Vol 26, No 2 (2018)

Original researches
Three-dimensional reconstruction of substantia nigra pars compacta of human brain
Voronkov D.N., Salkov V.N., Khudoerkov R.M.
Abstract

Background. Up to the moment there is no universally accepted scheme of spatial organization of the groups of neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta of the human midbrain. A detailed study of the architectonics of this structure is necessary for pathomorphological analysis of agerelated changes in the nervous tissue and the associated neurodegenerative diseases with selective death of dopamine neurons.

Aim. To clarify the peculiarities of the morphochemical organization of the substantia nigra (SN) of a human brain and to create a threedimensional model of pars compacta.

Materials and Methods. Threedimensional reconstruction of substantia nigra pars compacta was performed on the brain autopsy material of individuals without neurological pathology (n=10, between 52 to 84 years of age) using a method of computed morphometry. Sections of the midbrain were stained by Nissl method and by an immunohistochemical method for localization of tyrosine hydroxylase – a marker of dopamine.

Results. In the SN pars compacta accumulations of neurons were identified in the form of 9 bands oriented in the rostrocaudal direction and including four areas: medial, lateral, dorsal and ventral. Morphometric analysis detected significant differences in the density of neurons and in expression of tyrosine hydroxylase between the areas of SN.

Conclusion. A model of cellular organization of SN pars compacta proposed by us on the basis of threedimensional reconstruction is characterized by a high degree of detalization as compared to similar works, and shows expressed spatial differentiation of the groups of neurons of SN which should be taken into consideration in pathomorphological examinations.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):175-183
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Morphological illustration of alterations in the arterial endothelium in ischemic and reperfusion injuries
Pshennikov A.S., Deev R.V.
Abstract

Background. Reperfusion syndrome is an inevitable event in recovery of the blood flow after a longstanding ischemia. The article is dedicated to the study of the expressiveness of this condition.

Aim to compare the depth of morphological alterations of the arterial endothelium in ischemic and reperfusion injury in experiment.

Materials and Мethods. The work was conducted on 90 laboratory animals – rats of Wistar line. Models of ischemia and reperfusion were obtained by compression of the abdominal part of the aorta (1st group) with further conditioning (2nd group). The animals were withdrawn from the experiment and the vessel wall was taken on the 1st, 3d, 5th, 7th day. Preparations were studied in a transmission electron microscope «Libra 120» with automatic scanning of images.

Results. Comparison of pathomorphological data obtained in examination of the aortas and iliac arteries of the two groups of animals («ischemia» and «reperfusion») showed that the cascade of pathomorphological changes includes several main stages. Transient ischemia leads to injury (alteration) of the main components of the vessel wall. Under action of this factor endotheliocytes exhibit a nonspecific response changing their synthetic activity that was manifested by a complex of morphological signs in the nucleus, karyolemma, cytoplasm and plasmalemma. In some cells the changes took an irreversible character and were accompanied by rupture of mitochondrial membranes, of general purpose organelles and of plasmalemma. Such endotheliocytes died and were desquamated. Because of short duration of ischemia these changes were insignificant. Subendothelial structures underwent edema which is logical in view of derangement of the barrier function of the epithelium and presence of a mild inflammatory component (in response to death of a part of endotheliocytes and cells of the vascular wall stroma). Examination of the ultrastructure of the vessel wall in the ischemiareperfusion group revealed adaptive and pathological changes in the endothelial cells. Data were obtained that evidence a significant disorder in microhemodynamics in tissues in reperfusion.

Conclusion. No significant structural and ultrastructural differences in injuries and reactive changes in «ischemia» and «reperfusion» groups were found. In view of this, for subtle differentiation of pathomorphogenesis of these two conditions it is reasonable to use examination methods with higher resolution.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):184-194
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The effect of arginine on the activity and compartmentalization of lysosomal cysteine proteinases of parenchymatous organs in oxidative stress on the background of experimental hyperhomocysteinemia
Fomina M.A., Terent'ev A.A.
Abstract

Aim. Evaluation of the effect of arginine on the activity and intracellular distribution of cathepsins B, L, H in liver, kidney and lung tissue in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia and developing on its background oxidative damage of proteins.

