Vol 46, No 2 (2019)

Water resources and water objects regime

Reservoirs of the Catchment Areas of the Arctic Seas of Russia

Barabanova E.A.


The spatial-temporal distribution of reservoirs in the catchment areas of the seas of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation and the main rivers flowing into them have been analyzed. Additionally, Ob River is considered as a whole together with the Kazakh part of the Irtysh Basin. The stages of hydrotechnical development of water resources have been identified and characterized. The influence of reservoirs on the water regime and the annual discharge of the main rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean have been determined. The prospects for the creation of reservoirs are shown.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):123-131
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Multidimensional data analysis of jamming factors in river basins

Kozlov D.V., Kuleshov S.L.


The analysis and quantitative assessment of factors affecting the frequency of ice jams and the parameters of flood congestion is an important area for hydrophysical study. The influence on flood-congestion parameters of backwaters identified in the lower cross-sections on sections of rivers prone to jamming was estimated by applying discriminatory analysis to the data of long-term observations of the water regime of the rivers in the Northern Dvina basin. Additionally, methods of classification of characteristic areas were developed. In addition, models derived by multiple regression analysis made it possible to assess the influence of the morphometric features of the riverbed on the frequency of ice jams within the two large river basins in the European and Asian parts of Russia.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):132-141
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Hydrophysical processes

Self-oscillating modes of penetration of free or submerged jets through the surface of a liquid

Karlikov V.P., Nechaev A.T., Tolokonnikov S.L.


A brief review was conducted of the most significant results of studies performed at the Institute of Mechanics of Moscow State University regarding a new class of unsteady flow of incompressible fluid. Examples include such fluids arising upon the penetration of vertical submerged or free flat and axially symmetric water jets through the surface of water in relatively narrow channels, such as when free thin-walled water jets flowing from a conical slit nozzle with a vertical axis form in a rectangular vessel. A broad range of values of characteristic parameters was found to be generated by the previously unknown self-oscillating flow modes formed in the liquid. Different mechanisms for the occurrence of such modes and characteristics of the dependencies of the self-oscillation period on the main determining parameters were uncovered through empirical experiment and numerical modeling. These mechanisms and characteristics as well as possible applications of the obtained results are presented.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):142-148
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Hydrochemistry. Hydrobiology, environmental aspects

Space–time analysis of the hydrochemical composition and pollution of water in the Northern Dvina basin

Dzhamalov R.G., Mironenko A.A., Myagkova K.G., Reshetnyak O.S., Safronova T.I.


The dynamics of water quality along the Northern Dvina River is considered within the context of anthropogenic impact. In general, the waters of the river are characterized as very polluted. Cases of high and extremely high levels of water pollution in various locations have been considered. Organic substances, iron compounds, copper, and zinc are relatively common pollutants. Long-term average volumes of inflow of certain pollutants along the length of the river exceed the maximum permissible concentration by 2 to 5 times. A tendency toward slightly improved water quality downstream with decreasing amounts of petroleum products and zinc compounds was revealed also.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):149-160
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System-analytical simulation of the hydrochemical runoff of mountain rivers: case study of dissolved iron

Kirsta Y.B., Puzanov A.V.


A water balance simulation model of seasonal and long-term flow dynamics of total dissolved iron has been developed using the example of the middle-size and smaller rivers of the Altai–Sayan highland. Model input factors and input variables included monthly precipitation and average monthly air temperatures (normalized and spatially generalized according to the regional climate model), water flows calculated for individual river basins (according to a discharge model for mountain rivers), and cartographic information on river basins and arable land area. The sensitivity of the model to natural variations of input factors was determined as the contribution of a specific factor to the variance of the observed values of hydrochemical runoff. The calculated criteria RSR = 0.57 and Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency NSE = 0.67 indicate the good quality of the model.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):161-171
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Accumulation of heavy metals in sediments of Amur Bay (Sea of Japan) under the infl uence of biochemical factors

Polyakov D.M., Maryash A.A., Mozherovsky A.V.


The average content of the elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Co, Cd, Ni, As, and Mo in the subcolloidal fraction of bottom sediments in the northern and central parts of the Amur Bay (in Russia) was determined. An increase of 5–17% in the content of the metals Pb, Co, Ni, Zn, Cr, V, and As in bottom sediments affected directly by the Razdolnaya River was determined and was found to be associated with sorption on Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. An increase of 21–55% in the content of the metals Cu and Mo and of the metalloid As compared to their average content in the bottom sediments of the bay was found to be associated with the accumulation by humic substances.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):172-177
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Quality of surface and underground water at the resorts of the Caucasian Mineral Water regions — problems and solutions

Pomelyayko I.S., Malkov A.V.


