Vol. 4, Issue 3, Suppl. 1 (2018)


Maglev trends in public transport: the perspectives of maglev transportation systems

Kluehspies J.


The idea of considering Maglev systems challenges established ways of thinking on how to deal with an increasing transport demand. Today, the railway industry seems focused on traditional business models that profit from friction, wear and tear of established conventional transport systems. Maglev Systems have begun to challenge those traditional business concepts. Maglev is a fundamentally different concept of transport – which might explain the reluctance, even ignorance, which Maglev systems continue to face.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):5-12
pages 5-12 views

Methodological base for the implementation of the magnetic levitation transport technology project in Russia

Igolkin G.V.


Aim: determine the methodological basis for forecasting social economic effect from  implementation of major infrastructure projects in world practice. To compile an individual list of evaluation criteria based on recent research about technical capabilities of magnetic levitational transport technology (MLTT) transport.

Methods: statistical methods of transport industry analysis and interbranch balance method are applied.

Results: the potential market for application of technology has been identified and a forecast for changing transport industry matrix has been made.

Conclusion: this article is the basis for conducting a comprehensive study of the social-economic response of the MLTT project implementation in Russia and determination of optimal parameters for public-private partnership during its realization.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):13-20
pages 13-20 views

Prospects of establishment of east-west transit transport corridor deploying magnetic levitation technology

Zaitsev A.A., Sokolova I.V.


According to economist Klaus Schwab, the today’s community is at the threshold of the Fourth Industrial Revolution which will influence transport branch especially. Today, we see a fundamental change of assessment of the place and role of transport in the world progress. At the governmental level the tasks of realisation of large-scale projects have been determined, which will be able to strengthen Russia’s positions at the world freight transport market, namely container transport, increase Russia’s transit potential, speed, quality of passenger service and freight transport.

 The authors suggest options to solve the set tasks building on the idea of implementation of innovative magnetic levitation technology while establishing East-West Transport Transit Corridor.

 Magnetic levitation technology is competitive with the existing modes of transport in key speed, sustainability, energy efficiency and safety parameters, namely ecological safety. The main purpose of establishment of a transit transport corridor is to introduce a new transport service with a unique number of properties. Accordingly, transport and technology tasks are solved which are associated with construction and modernisation of transport lines, terminals, information systems, etc. The project of transport transit corridor in question is suggested to undertake in three stages. The assessment of Russian container transport market and comparison study of maglev and conventional railway transport parameters confirm efficiency of the project. To deliver this project, the decision should be made at the governmental level.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):21-35
pages 21-35 views

Results of the complex optimization of maglev

Lascher A., Witt M., Frishman E., Umanov M.


In this paper, the analysis of the technology of complex optimization of transport is performed on the example of various Maglev systems for the passenger and goods transport

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):36-56
pages 36-56 views

Russia’s integrated transit transport system (itts) of on the basis of vacuum magnetic levitation transport (vmlt)

Terentyev Y.A., Filimonov V.V., Malinetskiy G.G., Smolin V.S., Koledov V.V., Suslov D.A., Karpukhin D.V., Mashirov A.V., Shavrov V.G., Fongratowski S.V., Kovalev K.L., Ilyasov R.I., Poltavets V.N., Levin B.A., Davydov A.M., Koshkidko Y.S., Kurenkov P.V., Karapetyants I.V., Kryukov P.V., Drozdov B.V., Kraposhin V.S., Semenov M.Y., Nizhelskiy N.A., Solomin V.A., Bogachev V.A., Fomin V.M., Nalyvaichenko D.G., Bogachev T.V., Tochilo V.V.


The Russian Federation is located at the crossroads of the trade routes of the Eurasian continent, where a significant volume of the transport flow of the world’s trade is formed. The transport potential of the territory of Russia, when implemented as an Integral Transit Transport System (ITTS), is comparable to the benefits from the traditional export of hydrocarbons and other raw materials. Analyzing the efficiency of transport systems, the key is the energy approach. The concept of ITTS is considered, based on all known and being developed transport lines, including high-speed vacuum magnetic levitation transport (VMLT). The fundamental problems are discussed being on the way to achieving the maximal speed, energy efficiency and throughput of VMLT. The preliminary findings are presented obtained from experiments on the test model of the VMLT route. It is concluded that there is a need for a deeper study of the properties of magnetic and superconducting materials in extreme high fields, power and speed regimes to search for fundamentally new technical solutions for the creation of VMLT

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):57-84
pages 57-84 views

Original papers

Practical investigation of future perspectives and limitations of maglev technologies

Wenk M., Kluehspies J., Blow L., Fritz E., Hekler M., Kircher R., Witt M.H.