Materials and Methods. Hyperhomocysteinemia in male rats of the Wistar line was formed by daily oral administration of a suspension of methionine at a dose of 1.5 g/kg 2 times a day for 21 days, to study the action of arginine the substance was used orally from 12 to 21 days of methionine administration at a dose of 500 mg/kg. In tissue homogenates measurements were carried out in cytoplasmic and lysosomal fractions. The state of oxidative modification of proteins was evaluated by analysis of the absorption spectrum of carbonyl derivatives, the activity of cathepsins B, L, H was determined by spectrofluorometric method, the activity of acid phosphatase – by the unified method «at the end point».

Results. In the cytoplasmic (nonsedimentary) fraction of the liver and kidney reduced activity of cathepsin L (in both tissues), cathepsin B (in the kidney), cathepsin H (in the liver) was found on the background of the increase in the products of proteins oxidative modification in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia. The introduction of arginine in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia completely eliminated the manifestations of oxidative damage of proteins, partially correcting the activity of enzymes: there was an increase in the activity in non sedimentary (cytoplasmic) fraction due to intracellular redistribution of enzymes. There is found inverse correlation between the content of oxidative carbonylation products of proteins and the activity of cathepsins in the non sedimentary fraction, as well as the proportion of their non sedimentary activity.

Conclusions. 1. Arginine at a dose of 500 mg/kg at a 10day administration completely corrects the increase in the products of oxidative protein carbonylation that develops in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia. 2. Under the influence of arginine there is an increase in the reduced due to isolated hyperhomocysteinemia activity of cathepsins B, L, H in the cytoplasmic fraction of the liver and kidney due to intracellular redistribution of enzymes. 3. Arginine administration causes nonselective increase of the lysosomal membrane permeability, and as a result, changes in the compartmentalization of lysosomal cysteine proteases. 4. The inverse correlation of the level of protein oxidative modification products with the activity of cathepsins in cytoplasmic (nonsedimentary) fractions, and the proportions of their nonsedimentary activity, suggesting the presence of contribution of changes in the compartmentalization of lysosomal cysteine proteinases in developing under the action of arginine compensation of oxidative stress in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):195-212
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Evaluation of biological effectiveness of amino acid mixture as potential stimulator of synthetic processes in skeletal muscles
Stogov M.V., Kireeva E.A.
Abstract

Background. The ability of certain amino acids to stimulate anabolic processes in skeletal muscles has been proved by fundamental research, which makes it important to search for effective agents based on amino acids for stimulation of synthetic processes in skeletal muscles.

Aim. To study the effect of oral administration of the original amino acid mixture (Larginine, Lmethionine, Lleucine, Lisoleucine) on protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in skeletal muscles and liver of CBA male mice.

Material and Methods. Two series of experiments were performed. In the first series (n=36), the animals were divided into three groups. In group 1 (n = 12), the mice received a diet balanced in protein and carbohydrates for two months. The animals of group 2 (n=12) were kept on a carbohydrate, proteindepleted isocaloric diet, in which wheat gliadin served as the protein source. Mice of group 3 (n=12) were kept on a diet similar to the second group, in which deficit of protein was compensated for with the tested mixture of Lamino acids. In the animals of the second series (n=36) acute liver failure was modeled by a single intraperitoneal injection of 20% carbon tetrachloride solution (CTC) in olive oil. Three days after the injection of CTC, all animals of the second series were randomly divided into three groups, depending on the received diet.

Results. The results of the first series of experiments showed that compensation for protein deficiency with amino acid mixture reliably prevented excessive buildup of glycogen in muscles, led to a decrease in lipids in tissue, and also prevented reduction in the level of muscle protein. The results of the second series of experiments showed that intake of the amino acid mixture prevented loss of protein in muscles and supported the proteinsynthetic function of the liver.

Conclusion. The study demonstrated that the tested mixture, when taken orally, can prevent disorders of proteincarbohydratelipid ratio in the muscles.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):213-221
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Angiotensins in the central mechanisms of drinking instrumental activity of rats with different manifestations of risk behavior
Vlasenko R.Y., Kotov A.V.
Abstract

Aim. To carry out a comparative analysis of characteristics of drinking instrumental activity in rats with different manifestation of risk behavior before and after intracerebral introduction of equally productive dipsogenic doses of angiotensins.

