, No 2 (2019)

1. Genetic basis of ecosystems evolution
Polymorphism of genes controlling low level of linolenic acid in lines from VIR flax genetic collection
Porokhovinova E.A., Shelenga T.V., Matveeva T.V., Pavlov A.V., Grigorieva E.A., Brutch N.B.

Abstract

Background. Linseed solin varieties were created for nutrition, but the effect of oil fatty acid (FA) composition on other characters is not clear.

Materials and methods. Using 6 inbreeding generations from 26 heterogeneous flax accessions were generated 19 high (HL), 7 medium (ML) and 14 low linolenic (LL) lines. For each lines contents of 5 basic FA: palmitic, stearic, oleic (OLE), linoleic (LIO) and linolenic (LIN); the ratio LIO/LIN, oil iodine number, vegetative period (VP) phases and plants size were evaluated. Development of CAPS marker for LuFAD3A gene was performed using idtdna.com. Sequencing of LIN genes sites was done in the Centre MCT SPBGU and Eurogen.

Results. ANOVA showed significant differences HL, ML and LL groups for PAL, OLE, LIO, LIN, LIO/LIN, IOD. Considerable decrease of LIN, causes asymmetric changes in FA ratio and correlations between them and other traits. Factor analysis revealed the influence of two factors. The first one divided lines according to their LIN level and characters associated with it, the second one – according to the VP and OLE. LIN synthesis is controlled by two complementary genes LuFAD3A and LuFAD3B. Sequencing of LuFAD3A gene 1 exon of 6 lines revealed a mutation (G255 → A255), resulting in formation of stop codon. Developed developed CAPS-marker confirmed the homozygosity of hybrids between LL (gc-391) and HL lines (gc-65, 109, 121). Descendants of hybrid between gc-109 and gc-391 ripened 8-10 days earlier than gc-391. CAPS markers of LuFAD3B gene revealed differences between HL, ML, LL lines. Sequencing of this gene first exon and the beginning of the second one in 3 lines (1HL, 2LL) showed that this method reveals a mutation in the second restriction site, located in the 2 exon (C6 → T6), and causing the replacement Hys → Tyr.

Conclusion. Lines from GC have wide variability of FA and other agronomic characters, combination of which will expand the cultivation of solin.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):5-19
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Estimation of the congruence between morphogenetic and molecular-genetic modules of gray voles Microtus S.L. variability along a climatic gradient
Kovaleva V.Y., Pozdnyakov A.A., Litvinov Y.N., Efimov V.M.

Abstract

Background. The exponential growth of research concerning a role of morphological modularity and integration in evolution has taking place from the beginning of the century. It was especially noted that inter-level integration should manifest itself, first of all, in the congruent variability of the modules of different structural levels. We analyzed congruence between the interspecific variability of the first lower molar (m1) masticatory surface and the mtDNA Cytb gene in ten species of the gray voles Microtus s.l. from the point of view of the modular organization.

Materials and methods. In total, 5306 pairs of chewing surface contours of vole molar m1 were investigated. Thirty one different morphotypes and 187 their different combinations are identified: 30 – symmetric and 157 – asymmetric. 576 sequences of the Cytb mtDNA gene from the GenBank database are used. Climatic data are taken from the website Climate:Date.org. Data are processed using a DJ-method. The morphogenetic matrix of Euclidean distances between species is obtained from the frequencies of m1 morphotypes co-occurrence from the right and left sides of the lower jaw, and the molecular-genetic one from the frequencies of synonymous codon substitutions. The algorithm is realized in the Jacobi 4 package.

Results. A high correlation (r = 0.847) between the first principal component of the molecular-genetic distance matrix and second principal component of the morphogenetic one is found. From the standpoint of the modular organization of the phenotype, the principal components of these matrices are treated as variability modules. The molecular-genetic module is caused by change of frequencies of the codons ACC and GCA along geo-climatic gradient, and morphogenetic one – various aspects of the m1 asymmetry.

Conclusions. The proposed approach allowed to identify two congruently varying modules from different trait systems of the studied species along the geo-climatic gradient.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):21-34
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Artificial activation of nif gene expression in nodule bacteria Ex Planta
Baymiev A.K., Gumenko R.S., Vladimirova A.A., Akimova E.S., Vershinina Z.R., Baymiev A.K.

Abstract

Background. Rhizobia are the most effective nitrogen-fixing organisms that can fix nitrogen only in symbiosis with leguminous plants. The general transcriptional activator of nitrogen fixation genes in diazotrophic bacteria is NifA. In this work, the possibility of modifying the regulation of nitrogen fixation in the nodule bacteria Mesorhizobium, Ensifer and Rhizobium was studied by introducing an additional copy of the nifA gene into the bacterial genomes during the regulation of induced bacterial promoters.

