Vol 88, No 4 (2021)


Ensuring the operating modes of the seeding apparatus specialized equipment

Kireev I.M., Koval' Z.M., Zimin F.A.


The subjects of the research are the process of sowing seeds with a seeding apparatus and the indicators of quality of their distribution in a row. The goal is to substantiate a rational technological process of distributing row crops seeds in a row with a pneumatic seeding apparatus. Special equipment was used in the system of ensuring the revolutions of the seeding disc, sucking seeds to its holes, pneumatic transport of seeds after separation from the opening of the seeding disc for contact interaction with the receiving platform of the sensor of the number of seeds and its settling in the collector. The novelty of the research lies in the use of an acoustic sensor for a single registration of the sowed seeds with a short time interval, which makes it possible to assess the quality of the operation of the sowing device by the standard deviation of seeds from a given seeding rate in their normal distribution in accordance with the law of numbers. The operating mode of the pneumatic seeding apparatus from specialized equipment as part of the test bench was carried out as an example of sowing sunflower seeds with a seeding rate of 3 seeds/linear meter for the conventional seeder speed of 9 km/h. The data obtained with different time intervals between the registered seeds in WAV format by the PTC Mathcad Prime software was represented by classical distributed seeds in graphical form and data in tabular form. The quality indicators of seeds for sowing and their class distribution in a row by rational operating modes of the seeding apparatus, assessed by specialized equipment when applying the law of large numbers, are the basis of scientific research on predicting the yield of row crops.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(4):6-12
pages 6-12 views

Improving diagnostics of the cylinder-piston group by pneumatic testing

Grunin K.E.


The task of author’s research was to determine the emerging leaks when compressed air is supplied to the above-piston space under pressure of 4, 5 and 6 kgf / cm2, respectively.

To obtain more reliable results, measurements of the leakage of the above-piston space by pneumatic testing should be performed three times. The deterioration of this tribo-coupling should be assessed by the average values of the obtained values. In order to identify the analytical relationships between the readings of the pneumotester and various types of cylinder malfunctions, it is necessary, to simulate during the experiment the malfunctions most often encountered during ordinary engine operation that affect the tightness of the combustion chamber.

The planned experimental studies were carried out in strict accordance with the tasks and included three stages.

The first stage included the collection and analysis of statistical data on the dependence of engine pneumatic testing indications on various types of cylinder-piston group (CPG) malfunctions during ordinary operation, as well as pneumatic testing of engine cylinders undergoing major repairs and their CPG micrometer size. At the second stage, an experiment to simulate malfunctions on an experimental setup and on a working engine, as well as to determine the influence on the readings of the pneumatic tester of the ratio of leaks in the “piston – ring – sleeve” interface was carried out. The third stage included the processing of statistical data, processing of the data obtained directly during the experiment with the introduced CPG malfunctions and the processing of the data obtained when determining the influence of the leakage ratio in the “piston – ring – sleeve” interface on the readings of the pneumatic tester.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(4):13-21
pages 13-21 views

Formation of the dynamic system of the test bench for transmissions at the design stage

Godzhayev Z.A., Shekhovtsov V.V., Lyashenko M.V., Merlyak V.K., Filippov N.V.


The problem of the discrepancy between the dynamic properties of the transmission on the test bench and the transmission of production vehicle was analyzed. When the loads of a dynamic nature are reproduced on the test bench, in a number of cases, after tests, there are obtained the results that do not correspond to the results of its operation. Usually the composition and scheme of the power flow transmission, as well as the elastic-inertial parameters of the elements of the mentioned transmissions, differ significantly. The test bench for transmissions usually does not include the chassis of vehicle, suspension and a number of other components and assemblies. The test bench is also usually driven by an electric machine rather than an internal combustion engine. During operation the dynamic loading of the vehicle's transmission is influenced by the joint work of each of its units, which has a direct or indirect effect on the passage of the power flow through the transmission. In the mode of variable loads of bench tests, this loading is influenced by the joint operation of the tested transmission with the transmission units of the test bench, which have different dynamic characteristics.