Results of an International Survey among Transport Experts and Specialists Maglev.

With the aim of tracking current trends in the market perspectives of magnetic levitation, or maglev technologies, the non-profit International Maglev Board conducted a primary study in the spring of 2018 among maglev specialists and transportation professionals. More than 1 000 professionals took part in the survey. Main topics of the study are questions comparing the suitability of conventional wheel-on-rail and maglev technologies according to application areas. Predicted opportunities and developments in maglev technology, acceptance issues and research needs are analyzed. The results are broken down by expertise and nationality of the participants. This short version presents selected findings of the survey in compressed form.

Background: There is an obvious need for information on international trends in the application of Maglev transport technologies. The study attempts to grasp the global dimension of magnetic levitation developments in a structured way.

Aim: To track current trends in magnetic levitation transport system innovation. Identify perspectives, research tasks and implementation barriers. Comparison of magnetic levitation systems with steel wheel systems. Analysis of the key topics of the debate.

Methods: Primary study in spring 2018 among 1 058 maglev specialists and transport experts. Internet-based online survey.

Results: The ratings vary greatly according to the expertise and origin of the respondents. In certain fields of application, wheel-rail systems remain the preferred transport technology. But in certain other fields of application, maglev technologies have become preferred over conventional steel-wheel-rail by a majority of transport professionals. This is particularly the case for high-speed maglev transport and for the new application of maglev elevators in buildings. At the same time, many respondents see a continuing need for research.

Conclusion: Overall, there is a differentiated picture. Respondents from North and South America, Russia and Asia are on average particularly open to an implementation of certain maglev technologies.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):85-104
pages 85-104 views

Current mode performance of a traction linear induction motor driven from the voltage converter

Palka R., Woronowicz K., Kotwas J.


Background: The paper deals with the modelling of a traction Linear Induction Motor (LIM) for public transportation. Typical problems arising from the electromagnetic finite element model development are described. The end effect causes asymmetry of phase impedances of the LIM. Because of that, if the LIM is supplied from the voltage inverter, which is usually the case, the phase currents become asymmetric. This causes performance calculation discrepancies in models that assume phase current symmetry.

Aim: The aim of the paper is to develop a method for calculating the imbalanced three-phase LIM currents to precisely predict the LIM performance.

Methods: Here, a method is developed to calculate the LIM phase current asymmetry by means of a self-developed electromagnetic finite element program – ELMAG, capable of adapting mesh generation based on Reynolds, Péclet and skin-depth numbers.

Results: The calculated asymmetric currents are used in a real size traction LIM calculation in COMSOL, to derive the performance characteristics for comparison with the results achieved when supplying the LLIM with the symmetric three phase current.

Conclusion: These results show that the natural asymmetry of the currents is an important factor that must be considered in appropriately calculating the LIM performance.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):105-114
pages 105-114 views

Disruptive technologies transforming urban mobility? The role of the ecobee urban maglev system in the seoul traffic vision 2030, South Korea

Hekler M., Klühspies J.


The dynamics and extent of disruptive technologies have been very well developed in Asian cities by the beginning of the 21st century, and are becoming particularly future-oriented. It also appears that urban mobility strategies in Asia are hardly slowed by resistance such as seen in the European context, where holding on to existing systems is the norm. The effects of accelerated mobility strategies in Asia are already apparent compared to what may be expected in Europe. So one could ask, which innovation processes will allow mobility to further develop? How will urban transport systems likely change in the future to minimize adverse impacts of current forms of mobility? In looking forward, any implementation of innovative mobility strategies heavily depends on spatial structures, transport networks and technologies as well as a political planning and decision-making. In Asia, concepts of transport and innovative transportation concepts (such as Rotem’s Ecobee Urban Maglev) are developing with considerable promise, which, if successful, can turn into trendsetters with considerable future relevance on a global scale.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):115-123
pages 115-123 views

Characterization of levitation force for a superconducting magnetic levitation vehicle

Costa F., De Andrade R., Stephan R.


Background: In Superconducting Magnetic Levitation (SML) transportation systems, such as the MagLev-Cobra prototype, the levitation force plays an important role, both for efficiency and safety reasons.

Aim: Determination of the maximum load on the magnetic suspension.

Methods: To determine how much load the magnetic suspension system supports, numerical simulations, based on computational models, and laboratory experimental tests are normally used.