Materials and Мethods. The work was conducted on 19 Wistar male rats of 250300 g mass. All manipulations with animals were performed in accordance with the international ethic recommendations on biomedical research with use of animals. All rats were preliminarily scalped under ether anesthesia with removal of soft tissues and periosteum. The cannulae were introduced into rat’s brain through the trephine opening in the lateral ventricle. The length of each cannula was 8 mm, the internal diameter – 0.8 mm. All cannulae had a special restrictor at the distance of about 3.5 mm from the implantable end. Each animal was implanted one cannula into the lateral ventricle of the brain on the right or left side according to the coordinates of stereotaxic atlas for rats (L.D. Pellegrino at al., 1979) (AP = +1.0; L= 2; H= 2.5). Microinjections of substances were made into the brain of nonnarcotized animals using a microsyringe of 5 μL volume («Hamilton», the USA). For intraventricular microinjections, angiotensinII, angiotensinIII and [des – Asp1]angiotensinI («Sigma», the USA) were used.

Results. In the article the mechanisms of realization of drinking instrumental activity in rats with different manifestations of risk behavior are described. In view of P.K. Anokhin’s general theory of functional systems, the effects of application of «equally productive» doses of angiotensins on initiation of specific patterns of drinking behavior in rats are discussed. Risk is considered as an independent component of systemic organization of purposive behavior of an individual. It is shown that the «integral pattern of individual behavior» of rats is selectively modulated by angiotensinII and angiotensinIII. This selectivity has a narrow focus and individual manifestations, depending on the background activity of the animals.

Conclusion. Depending on the initial level of the intensity of instrumental activity of the animals (with different manifestations of risk behavior), angiotensin II and angiotensin III are involved into initiation of fullscale «integral pattern of individual drinking behavior» or participate in the directed modulation of complex purposive behavior manifested by enhancement of dipsogenic effect. At the same time, [des – Asp1]angiotensinI does not participate in the mechanisms of reproduction of the acquired drinking instrumental habits but induces only mechanisms of initiation of congenital individual forms of drinking behavior.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):222-228
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Clinical and laboratory peculiarities of combined clinical course of metabolic and articular syndromes
Gorbunova D.Y., Morgunova Z.A., Uryasyev O.M.
Abstract

Aim. To identify clinical and laboratory peculiarities of a combined clinical course of metabolic and articular syndromes.

Materials and Methods. In the research 126 individuals participated. They were arranged into 3 groups: the 1st group included 46 patients with comorbid pathology, the 2nd group – 44 patients with metabolic syndrome, and the 3d group – 36 patients with articular syndrome. The following parameters were evaluated: anthropometric data (height, body mass, body mass index, waist circumference), lipid spectrum, glycohemoglobin, nonspecific markers of inflammation, daily profile of arterial pressure.

Results. In the group with comorbid pathology higher average values of body mass were recorded – 115.8 [60;140] kg in comparison with the 2nd and 3d groups – 93.5 [72;130] and 71.5 [58;98] kg, respectively; erythrocyte sedimentation rate – 18.3 [5;34] mm/h was reliably higher than in the 2nd group (11.5 [2;24] mm/h), and median cholesterol (6.18 [5,39;6,85] mmol/L) was higher than in the 3d group (4.82 [3,48;5,61] mmol/L). In the 1st and 2nd groups higher average values of systolic arterial pressure were recorded in comparison with the 3d group – 158,5 [120;190]; 154,6 [115;190] and 126,4 [96;168] mm Hg, respectively.

Conclusions. In patients with combined metabolic and articular syndromes higher values of body mass and systolic arterial pressure were identified. Based on the laboratory findings, parameters of cholesterol and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were higher in patients with comorbid condition than in those with the isolated pathologies.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):229-237
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Agerelated dynamics of elasticity of deep dorsal vein of human penis according to results of direct measurements
Strelkov A.N., Ulitenko A.I.
Abstract

Background. An important role in the mechanism of the development and support of erection is assigned to the venous system of penis. At the same time, diacrisis and surgical correction of the disordered venous drainage is not successful in all cases. The rate of erection disorders is associated with various factors, but progressively grows with the age.

Aim. To define the agerelated dynamics of flexibility of the major venous vessel of penis – a deep dorsal vein – in a direct experiment.

Materials and methods. Research was conducted on samples of a deep dorsal vein of penis obtained in autopsy of 30 males who have died suddenly from injuries or acute diseases at the age from 18 to 83 years. A deep dorsal vein of penis was isolated by an acute method without surrounding tissues. A fragment of the vein 2.53.5 cm in length was isolated distally the retaining ligament used as a reference point. In the course of experiments samples of veins were exposed to discretely increasing stretching force in the longitudinal direction with fixation of the corresponding absolute increments in the length on a specially designed installation using the original technique.