The authors proposed the method, which allows at the design stage to form a set of dynamic parameters of the stand elements in such a way that the dynamic properties of the stand transmission correspond to the dynamic properties of the transmission of a production vehicle. There was offered a method for converging the dynamic loading of transmission on the test bench and as part of a production vehicle due to the purposeful formation at the design stage of the intrinsic frequency characteristics of the test bench transmission so that they correspond to the maximum extent to the characteristics of the vehicle transmission. The varying of the values of the inertial masses and elastic connections of the transmission elements of the test benches, the spectra of their natural frequencies are formed in such a way that in shaft line on modes, when the main part of fatigue damage accumulates, a picture of torsional vibrations is similar to those observed in the transmission of a production vehicle.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(4):22-32
pages 22-32 views

Results of experimental studies of a tractor equipped with an elastic-damping mechanism when aggregated with a seeder

Sen'kevich S.E., Il'chenko Y.N., Alekseyev I.S.


One of the significant factors influencing the operation of the tractor is the unsteady load that occurs when starting off, during the initial period of acceleration and deceleration. The elastic-damping mechanisms are used to reduce the negative consequences of such loads. Scientists still develop and study their application.

In this article, the analysis of the cross correlation function and the analysis of the mutual spectral density of two processes were carried out. The analyzed processes were the engine crankshaft speed and the drive wheel speed. This analysis shows the change in the speed of the passing load frequencies along the shaft line of the traction class 1,4 wheeled tractor power transmission, where an elastic-damping mechanism is installed. The studies were carried out for the operating conditions of a tractor with a seeder. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of the elastic-damping mechanism installed in the power transmission of a tractor on its operation with a trailed seeder.

In the general case, the object of research is the functioning of a tractor of traction class 1,4 process, which is located in a unit with a seeder. Analysis of the mutual correlation function of the two processes showed a change in the speed of the passing load frequencies along the shaft line. The ratio of the propagation time of the disturbance signal in the experimental tractor in relation to the production version along the shaft line when aggregating the tractor with the seeder decreases by 40,1 %. The analysis of the mutual spectral density shows a shift in the frequency of disturbing influences in relation to the serial version and a decrease in their value when the tractor is aggregated with a seeder by 33,3 %. The value of the mutual spectral density is lower in the experimental version of the tractor, which may mean that the elastic-damping mechanism, as an element of the power transmission, absorbs part of the load fluctuations and reduces their propagation speed along the shaft line.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(4):33-44
pages 33-44 views

Methodology for the numerical solution of problems in relation to the coil-type electric heat exchangers for heating fuel

Krokhta G.M., Khomchenko Y.N., Usatykh N.A.


The specificity of the operating conditions of agricultural tractors in the agro-industrial complex requires the provision of reliable engine start at low ambient temperatures. Improving the starting qualities of a diesel engine and reducing incomplete combustion in the post-start period can be achieved by increasing the exergy of the air charge at the end of the compression stroke or increasing the exergy of the fuel injected into the combustion chamber. The purpose of the study is to reduce the expenditure of exergy for prestarting a diesel engine, improve starting qualities and reduce incomplete combustion in the post-start period.

To achieve this goal, the design of an electric heat exchanger was developed in the form of a coil from a high-pressure fuel line, into which a heating element is inserted. A method for calculating its main parameters was developed. Calculations showed that in order to ensure reliable start-up of a diesel engine in winter, it is necessary to heat the fuel in the nozzle to a temperature of 240 °C in the thermal boost mode. A heater of about 98 Watts is required to reach this temperature within 270 seconds of priming. However, in order to maintain such a fuel temperature during the start-up process, it is necessary to make changes in the nozzle design in order to minimize heat losses into the walls of the fuel channel by applying a heat-insulating coating. With further engine operation in the post-start heating mode, the fuel temperature in the injector is reduced to 85–95 °C.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(4):45-54
pages 45-54 views

Justification of the form and parameters of the new sorting device for grain materials

Isgandarzada E.B., Abbasov B.A., Ahmadli S.V., Islamova U.R.