The most commonly way for characterization of a SML bearing is the measurement of the levitation force as a function of distance between a Superconductor (YBCO) [1, 2] and a Permanent Magnet Guideway (PMG). The measurement of levitation as a function of distance, the banana curve, has a hysteretic behavior with the results depending of the history of measurement: whether the distance between the superconductor and the PMG is decreasing the force is higher than when the distance is increasing, the force is higher with faster movements and so on. A different approach of levitation force test will be proposed as an alternative to the hysteresis curve. This method, applied to characterize the levitation dynamics of the Maglev-Cobra vehicle, provided more reliable and consistent data with the levitation dynamics observed during the operation of the real scale prototype in the transportation of passengers.

The bench-top levitation test emulates the behavior of the vehicle along its operation, regardless of the position history between the magnets and the superconductor materials. The test consists in placing the superconductor, refrigerated inside cryostats, in a predetermined Field Cooling (FC) position, and slowly move the cryostat above the PMG to a lower high, for example 15 mm, and wait 10 minutes. After that, the high is decreased 1 mm and again hold there for 10 minutes. The procedure is repeated until a high of 10 mm is reached. The hole process is repeated at least 5 times. This routine replicates the load condition during the vehicle operation when passengers board the train and the load stay constant until the end of the journey. After that, another group of passengers takes place inside the vehicle and is carried to the next station.

This kind of test shows the creep of the levitation force over time with slow dynamics and gives the average load over height of levitation along the given time of operation, helping engineers to predict the load capacity of the vehicle and design a more reliable layout.

Results: Three FC positions were investigated. The position currently used by the MagLev-Cobra (35 mm) and other 2 positions (45 mm and 55 mm) of initial height between the superconductor and the permanent magnet guideway.

Conclusion: All these results contribute to an improvement in the criticality index and a safe application of this system on transportation of persons.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):124-133
pages 124-133 views

Energy consumption of track-based high-speed trains: maglev systems in comparison with wheel-rail systems

Fritz E., Blow L., Kluhspies J., Kircher R., Witt M.H.


Background: The energy consumption of a high-speed system is an important part of its total operational costs. This paper compares the secondary energy demand of different wheel-rail systems, such as ICE, TGV and Shinkansen, and maglev systems, such as Transrapid and Chuo Shinkansen.

In the past, energy values of systems with different conditions (train configuration, dimension, capacity, maximum speed) were frequently compared. The comparative values were often represented by the specific energy consumption based on passenger capacity and line-kilometer values.

Aim: The goal is to find a way to compare the specific energy consumption of different high-speed systems without any distortion of results.

Methods: A comparison of energy values based on normative usable areas inside the high-speed systems will be described and evaluated in this paper, transforming the results to a more distortion-free comparison of energy consumption of different systems.

Results: The results show the energy consumption as an important characteristic parameter of high-speed transportation systems based on an objective comparison and give ranges of expected energy demand of different systems dependent on maximum speed level.

Conclusion: Up to the design speed of wheel-rail systems there are slight advantages in terms of energy consumption for the Transrapid maglev. From the perspective of energy consumption under consideration to reduce travel time, high-speed maglev systems represent a promising option for new railway projects. However, a project-specific system decision must be based on a complete life-cycle cost analysis, including investment cost

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):134-155
pages 134-155 views

Study on the optimization of linear induction motor traction system for fast-speed maglev train

Yang Y., Deng J., Tong L., Li X., Peng Q., Zhang W.


Background: The short stator linear induction motor (LIM) is normally used in medium-low speed maglev train.

The restriction by mounting space on bogie and motor input voltage from the third power supply rail lead that the maximum speed of medium-low speed maglev train can reach no more than 120 km/h.

Aim: In this paper, by means of the LIM design optimization, improvement of the LIM force characteristic in high speed range, the maximum speed of medium-low speed maglev train can reach 160 km/h.

Methods: After comparing the LIM theoretical calculation and actual test data, it shows that the new designed LIM is effective.

Conclusion: Afterwards, by installing the new designed LIMs, the traditional medium-low speed maglev train becomes a fast-speed maglev train, and it has a bright future in transportation applications.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):156-164
pages 156-164 views

Empirical investigation of possible concerns regarding the use of magnetic levitation elevators

Kirchner M.


The article was retracted from the issue by the editorial team due to accidental duplication of the article from another issue of the journal. The actual link to original publication: https://doi.org/10.17816/transsyst201843134-142

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):165-172
pages 165-172 views

Theoretical base and methods of the complex optimization of maglev

Lascher A.


Background: In this study the feasibility of using Maglev transport through the determination of the limits of the effective application of the MLX01 and TRANSRAPID compared with railway systems was investigated.

Aim: Development of the technology of complex optimization of Maglev.