Materials and methods. A series of expression genetic constructs with NifA genes of nodule bacteria strains under the control of an inducible promoter Pm were created. The resulting constructs were transformed into strains of nodule bacteria. The obtained recombinant strains were investigated for the appearance of their nitrogen-fixing activity in the free-living state.

Results. It was shown that the expression of nifA in recombinant cells of all three genera of bacteria leads to the appearance of insignificant nitrogenase activity. At the same time, the level of nitrogenase activity does not have a correlation with the level of expression of the introduced nifA gene, which, most likely, is a consequence of the multilevel regulation of nitrogen fixation.

Conclusion. The possibility of artificial activation of nitrogenase activity in nodule bacteria in the free-living state by introducing the NifA regulatory protein gene into bacteria was shown.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):35-42
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Role of the plant heterotrimeric G-proteins in the signal pathways regulation
Bovin A.D., Dolgikh E.A.

Abstract

Animal and fungal heterotrimeric G-proteins are among the well-known regulators of signaling pathways. Plant studies have shown that G-proteins may also be involved in the regulation of many processes. G-proteins are involved in hormonal regulation, control of cell proliferation, response to abiotic factors, control of biotic interactions and many others. It turned out that with a smaller variety of subunits, G-proteins of plants can have a greater variety of mechanisms for activating and transmitting signals. However, for most processes in plants the mechanisms of operation of heterotrimeric G-proteins remain poorly understood. This review is devoted to the analysis of modern ideas about the structure and functioning of heterotrimeric plant G proteins.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):43-54
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2. Genetic toxicology
Effect of lead on polytenic chromosomes from salivary glands of Chironomus Plumosus L. and Glyptotendipes Glaucus Mg. (Diptera, Chironomidae)
Belonogova Y.V., Durnova N.A., Sheremetyeva A.S.

Abstract

Background. Experimental conditions allow to determine the structural and functional changes of polytene chromosomes under the influence of free ions of an individual metal.

Materials and methods. C. plumosus (L.) and G. glaucus (Mg) larvae were placed in solutions of lead nitrate: 0.01, 0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/l. Exposure — 12 h. Analysis of preparations of polytene chromosomes was carried out using the Carl Zeiss PrimoStar microscope. The functional activity factor of the nucleolus organizer (NOR), the coefficient of genetic activity of the Balbiani ring (BRR) was calculated.

Results. Equations of the dependence of the change in the coefficients: NOR = 5,187–0,01 lnC for C. plumosus and NOR = 2,11–0,03 lnC for G. glaucus; BRR = 1,504–0,04 lnC for C. plumosus and BRR = 2,018 + 0,03 lnC for G. glaucus.

Conclusion. With an increase in the concentration of lead in both C. plumosus and G. glaucus decreases NOR, which implies a decrease in the intensity of protein biosynthesis processes. BRR decreases in C. plumosus and increases in G. glaucus. The different genome reactions of the two species indicate the existence of different mechanisms of adaptation to lead ions

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):55-62
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Role of the interaction of resistance genes to acaricides of different chemical classes in the posterity of diheterozygous females of the two-spotted spider mite
Sundukov O.V., Tulaeva I.A.

Abstract

Background. Information on the change in the correlation of genotypes in arthropod populations after treatment of crops with pesticides is essential for effective insectoacaricide resistance management.

Materials and methods. Lines of two-spotted mite the homozygous for the gene of resistance to malathion, bifenthrin, bromopropylate and abamectin were obtained by disruptive selection cycles with treatments diagnostic concentrations of these acaricides. Crossing mites were produced heterozygous females with genes of resistance to malation and one of the other three acaricides, as well as families of their filial generation. Females of the three genotypes were compared the value of the degree resistance when testing mites by diagnostic concentrations of acaricides.

Results. Combinations of distribution of alleles of resistance to acaricides of different chemical classes in mites of the filial generation of diheterozygous females did not determine the differences from the parent females in the degree of mortality.

Conclusion. Epistatic interaction of alleles of resistance to toxicants of different chemical classes allows be used only two insectoacaricides in turn for resistance management.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):63-68
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Complex study of potential toxicity and genotoxicity of water samples from natural sources of the suburban zone of Almaty
Lovinskaya A.V., Kolumbayeva S.Z., Suvorova M.A., Iliyassova A.I., Biyasheva Z.M., Abilev S.K.

Abstract

Background. Natural aquatic ecosystems are the habitat of many organisms, a source of drinking water, a resource for human activities and are subjected to anthropogenic pressure. In this regard, interest in studying the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of surface waters has increased significantly. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the surface waters of the suburban area of Almaty.