The results of long-term environmental monitoring of small rivers in the Caucasian Mineral Waters resorts region are presented. The characteristics of the surface water and groundwater at the resorts are considered. The degree and nature of their pollution were evaluated, and the main causes of water pollution in the region—including heavy-metal compounds, petroleum products, and nitrogen-containing compounds—were identified and analyzed. Data on mineral water from a number of production wells that are not compliant with the requirements of GOST R 54316-2011 are given. The analysis of hydrogeodynamic and hydrogeochemical regimes of exploitation of the Kislovodskoye field, recommendations for improving the quality indicators of the main source of the “Narzan” field are given.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):178-190
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Hydrogeochemical aspects elements behavior under development of the Albynskoe gold field, Amur basin

Radomskaya V.I., Radomsky S.M., Pavlova L.M., Shumilova L.P.


Сomposition of chemical elements in natural waters and rocks of the Albynskoe Gold Field have been studied to elusidate the possible environmental effects of open cast mining. The ore has been found to contain a group of environmentally hazardous elements, which, either because of a considerable concentration in the ore (As, Sb, Mo, W), or because of the high toxicity class (Cd, Be, U) can cause a considerable geochemical load onto the regional ecogeosystem. The natural watercourses in the zone of influence of the field show an excess of the MPC for water bodies used for fishery (MPCfish) in terms of Мо, W, As, as well as high concentrations of Sb and U; the overwhelming majority of the microelements show concentrations below the respective MPCfish or below their detection limits. The analysis of the results of laboratory experiments, simulating the processes of biochemical weathering of ore material by various natural agents, showed that toxic and extremely toxic elements can be leached and dispersed in the zone of influence of deposit

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):191-206
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Changes in phytoplankton productivity with the introduction of heavy metals into the ecosystem and its subsequent purifi cation with a humic sorbent

Skripkina T.S., Bychkov A.L., Smolyakov B.S., Lomovsky O.I.


Mesoscale modeling experiments simulating water pollution of a freshwater plain reservoir by infusion of a mixture of heavy-metal (Cd, Zn, Cu) salts were conducted. Central to the research was determining the phytoplankton response (in terms of primary production) to the presence of heavy metals in water and to the introduction of a sorbent based on mechanochemically oxidized humic acids. The removal of heavy metals by phytoplankton on the 16th day of the experiment resulted in a decrease in the content of Cd(II) to 62%, Zn(II) to 58%, and Cu(II) to 46% of the initial levels. The use of sorbent under the same conditions led to a decrease in the content of Cd(II) to 21%, Zn(II) to 27%, and Cu(II) to 10% of the initial levels. The sorbent under study does not cause blooming of the reservoir, distinguishing it from sorbents containing humic acids with the native structure of molecules.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):207-213
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Assessment of the quality of freshwater ecosystems based on the functional condition of bivalved mollusks

Kholodkevich S.V., Sharov A.N., Chuiko G.M., Kuznetsova T.V., Gapeeva M.V., Lozhkina R.A.


An approach is proposed for ranking the quality of freshwater ecosystems by the state of bivalve mollusks living in them. Cardioactivity indicators and accumulation of metals in the tissues of the mollusks from various waters of the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland and the Rybinsk Reservoir were used to characterize the ecosystems, and an original hyperosmotic test was used to analyze the functional state of the mollusks.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):214-224
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Long-term dynamics and trend of ion sink of Amur river In the winter low-water period near Khabarovsk, Russia

Shesterkina N.M., Shesterkin V.P.


The long-term dynamics and trend of the ion sink of the Amur River near Khabarovsk, Russia, in the winter low-water period were studied. The hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics of the main tributaries are given. The spatial heterogeneity of the distribution of mineralization along the length and width of the Amur is noted. The influence of large floods on the winter runoff of solutes has been established. The long-term increasing trend of ion sink in the winter low-water period due to hydropower construction is shown.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):225-231
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Diffuse pollution of waterbodies and assessment of nutrient removal under diff erent land-use scenarios in a catchment area

Yasinskiy S.V., Venitsianov E.V., Vishnevskaya I.A.


The concept of the process of diffuse pollution of waterbodies of various dimensions is presented. The algorithm for calculating the average annual volume of removal and migration of the main nutrients—nitrogen and phosphorus—from the catchment into the ravine and river network of a small river is demonstrated. The results of simulating the characteristics of the spring runoff, soil erosion, and removal of nutrients from the catchment area into the Istra River (Russia) with hypothetical changes in its landscape structure under the influence of urbanization and reforestation are developed through a series of calculations.

Водные ресурсы. 2019;46(2):232-244
pages 232-244 views

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