Methods: Resource-oriented optimization, system analysis, structured modeling, creation of the dynamic models, vector optimization, combined principle of optimization control, operation concept of the Maglev systems, economic aspects of the modeling, comparative analysis, determination of the borders of effective application of the compared transport technologies, research tools.

Results: Providing of maximum adapted configurations Maglev systems according to the conditions of their application. At the same time these configurations correspond to the state of the most stable equilibrium between all groups and the elements of the general optimization process.

Conclusion: This paper is scientifically justified work, which intended to accelerate the process of implementation Maglev technologies in the existing transport infrastructure

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):173-194
pages 173-194 views

Retrospective and perspectives of the superconducting magnetic levitation (sml) technology applied to urban transportation

Stephan R., Costa F., Rodriguez E., Deng Z.


A review of the Superconducting Magnetic Levitation (SML) technology applied to urban transportation will be presented. The historical time line will be highlighted, pointing out the pioneering efforts at Southwest Jiatong University (SWJTU), China, followed by the Supra Trans project in IFW-Dresden, Germany, and the MagLev-Cobra project in UFRJ, Brazil.

Background:  Details of the MagLev-Cobra project, the first, and until today the single one, applying the SML technology that counts with a real scale prototype, operating regularly in open air, will be disclosed. The inauguration of the MagLev-Cobra project was on the 1st October 2014, the last day of the “22nd International Conference on Magnetically Levitated Systems and Linear Drives (MAGLEV)” held in Rio de Janeiro. Curiously, this day coincides with the 50th anniversary of the successful operation of the Shinkansen in Tokyo. On the 1st October 1964, the first high-speed wheel and rail train in the world was inaugurated in time for the first Olympic Games that took place in Asia. This historical coincidence is a good omen for the MagLev-Cobra project. In fact, since October 2014, the system operates regularly for demonstration at the UFRJ Campus, every Tuesday. More than 12.000 visitors have already had the opportunity to take a test ride.

Aim: The Proceedings of the MAGLEV conferences, which first edition dates back to 1977 (http://www.maglevboard.net), are the documentary files of the importance of this achievement. Initially, the methods named Electromagnetic Levitation (EML) and Electrodynamic Levitation (EDL) were considered.

Methods: At the end of last century, due to the availability of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets and High Critical Temperature Superconductors (HTS), an innovative levitation method, called Superconducting Magnetic Levitation (SML), started to be considered. This method is based on the flux pinning effect property of HTS in the proximity of magnetic fields given by rare earth permanent magnets. The first experiments with SML, as expected, were small scale prototypes, or laboratory vehicles for one, two or four passengers, proposed mainly by researchers from Germany, China and Brazil. The Proceedings of the 16th MAGLEV, held in year 2000, confirms this fact. After 14 years of research and development, the team of the Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity (LASUP) of UFRJ achieved the construction of the first real scale operational SML vehicle in the world.

Results: This retrospective will be followed by a comparison with the EML technology, that has already four urban commercial systems, will be presented and the application niches delimited.

Conclusion: The perspectives of the MagLev-Cobra project and the cooperation efforts with China to turn it a commercial experience will finish the paper. As will be explained, before the commercial application of the MagLev-Cobra technology, the system must be certified and the technical, economic and environmental viability for a first deployment concluded.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):195-202
pages 195-202 views

Progress in the research of copper-oxide superconductors

Tang S., Pan H., Xu Z.


Since H·Carvalin·Onnesse discovered the superconductivity of mercury in 1911, we have made progress in the research of the superconductor and the superconductor have evolved from single element, alloy to complex compounds with multiple elements.With the development of the research about new superconducting materials, the research of iron based superconductors, copper-oxide superconductor and magnesium boride superconductor is the latest research trend. So far the proved highest superconducting transition temperature of copper-oxide superconductor is 130 K under normal pressure and could reach more than 160 K under high pressure. Based on the experience accumulated in past decades, we propose some general introduction about the main structure type, the superconducting principle and the application of copper-oxide superconductor.It is expected that a positive effect would be made in the research of copper-oxide superconductor.

Background: Since H·Carvalin·Onnesse discovered the superconductivity of mercury in 1911, we have made progress in the research of the superconductor and the superconductor have evolved from single element, alloy to complex compounds with multiple elements.

Aim: The purpose of this paper is to explain the differences between copper oxide superconductors and conventional superconductors and their superconducting mechanism.

Methods: The superconducting mechanism and structure of copper oxide superconductors were analyzed by means of literature investigation, conceptual analysis and comparative study.

Results: In this paper, the different structure forms of copper oxide are analyzed, and its superconducting mechanism is described in detail. The applications of several main copper oxide superconductors are introduced.