Material and methods. The research materials were water samples of the rivers Esik, Turgen and Lake Esik. The atomic absorption method, lux-test, cytogenetic tests (Hordeum vulgare L.), phytotoxicity test (Allium cepa L.) and embryotoxicity (Danio rerio H.) were used.

Results. Physico-chemical water analysis revealed an excess of MPC for Mn, Pb, Cd, Zn. Using the lux-test on E. coli KatG strains, the pro-oxidant activity of Esik R. water. On the plant test objects revealed toxicity and mutagenicity of water samples. The results of bio-testing of natural waters with D. rerio revealed their high toxicity and teratogenicity for embryos at all stages of development.

Conclusion. The results of this study obtained on various test-systems and test-objects indicate that surface waters are contaminated by environmentally dangerous factors that pose a threat to biota and human health.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):69-81
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Impact of electromagnetic uhf radiation on genome destabilization in bone marrow cell of rat strains with contrast nervous system excitability
Dyuzhikova N.A., Vaido A.I., Daev E.V., Kopyltsov A.V., Surma S.V., Shchegolev B.F., Serov I.N.

Abstract

Сhromosomal machinery of highly excited animals with low threshold of the nervous system excitability (LT strain) is more susceptible to the damaging effect of high frequency EMR compared against the animals with high threshold of the nervous system excitability (HT strain). High nervous system excitability determines greater decrease in chromosome aberrations level in the presence of additional reflecting elements – Aires Defender Pro resonators under UHF-waves of standard Wi-Fi router. It is shown that the genotype of animals and the functional state of their nervous system affect susceptibility to the UHF EMR and the action of resonators.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):83-92
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Protective effect of extracts of Teucrium Polium and Rumex Crispus against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxic damage in human lymphocytes
Yuksel S., Sezer S., Kurtoglu E., Bag H.

Abstract

Teucrium polium (T. polium) and Rumex crispus (R. crispus) are plant species that grow widely in Anatolia and are thought to have healing effects for many diseases. In this study plant extracts are suggested as alternative agents in repairing cellular damage by using sister chromatid exchange (SCE), micronucleus (MN), mitotic index (MI), replication index (RI) and nuclear abnormalities (NAs), against the genotoxicity of cyclophosphamide (CP) in the human lymphocyte cells. 8 experimental groups were formed in the study. The cell culture medium was supplemented with 0.16 μg/ml CP and the cells were treated with 50, 100 and 250 μM T. polium and R. crispus extracts in the presence and absence of CP. As a result, CP significantly decreased MI frequency while increasing SCE, MN and NAs frequencies in cells. 100 μM T. polium plus CP decreased SCEs when compared with CP alone. In addition, MN frequency was significantly decreased in 100 μM T. poliumplus CP and 250 μM R. crispus plus CP combine groups. Our results suggest that these plant extracts are not genetically damaging and have improving effects at these doses.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):93-100
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Assessment of the equivalence of technical materials of analogous pesticides to original active substances on the basis of “mutagenicity” criterion
Ilyushina N.A.

Abstract

In the Russian Federation about 600 active ingredients of pesticides are currently registered. A large share among them is occupied by analogous pesticides (generics), which may differ in their properties from the original products due to an increased level or altered composition of impurities. Therefore, to ensure the safe use of analogous pesticides, it is necessary to evaluate their chemical and toxicological equivalence. The analysis of algorithms described in international documents and implemented in practice in some countries for determination of the equivalence of technical materials of analog pesticides is presented. Particular attention is paid to the evaluation of pesticide safety on the basis of the “mutagenicity” criterion. The applicability of different methods for genotoxic activity determination to confirm the equivalence of active substances of pesticides-analogues to patented products is discussed. A brief review of the results of the researches confirming the need to assess the genotoxicity of all technical materials of analogous pesticides with a view to preventing the entry of hazardous substances into the consumer market is presented.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):101-112
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Opinions, discussions
Diversity of RNA interference pathways in regulation of endogenous and exogenous sequences expression in ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium
Nekrasova I.V., Potekhin A.A.

Abstract

RNA interference plays a major role in biology of ciliates. Diverse small RNAs regulate many processes in vegetative cells of ciliates Tetrahymena and Paramecium. Different types of endogenous and exogenous nucleotide sequences induce different RNAi pathways resulting in silencing of the homologous sequences in the macronuclear genome. Likely this way ciliates are able to quickly inactivate heterogeneous sequences and to adapt efficiently to the environmental conditions and external stimuli.

Ecological genetics. 2019;17(2):113-125
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