Results. The mathematical analysis of the results of direct measurements of elastic properties of the studied vein permitted to reveal a considerable – about 20% – reduction in the elasticity of the vein in the studied age range 18 years – 83 years from α0 = 6,2∙108 m2/N to α0 = 5,0∙108 m2/N. With increase in the force of load, the average value of vein elasticity rapidly declined, and asymptotically approached the established value of the order of α = 1,4∙108 m2/N. Here, the agerelated tendency to reduction in the elasticity with different degree of the functional load persists.

Conclusion. The identified regularities of decline in the elasticity reflect changes in the wall of a deep dorsal vein with age that may play a role in the agerelated increase in the rate of erectile dysfunction. The applied method of determination of elasticity can be used for determination of elasticity of vessels of other localizations and also of some other biological tissues in norm and pathology.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):238-244
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Transarterial chemoembolisation in the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer
Shabunin A.V., Tavobilov M.M., Paklina O.V., Grekov D.N., Setdikova G.R., Drozdov P.A.
Abstract

Aim. To assess effectiveness of chemoembolization of hepatic artery (CEHA) in treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, and also to determine the optimal interval in combination of CEHA with other treatment methods.

Materials and Methods. The study includes analysis of the results of treatment of 30 patients with resectable metastases of colorectal cancer in the liver. The first group included 15 patients with resection made 1 week after CEHA. The second group consisted of 15 patients in whom resection operation was made 2 weeks after CENA with subsequent assessment of morphological changes in metastases.

Results. Therapeutic pathomorphism was recorded in 25/30 patients. In the first group, therapeutic pathomorphism was observed in 13/15 patients. In 11/13 patients, the 2nd degree of therapeutic pathomorphism was recorded. In 2/13 patients – the 1st degree. In the second group, therapeutic pathomorphism was observed in 12/15 patients. In all patients the 2nd degree of therapeutic pathomorphism was recorded. No significant differences in the degree of therapeutic pathomorphism were recorded on the 7th and 14th day after regional chemotherapy (p=0.436).

Conclusion. Hepatic artery chemoembolization is an effective method of treating patients with metastases of colorectal cancer in the liver. In use of chemoembolization of hepatic artery in combination with other surgical methods, the sevenday time interval is optimal.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):245-257
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Clinical and epidemiological features of mycoplasma infection in children in Ryazan region
Belykh N.A., Fokicheva N.N., Piskunova M.A., Shilina S.A., Fedoseeva N.Y., Каlashnikova O.N., Skobeev I.G., Маyorova E.V.
Abstract

Background. Acute respiratory infections are an urgent problem of pediatrics due to the high incidence rate and high risk of bacterial complications.

Aim. The aim of the study was to analyze the statistical indicators of the incidence of communityacquired pneumonia (CAP) in children of the Ryazan region, to determine the clinical and epidemiological features of mycoplasmal infection, and to assess its role in CAP morbidity in children.

Materials and Меthods. The analysis of the incidence of CAP in children of the Ryazan region (20142016) and of medical documentation of 106 children (55 boys, 51 girls) (age from 9 months to 17 years) was conducted. All patients underwent oxigenometry, clinical and laboratory examination, radiography, detection of specific IgM antibodies to M. pneumoniae.

Results. In the Ryazan region there is noted an increase in the incidence of CAP in children as compared to the stable level of the incidence of CAP in Russia: in children under 14 years of age the incidence is 1.5 times higher than in 2014 and 2.8 times higher than in 2015, and is 2 times higher than in 2014 in 1517 year old children. Most commonly mycoplasmosis was recorded in preschool age children, with the peak incidence in OctoberDecember. The disease began acutely without significant symptoms of intoxication and local changes. 77.3% of children had pneumonia, mostly rightsided (48.8%), and 33.1% had a mixed bacterial infection. Hematological indices indicated the presence of iron deficiency anemia in 12.3%, and moderate leukocytosis in 28% of children. Antibiotic therapy was carried out with the use of macrolides, and in case of mixed bacterial infection a combination of antibiotics with cephalosporins of the 3d generation was used.