Conclusion: Based on the experience accumulated in past decades, we propose some general introduction about the main structure type, the superconducting principle and the application of copper-oxide superconductor.It is expected that a positive effect would be made in the research of copper-oxide superconductor.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):203-211
pages 203-211 views

A novel design of electromagnetic levitation system for high-speed maglev train

Long Z., Wang Z., Cheng H., Li X.


Aim: To reduce the levitation energy consumption and alleviate the adverse effects caused by the over-heating of the electromagnet.

Methods: The design and manufacturing of hybrid electromagnet are introduced firstly. Secondly, the modification of driving chopper module together with a levitation control strategy and the design of an adsorption-prevention module are presented in details. Thirdly, a complete two-carriage maglev train is upgraded with the proposed hybrid electromagnet, choppers, and adsorption modules. Finally, an experiment is performed on a 1.5 km high-speed maglev test line to prove the efficiency of the proposed system.

Results: In this paper, a novel electromagnetic levitation system architecture and safety protection strategy for the high-speed maglev train are proposed.

Conclusion: A novel design of electromagnetic levitation system for high-speed maglev train is designed and implemented.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):212-224
pages 212-224 views

The simulation and analysis for a new concept of the stator power supply mode of a medium speed maglev system

Lin Y., Qin F., WAng X.


Aim: The Aim of this paper is to demonstrate the structure of the proposed new stator power supply mode.

Methods: analyze the results of some simulation work to see whether the new concept could meet the requirements of the medium speed maglev transportation system or not. The study is based on some simulation work which is done by the software tool developed in the research work in “The 11th Five-year plan” of China.

Results: The calculation results indicate that, from the point of view of top speed, that say 200 km/h, the structure of the new concept could meet the requirement of the medium speed system, but further studies are demanded for the engineering application.

Conclusion: The advantage of this structure is to reduce the demand for the capacity of the inverters and eliminate the requirements for the cable lines and the stator switches. However, the disadvantage is also explicit. The structure is more complex than its high speed peer, and thus need more complex control strategies. And the structure is more fixed and thus maybe need more invest at the beginning of an engineering project.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):225-233
pages 225-233 views

Uml based test cases generation for the centralised control system of high speed maglev

Zhang L., Zhao W., Zhang X.


Background: The high speed maglev centralized control subsystem (CCS), which realizes the display, automatic train operation (ATO) and diagnose. The CCS is an important security assurance for train operation. System testing (ST) can detect design defects early and performed effective repair to improve the efficiency of the system’ on-site coordinated operation. Therefore, the quality of test cases directly determines the achievements and efficiency of CCS, and it is necessary to be tested before put it into use.

Aim: The generation of test case of centralized control subsystem is proposed.

Methods: In order to meet the requirements of the system, the first step is operating the extraction of functional features.  Then, the unified modeling language is using to develop the test model in this paper. Then the corresponding unified modeling language models, use case diagram, state diagram, activity diagram and sequence diagram, are developed. The state diagram of operation process is using to describe the state transition during the period from initial state of the OTS to the completion of the operation. The activity diagram of train operation process focuses on the control relationship during the period from one activity to another, which can describe the interaction exactly between OTS, DCS and VCS. The sequence diagram, behavior of use case, focuses on the sequence of information sent by objectives, in which a group of objectives and information transfer are presented. And according to these models, the test cases of the specified case are generated.

Results: The generated test cases are all executed in the developed lab-test system. The results show that the generated test cases can fully simulate the common situations of the operation scene, and effectively improve the test efficiency and test quality. We designed the experiments as followings: 85 test cases for terminal system design of operator, 68 test cases for train automatic operation design, 31 test cases for central diagnostic system design. All of the designed test cases are examined through the test platform, covering all main scenes in operation process. The errors or detects found in tests are solved by finding the reasons and modifying the code, etc. Finally, the pass rate of the method proposed in this paper is 100 %. 

Conclusion: The UML based method of test case generation implements the generation process and achieves the test cases and verification for CCS. Through the test practice, test cases designed can fully simulate all kinds of common situations in the operation site. What’s more, the test cases also realize early detection of errors and defects in the system and repair them. It is useful to improve the efficiency on-site testing process, to reduce the cost of time and test quality. The method can provide theoretical basis and reference for further testing of high speed maglev CCS.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):234-245
pages 234-245 views

Progress made and prospect of China's maglev transportation technology standardization

Yan P.