The article is devoted to the substantiation of the shape and parameters of a new sorting device for granular materials. The materials of the article substantiate the relevance of the proposed new device, which has a great place in mechanical engineering and agricultural production.

The shape, design parameters and modes of operation of various elements with different: sorting assortment and efficiency indicators were substantiated taking into account the relevance of the device. For this purpose, a new auger sorting device was developed. It was equipped with various automation devices to increase productivity. The satisfactory results were obtained. This sorting device, equipped with an automatic regulator, received a patent from the Copyright Agency of Azerbaijan Republic.

The proposed device does not create conditions for pollution of the production area, it has competitive advantages and high rates of technical and economic efficiency.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(4):55-62
pages 55-62 views

Intensification of the recovery of hydraulic equipment parts by iron in the electrolyte flow

Kisel' Y.E., Simokhin S.P., Murachev S.A.


The technology of bath-free ironing of parts in an electrolyte flow with simultaneous hydromechanical activation of the growing surface is proposed. Its advantages over the traditional type of coating are introduced. The structure, some physicomechanical and operational properties of iron coatings were studied depending on the electrolysis regimes and the composition of electrolytes. The possibility of high-speed electrodeposition of iron with a wide range of physical and mechanical properties is shown. There were shown the electrolysis modes, which make it possible to obtain high-quality strong-adhered pure-iron coatings with a wear resistance several times higher than hardened alloy steels and a precipitation growth rate tens of times higher than with traditional ironing. A typical technological process of parts ironing was developed. It was tested on the example of restoration of hydraulic valve spools of agricultural machinery. The design of an installation and an electrochemical cell for ironing the valve hydraulic distributors, providing optimal hydrodynamic conditions when applying coatings to worn surfaces, was proposed. Recommendations for the post-electrolysis treatment of restored parts by iron are given. Bench and field tests of hydraulic valves with remanufactured valves were carried out. They confirmed the results of laboratory studies, and showed that no malfunctions were identified during the operation period. Technical and economic calculations have shown the high efficiency of the proposed technology in comparison with traditional ironing. The introduction of the technology in production will reduce the production area and the time spent on restoring parts by increasing the productivity of the iron process and reducing the number of operations, reducing the cost of materials for preparing electrolytes by reducing the operation of anodic treatment and washing, and increasing the reliability of the technology by improving its structural scheme.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(4):63-70
pages 63-70 views

Study of the continuous mode of mixing feed components in a mixing plant

Solonshchikov P.N.


The article discusses the problem of developing means that can increase the efficiency of mechanization of the process of preparing liquid feed in animal husbandry. Design bureaus, research and technological institutes for mechanization and electrification of agriculture have developed new progressive technologies, as well as kits, units, machines and apparatus for animal husbandry and fodder production. On the basis of this technique, complex mechanization of farms is being introduced and livestock complexes with industrial production technology are being created. But recently, the widespread use of domestic machines for the preparation of liquid feed mixtures has not been presented. Therefore, an experimental setup is proposed that combines three functions: a batcher, a pump and a mixer, which ultimately allows to obtain a mixture of good quality.

The article provides a program and research methodology for the installation. For this, a special stand has been developed, which makes it possible to determine the parameters of the mixture quality and the specific consumption of electrical energy. As a search for the optimal combination of factors for the optimization criteria: the degree of homogeneity and the specific consumption of electrical energy, plan 32 was chosen. Experimental studies have shown the range of supply of the installation at different speeds of rotation of the impeller shaft. Mixing studies have confirmed the effectiveness of the design of the plant and its components: dispenser, pump and mixer. With the help of experimental planning methods, the main factors influencing the mixing process are identified, and the optimal parameters of the mixture quality are determined. According to the studies carried out on the continuous introduction of components in an experimental installation for the preparation of liquid feed mixtures, we obtained that the optimal combinations of factors would be the water temperature t = 26...38 °C and the rotation frequency n = 1500...1650 min–1, while the degree of homogeneity reaches Θ = 94,6 % and unit costs of electric energy Eel = 0,198 kWh/t.u. st.un.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2021;88(4):71-76
pages 71-76 views

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