Conclusion. In recent years there has been an increase in the incidence of CAP in children. Seasonality of hospitalization of children with mycoplasmal infection was revealed, and a high incidence of the disease in preschool children with chronic pathology. In 77.3% of examined children mycoplasmosis took the form of CAP, which influenced the incidence rate of CAP in children.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):258-267
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Clinical application of diode laser radiation for surgical treatment of patients with dental diseases
Morozova E.A., Tarasenko S.V., Zhuravlev A.N., Filimonova L.B., Stekolschikova Y.V.
Abstract

Background. Traumatism of surgical operations in dentistry dictates the need to search for minimally invasive methods of tissue alteration. The use of lasers makes it possible to solve this problem, since laser radiation possesses a lower operative injury, selective action and activates the reparative processes in the wound.

Aim. To increase the effectiveness of surgical treatment of dental patients by using a diode laser.

Materials and Methods. In a clinic, 134 patients from 18 to 82 years of age with various dental diseases were examined and underwent surgical treatment using a traditional method and a diode «PICASSO Lite» laser with 810 nm wavelength from AMD Lasers (USA), with the radiation power in the range from 0.6 to 1.0 W. The criteria for evaluation of the effectiveness of laser application were the data of clinical examination.

Results. In comparison with the traditional method of treatment, use of a surgical laser resulted in a less pronounced postoperative edema and pain. The difference between healing time of the operative wound after use of surgical laser and after the traditional treatment was 3±0.5 days in case of suturing of the wound and 7±0.5 days in case of wound healing under the fibrinous film and under the iodoform tampon. The wound defect induced by laser radiation passed all stages of the wound process much faster that with use of scalpel. In addition, selective removal of pathological tissues reduced the likelihood of injury to the oral mucosa, which leads to reduction in the duration of treatment.

Conclusions. Thus, the use of a diode laser allows to improve the technique of surgical treatment of patients and increases the effectiveness of treatment of patients with dental diseases.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):268-279
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Mud therapy in the rehabilitation of patients with cervical dorsopathy
Filatova E.V., Malayev K.M., Konovalov O.E.
Abstract

Aim. To identify specificity of reaction of a male and female organism to galvanic mud application procedures in cervicalgia.

Materials and Methods. 48 Patients (23 men and 25 women) with the diagnosis of cervicalgia who took a course of rehabilitation treatment in Republican Hospital of Rehabilitation Treatment of Makhachkala, were examined. The patients received medicinal treatment and medical massage. Galvanic mud therapy was conducted with the underlying standard therapy. The effectiveness and safety of the procedure were evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS), and also parameters of the arterial pressure and heart rate before and after the procedure, and also values of Kerdo vegetative index, body mass index, mobility of the cervical part of the spine, psychoemotional condition by WAM test.

Results. Analysis of predomination and characteristics of pain syndrome revealed predomination of the damage to the upper cervical parts (in women – 62.0%, in men – 40.0%), and statistically more common cervicocranialgias in women (22.0% against 8.0% in men). Headaches associated with pain in the neck were reliably more common in women than in men (48.0% and 10.0%, respectively). A significant difference in the rate of complaints of pain irradiation to the upper limbs was recorded (20.0% of women against 10.0% of men). Intensity of pain syndrome determined by VAS test significantly differed in the compared groups before rehabilitation (5.25±1.64 points in men and 5.62±1.98 points in women, р<0.05); after rehabilitation treatment VAS parameters decreased in both groups: in men down to 1.62±0.83 points (р<0.05), in women – to 2.25±1.07 points (р<0.05), here, no significant differences between the groups were found. In women with cervicalgias the distance between the upper and lower cervical vertebrae was on average 14.0±0.1 cm, increment on bending before treatment was 2.43±0.75 cm and after treatment 2.75±0.11 cm which indicates a tendency to normalization of the condition of muscle tissue, but preservation of spastic component.

Conclusion. Mud therapy in complex rehabilitation of patients positively influences recovery of the motor activity of the cervical part of the spine.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):280-287
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A case of successful surgical treatment of a patient with lymphedema of lower limbs
Myshencev P.N., Katorkin S.E., Lichman L.A.
Abstract

The importance of treatment of patients with lymphedema of lower limbs arises from difficulties in their medical and social rehabilitation. At the expressed stages of the disease resection surgical operations are indicated which present complicated interventions. In the work clinical observation of a 33 yearold female patient with IV stage of primary lymphedema of the right lower limb is presented. In the course of conservative treatment after a complex examination including volumetry, ultrasound, computed tomography, the patient was made dermalipofascioectomy using method of shave therapy. The operation of modified dermalipofascioectomy of the shin was performed by Karavanov II method under spinal anesthesia with use of mono and bipolar coagulation. At the stage of elimination of fibrotically changed tissue dermatome Acculan 3Ti (GA 670) was used with controlled ranges of thickness within 0.21.2 mm and width within 878 mm. Intraoperative loss of blood and lymph was 800 ml and was compensated for with crystalloid, colloid solutions and fresh frozen plasma in the volume of 600 ml. Active drainage of the region of the postoperative wound was conducted by Redon method within 1012 days. Postoperative period ran without complications, with improvement of the patient’s condition.