Background: In order to standardize maglev transportation engineering and its operation, the research of maglev transportation technical standards becomes important. Based on the analysis of the growth of rail transit, the acceleration of maglev transportation engineering, the China’s standardization regulation and the maglev transportation technology standardization practice,

Aim: This paper proposes the basic principles for establishing maglev transportation standard system and the framework of maglev transportation technical standard system, introducing China’s maglev transportation technology standardization mechanism, its achievements, prospects and experiences.

Results: By the end of 2017, China had developed 12 maglev transportation technical industry and provincial standards.

Conclusion: There are 12 maglev transportation technical industry standards and social organization standards under development.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):246-252
pages 246-252 views

Study on reliability analysis of suspension controller of the medium and low speed maglev vehicle

Pan H., Xu J., Huang H., Xu Z.


Suspension controller is the core device of suspension system of the medium and low speed maglev vehicle, its reliability directly affects the stability, reliability and safety operation of the whole medium and low speed maglev train. Reliability analysis is of great theoretical and practical value for improving the performance of the suspension controller.

Taking Hunan Changsha maglev express as an application case, based on the mechanism and functional structure of the suspension controller, the reliability of the suspension controller is analyzed and studied. According to the Chinese standard GJB/Z 299C, the reliability prediction handbook for electronic equipment, the reliability of the suspension controller is calculated and analyzed by synthesizing the stress analysis method, the component counting method and the RBD reliability block diagram method. The reliability weak points of the suspension controller are analyzed, and the design optimization proposal is suggested to improve the suspension controller reliability.

Background: Medium and low speed maglev traffic has gained wide attention and engineering application in China. It is very necessary to study the reliability of the medium and low speed maglev train.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to carry out reliability research on the levitation control system of medium low speed maglev train.

Methods: The stress analysis method, component counting method and RBD reliability block diagram method are used to calculate and analyze the reliability of the suspension controller.

Results: The reliability quantitative analysis results of the suspension controller are analyzed, and the reliability weakness of the suspension controller is analyzed and studied. A design optimization proposal to improve the reliability of the suspension controller is proposed.

Conclusion: Through the reliability prediction analysis of the suspension controller, the reliability and weakness of the suspension controller can be determined, which provides theoretical guidance for the improvement of the design scheme and the performance optimization of the maglev train suspension controller.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):253-263
pages 253-263 views

Dataflow analysis of vehicle safety computers regarding high-speed maglev transportation based on data priorities

Chen Y., Yu Y., Zhao H., Zhang F., Lin H., Nai W.


To analyze the dataflow of vehicle safety computers regarding high-speed maglev transportation, it is considerable to add data priorities to the dataflow model of vehicle safety computers to improve the accuracy. With regard to vehicle safety computers, we choose VSC1 as our research object. First, we give a brief summary for the interface relationships of VSC1. Next, we analyze the data priorities of VSC1 in detail. After that, we present the dataflow model of VSC1 with priorities.  Finally, we make a brief conclusion. The structure of the abstract of an article is strictly arranged and should encompass the following points:

Background: Dataflow model of Vehicle Safety Computers regarding high-speed maglev transportation.

Aim: To analyze the dataflow of vehicle safety computers with data priorities.

Methods:  interface analysis, data priority analysis and dataflow chart.

Results: The dataflow model of VSC1 with data priorities is presented.

Conclusion: Adding data priorities to the dataflow model of vehicle safety computers to improve the accuracy is fulfilled. The recommended number of words in the abstract is 500.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):264-271
pages 264-271 views

Research on mechanism of eddy current in rail of maglev and optimum design of electromagnet

Liang F., He Y., Zhang L.


Aim: Due to the movement of medium-low speed maglev vehicles, eddy current is generated in the rail, leading to reduced levitation force. This detrimental effect becomes more prominent with increasing velocity. In order to reduce the influence of eddy current effect, the electromagnet is optimized to meet the requirement of vehicle speeding up from 100km/h to 160km/h.

Methods: To maintain a constant levitation force, the current must also increase accordingly resulting in higher power consumption and heat generation. In this paper, a mathematical model is established by analytical method, focusing on the mechanism and influencing factors of eddy current. Three-dimensional transient magnetic field magnet model is analyzed by the ANSYS electromagnetic simulation software Maxwell.

Results: The levitation force is related to five parameters, such as speed, length of the electromagnet, rail height, rail thickness and air gap. According to the finite element simulation results, when the train speed is 160 km/h, the levitation force of the end electromagnet is reduced by about 21.9 %. The levitation force of optimized electromagnet increases by 27 % under the same current, which can compensate for the drop of levitation force caused by eddy current .The levitation force is 41.4 kN at the speed of 160 km/h, which is slightly larger than the 39.6 kN of the former electromagnet static levitation force, which can meet the requirements.