Clinical observation showed a positive role of application of shave therapy apparatus at the main stage of resection operations.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):288-295
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Reviews
Fruits of plants of Amelanchier genus (Amelanchier Medic) as source of biologically active substances and minerals
Laksaeva E.A.
Abstract

An interest in plants of Amelanchier genus is stimulated by the necessity of search for plant sources rich in biologically active substances and possessing the ability to influence different physiological processes in a human organism. The article gives information about places of growth of different species of Amelanchier (Amelanchier Medic) and about the fact that its fruits contain high concentration of free sugars, relatively low level of organic acids, sufficient amounts of various vitamins and provitamins and a complex of mineral substances. Nutritive and biological value of Amelanchier fruits in complex may produce a beneficial effect on different biochemical and physiological processes of normal vital activity of a human organism. The data are given about a positive influence of enteral introduction of polysaccharides isolated from Amelanchier fruits, on different physiological processes that enhance adaptational reserves of an organism of experimental animals. In particular, it was shown that watersoluble polysaccharide complex (WSPC) of Amelanchier fruits activates erythropoiesis increasing the amount of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in blood of experimental animals and raises concentration of iron. WSPC improves physical working capacity and increases the body mass of experimental animals. Addition of watersoluble polysaccharide complex of Amelanchier fruits to blood of a healthy donor increases thermal, osmotic and peroxide resistance of erythrocyte membranes thus protecting cells against damage under action of adverse factors in the experiment. Fruits of plants of Amelanchier genus may be recommended to be used as a food additive or a product in dietary and prophylactic therapy.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):296-304
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Possibilities of use of plant derived nonstarch polysaccharides in clinical practice
Chernykh I.V., Kirichenko E.E., Shchulkin A.V., Popova N.M., Kotlyarova A.A.
Abstract

Inhibition of Pglycoprotein transporter protein (ABCB1protein, Pgp) is a promising method to increase the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in different pathologies: neoplastic diseases, epilepsy, cerebral circulation disorders. Pgp is a large transmembrane protein that provides efflux of a wide range of endo and xenobiotics from cells, and plays a significant role in pharmacokinetics of many medical drugs. Nowadays not a single synthetic inhibitor of the transporter is used in clinical practice due to nonselectivity of action, toxicity and high cost. Medicinal herbal remedies possess different pharmacological and therapeutic effects, rarely cause side effects and are economically accessible. This review presents the results of experiments in which affiliation of the oligo and polysaccharides to substrates and inhibitors of Pgp was analyzed, and which precondition further studies of other plant derived polysaccharides. Possibilities of using plant derived nonstarch polysaccharides in complex therapy of tumors are described, since along with potential inhibition of the transporter, they possess an antitumor effect and can also assist in correction of side effects of cytostatics. The prospects of using plant derived nonstarch polysaccharides for improvement of the effectiveness of neuroprotective therapy are presented, because they not only can increase the penetration of neuroprotective drugs across the bloodbrain barrier through Pgp inhibition, but also possess their own neuroprotective activity, as well as a number of pharmacological effects that can give a positive result in the complex treatment of brain pathologies. Thus investigations of plant nonstarch polysaccharides, their isolation and development of medical drugs on their basis is a promising direction of modern medicine.

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):305-316
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Innovative aspects of I.P. Pavlov’s scientific and pedagogical activity
Chugunow L.
Abstract

Formation and development of Pavlov’s scientific ideas are traced in the historical objective material of Pavlov’s school.

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a brilliant organizer of collective scientific work. His innovation was represented in famous «Pavlov’s Wednesdays», organized in 1922.

«Pavlov’s Wednesdays» is not only the document of the physiologist’s thinking process about the higher nervous system in its highest phase of development and informative complex of his scientific doctrine – it is a new method of scientific creativity – «collective thinking».

I.P. Pavlov Russian Medical Biological Herald. 2018;26(2):317-321
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