Conclusion: The result confirms that optimization methods proposed above are valid and effective.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):272-278
pages 272-278 views

Constant switching frequency model predictive control for permanent magnet linear synchronous motor

Ma Z., Zhao Y., Sun Y., Liao Z., Lin G.


Aim: This paper proposes constant switching frequency model predictive control (CSF-MPC) for a permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) to improve the steady state and dynamic performance of the drive system.

Methods: The conventional finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) can be combined with a pulse width modulation (PWM) modulator due to an effective cost function optimization algorithm which is from the idea of dichotomy. In the algorithm, all the voltage vectors in the constrained vector plane are dynamically selected and calculated through iteration. The whole system including control algorithm and mathematical model of PMLSM is built and tested by simulation using MATLAB/Simulink. Besides, the control algorithm is tested in the FPGA controller through FPGA-in-the-Loop test.

Results: With the modern digital processors or control hardware such as digital signal processors (DSPs) or field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), the algorithm can be easily executed in less than 10-micro second. This is very proper for industrial applications. The proposed control algorithm is implemented on FPGA and tested by FPGA-in-the-Loop method. The proposed control algorithm can improve the performance of drive system greatly.

Conclusion: The proposed CSF-MPC for PMLSM not only keeps the same dynamic transient performance as FCS-MPC but also greatly decreases the torque ripple in steady state. Furthermore, CSF-MPC is also robust to parameter variations. Simulation and FPGA-in-the-Loop results illustrate that CSF-MPC has an attractive performance for PMLSM drives.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):279-288
pages 279-288 views

Measurement of the residual stress for the bogie frame of maglev vehicle based on barkhausen effect

Zeng J., Long Z., Ding J., Liang X.


Background: The effect of residual stress resulted from the manufacturing process on the performance of bogie frame has been attracting more and more attention with the increasing of running speed of maglev vehicle, which could develop cracks on the frame and compromise the operational safety.

Aim: It is necessary to determine and understand the distribution rules of residual stress on the bogie frames.

Methods: Barkhausen effect is one of the effective methods used to measure residual stress.

Results: This paper presents a experiment system designed for residual stress detection and the principle of electromagnetic stress detection is expounded, finite element simulation analysis on magnetization device is carried out, and the effect of magnetization under different excitation conditions is analyzed.

Conclusion: The feasibility of the online magnetic detection method of internal stresses in bogie frame is verified through the simulation, which would provided the basis for bogie frames internal stresses detection.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):289-297
pages 289-297 views

The total social costs of constructing and operating a maglev line using a case study of the riyadh-dammam corridor, Saudi Arabia

Almujibah H., Preston J.


Background: Introducing Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) technology in a developing country is a big challenge that needs huge investments in infrastructure, operations and maintenance. Background information about the development of Maglev worldwide to date is included.

Aim: Determine a methodology to estimate the full cost of travel and provide insights into the working model developed to include the calculations of the total social costs of building a new Maglev line for the Riyadh-Dammam corridor in Saudi Arabia and understand in what circumstances it is a suitable technology to use.

Methods: The Spreadsheet Total Cost Model (STCM) is used to determine the calculations of operator costs, user costs, and environmental costs. However, the operator costs are related to infrastructure construction and maintenance costs, and costs associated with the acquisition, operation and maintenance of Maglev rolling stock. The user costs are dependent on the journey time, including access/egress time, waiting time, and in-vehicle time. The value of time is considered in order to get the user costs calculated. The external costs include air pollution, noise pollution, accident, and climate change per passenger-km.

Results: The travel demand has to be forecasted in order to determine the total social costs, using the elasticity approach between the the proposed HSR and Maglev lines in terms of their number of trips and the generalised journey times. In addition, the generalised journey time is based on the in-vehicle time and service interval penalty. The Maglev system is operated at the capacity limit and the change in service is therefore forecasted to increase the Maglev demand by 24.6 % (3.25 million passengers). In terms of the total infrastructure costs, the infrastructure construction and maintenance costs are included and computed to be about € 835.4 million per year, using the capital recovery factor (0.06) based on 35 years of operation and a 5 % social discount rate.  The acquiring, operating, and maintaining train’s unit cost is included in the calculation of rolling stock to achieve results of € 22.4 million, € 22.5 million, and € 40.9 million, respectively. In terms of the user costs, the access/egress time is computed as of 33 minutes, using the car, while the in-vehicle travel time and waiting time are resulted of 61.8 minutes and 7.8 minutes, respectively. The external environmental costs are based on accidents, and climate changes of € 8.87 million per year and € 8.13 million per year, respectively. However, the total social costs of Maglev line are computed as € 1.18 billion for 16.45 million passengers per year. This gives an average social cost of € 71.9 per passenger. The comparable figures for High-Speed Rail (HSR) are € 1.10 billion for 13.21 million passengers per year, giving an average social cost of € 83 per passenger.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the Riyadh-Dammam Maglev system introduces a new intercity system into Saudi Arabia and brings new competition in the intercity transit market as a part of the future transport developments in the country. The average social cost for HSR is around 16 % higher than Maglev- but that is more proven technology.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):298-327
pages 298-327 views

High-speed vacuum air vehicle

Mishra R., Sharma H., Mishra H.


Background: There are a number of problems in the prior art, those are topics  of research inputs likes  ranges of the drag force generated by the vehicle,  lift force at high vehicle motion velocities for compensation of the vehicle weight, Aerodynamic aspects of operation of the vehicle,

Aim: Stream wise stability of vehicle motion and levitation and breaking of the vehicles and supersonic speed is not achieved in any mode of transportation. But this present invention related to high speed magnetic levitating transportation. More particularly, present invention is related to high speed magnetic levitating transportation using compressed air chamber in the transportation vehicle.

Methods: The present invention is more particularly related to high speed vehicle levitated on a vacuum tunnel by using electromagnetic levitation. As this vehicle will move from one place to another in a vacuum environment and this vehicle will levitate above track with the help of electromagnets.

Results: The important thing is its motion, which is possible due to reaction force of high pressure air, coming out from compressed air chamber present in vehicle.

Conclusion:  It can give us the acceleration as per load requirement and it can achieve supersonic speed in few seconds.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):328-339
pages 328-339 views

The model for study of influence Of magnetic fields on biological objects (within the Russian maglev project)

Rubinsky A.V., Vlasov T.D., Chalisova N.I.


Aim: methodological aspects of the study influenced static magnetic fields (SMF) used in the technology "Russian Maglev" on the organisms are improved.

Materials and methods: organotypic culture of animal tissue fragments was studied under the influence of an experimental setup generating a homogeneous SMF with characteristics similar the "Russian Maglev".

Results: area index (AI) for liver, heart, prostate, renal tissue of explants in the control and under the action of SMF did not differ. SMF significantly reduces AI of explants the immune tissue of the spleen and the cerebral cortex.

Conclusions: 1. the influence of SMF has a negative impact on the proliferative activity in organotypic culture of the cerebral cortex and spleen; 2. the biological model for examination of influence SMF on organisms intended for approbation of means of physical protection is presented.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):340-350
pages 340-350 views

New technology for manufacturing inductors of linear induction motors for magnetic-levitation transport

Solomin V.A., Solomin A.V., Trubitsina N.A., Zamchina L.L., Chekhova A.A.


Abstract. Background: Significant economic growth in many countries of the world can contribute to an increase in the speed of movement of modern and fundamentally new vehicles. This will increase the turnover of goods during the transportation of goods, revive international trade, increase the comfort of passengers and reduce their travel time.

Aim: The solution of this problem is the development and wide application of high-speed magnetic-levitation transport (HSMLT) with linear traction engines. It is promising to use linear induction motors (LIM) for the HSMLT drive, which can have various design versions. Linear induction motors come with a longitudinal, transverse and longitudinal-transverse closure of the magnetic flux. LIM inductors can be installed on both high-speed transport crews and in the HSMLT track structure, as it was done in the People’s Republic of China, where express trains on magnetic suspension connect Shanghai with the airport and reliably operate for more than 10 years. The main elements of the inductor of a linear induction motor are a magnetic core (ferromagnetic core) a multiphase (usually three-phase) winding. With the development of high-speed magnetic-levitation transport, the issues of improving the manufacturing technology of various HSMLT devices, including the methods for producing inductors of linear induction motors, will become increasingly relevant. Traditionally, LIM inductors are assembled from pre-manufactured individual parts.

Methods: An integral technology for manufacturing inductors of linear induction motors for high-speed magnetic-levitation transport is proposed and considered by the method of spraying materials onto a substrate through replaceable stencils. The new technology eliminates the alternate manufacture of individual assemblies and parts and their subsequent assembly to obtain a finished product. A method for determining the size of stencils for manufacturing one of the inductor variants of a linear induction motor is proposed as an example.

Conclusion: Integral manufacturing technology is promising for the creation of high-speed magnetic-levitation transport.

Transportation Systems and Technology. 2018;4(3 suppl. 1):351-364
pages 351-364 views

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