Vol 148, No 1 (2019)

General section

Modern mineral formation in the thermal lake Fumarolnoe (Uson caldera, Kamchatka) is the key to paleoreconstruction

Kirichenko I.S., Lazareva E.V., Zhmodik S.M., Dobrezov N.L., Belyanin D.K., Miroshnichenko L.V.


Paleoreconstruction of events involved in the bottom sedimentation has been carried out on the base of mineral composition of a section of bottom sediments in the Lake IV (the Lake Fumarolnoe). The lower levels are composed there mainly of smectite in association with gypsum and jarosite; they are overlapped by smectite-kaolinite depositions with the large amount of diatom algae shells and the fraboidal pyrite. There is also a layer of sinter opal-pyrite structures and calcite. It is assumed that initially the lake IV was a mud pit with sulfide-bearing solutions, then, after the lowering of water level and the partial exposure of bottom sediments of the surface, the substance has been oxidized. The subsequent phreatic explosion has provided the covering of oxidized substance by the matter of lower layers of the pit. The further situation corresponded to the source, with the cyano-bacterial community developing around the griffin, and it was replaced by the site of a shallow-water lake similar to the contemporary one. The studied sedimentary formation includes two layers of pyroclastic material originated from neighbouring eruptions.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):3-15
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Native gold of the Priamurskaya Province

Stepanov V.A.


The paper displays data on typomorphic features of native gold in ore deposits and placers of the Priamurskaya Province (Amur River Region). It was revealed that distribution of the number of placers with a certain gold fineness is the unimodal one with a maximum in the range of 850—925 units. Mercury predominates among micro-admixtures in gold as in placers, so in primary ores. The total content of impurities in the metal reaches several percent in some ore clusters. Placer gold corresponds, by composition and impurities, to the gold in primary ore deposits and occurrences belonging to gold-quartz and gold-sulfide-quartz formations. Lesser common in placers the low-fineness gold (799—700 ‰) is originated from erosion of the gold-silver formation sources, and, at a lesser extent, of gold-sulfide and gold-polymetallic mineralization. Ore deposits of the gold-copper-molybdenum-porphyry formation are not placer-forming.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):16-28
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History of mineralogy, crystallography and petrology

Russian mineralogical society as a socio-historical phenomenon (Russian mineralogical society in the XIX—first half of the XX century)

Ilinskaya T.В.


The article is an analysis of materials on the history of science (primarily mineralogy), which make it possible to understand the role of scientific societies in the development of the creativity of scientists. The author of this article was primarily interested in the personal, «human» dimension of the problem. The materials for solving this problem were the memoirs and epistolary of scientists, as well as historiographic materials accompanying the activities of the Russian Mineralogical Society in the period from the 19th to the middle of the 20th century. The recent 200th anniversary of the RMS was a vivid testimony to the viability of the Society, and therefore the focus of the author of the proposed article was that of the «centripetal forces» that allowed the RMS to be preserved, while many other scientific societies disintegrated. In the course of the analysis of the above materials, the following motives are outlined that determine the work of the scientist within the scientific community: scope for personal initiative, the possibility of consolidating efforts, material support for research. Additional incentives for membership in the RMS were revealed: the Society as a post-graduate school, the Society as a guarantor of the traditions of scientific ethics. In addition, the double genesis of the RMS was revealed, which was a continuation of the European line of mineralogy development and at the same time a new direction in domestic science, which eventually becomes the leading one.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):29-37
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Minerals and parageneses of minerals

Platinum-metal mineralization of the Yuzhnosopchinsky-1 locality (Monchegorsk ore district, Kola peninsula)

Miroshnikova Y.A., Chernyavsky A.V., Bazay A.V.


The article presents new data on composition of the platinum group metals (PGM) mineralization of the Yuzhnosopchinsky-1 locality, in the massif of the same name. In the central part of the Kola Region this area is located in the zone of contact between two large layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions: Monchegorsky pluton and Monchetundra intrusion. There is the contact between fine-medium-grained metapyroxenites and coarse-grained metagabbronorites. At some distance from the contact, coarse-grained bodies of plagioclase-pyroxene and plagioclase-amphibole composition contain sulfide, oxide and PGM mineralization. Ore minerals in these vein-shaped bodies are represented mainly by the bornite-chalcopyrite-millerite group, in close spatial association with the magnetite-ilmenite group. Arsenides, tellurides and sulfides of palladium predominate among the PGM minerals.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):38-48
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Cranswickite — a rare tetrahydrate sulfate of magnesium MgSO4 ∙ 4H2O, the new find in Yakutia

Zayakina N.V.


Cranswickite — a rare tetrahydrate magnesium sulfate, MgSO4 ∙ 4H2O, has been discovered in the Malo-Tarynskoe gold ore deposit in Yakutia. It is its third find in the world, the second in Yakutia. The mineral is soft, it forms a crust of white and slightly grayish color on the rock surface. It associates with mica, chlorite, quartz, gypsum and pentahydrite. Its study has been carried out by X-ray phase and electron microprobe analyses. Its chemical composition is MgO — 20.12, SO3 — 43.50, H2O — 36.37 wt %. The empirical crystal chemical formula of the mineral is Mg0.99(SO4)1.08·4.02H2O. The mineral is hypergenic, it is formed probably due to oxidation of pyrite in sulfidized rocks. It is sufficiently stable while stored in laboratory conditions. The photograph and X-ray diffraction pattern of the sample are given in the paper.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):49-53
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Rare earth minerals in ores of the malmyzhskoe gold-copper-porphyry deposit (Khabarovsky krai)

Bukhanova D.S., Chubarov V.M.


Composition and typomorphic features have been studied for rare earths-bearing minerals from the central part of the Malmyzhskoe gold-copper-porphyry deposit. This deposit is located in the Russian Far East, approximately 220 km northeast from Khabarovsk city. The deposit porphyry clusters occur as diorite and granodiorite stocks of Cretaceous age intruding the hornfels-altered siltstone and sandstone sedimentary sequences. The rare earth mineralization in ores and altered host rocks is represented by anhydrous phosphates (monazite, xenotime, REE-bearing apatite), silicates (allanite, huttonite), fluorocarbonates (synchysite) and oxides (davidite). These minerals occur there as individuals, but also they shows reactionary relations between them and ore minerals in altered rocks. It means that rare earth minerals in the central part of the Malmyzhskoe deposit participated actively in metasomatic processes, and likely they have a hydrothermal origin.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):54-64
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Spodumene from rare-metal pegmatites of the Kolmozerskoe lithium deposit (Kola peninsula)

Morozova L.N., Bazai. A.V.


The paper presents data on morphology and chemical composition of spodumene from rare-metal pegmatites of the Kolmozerskoe lithium deposit. Spodumene is the main rock-forming mineral (~ 20 %) and the major Li-bearing mineral in pegmatites. There are three generations of spodumene, and the intraphase heterogeneity of spodumenes of the first and second generations has been detected in the study for the first time. This heterogeneity is appearing in the presence of spots and zones differing by chemical composition — with high and low Fe/Mn ratio: 10.75—17.57 and 4.63—9.80, respectively. Any heterogeneity has not been revealed in the third generation spodumene. The second generation spodumene is the most widespread there, and the Li2O content in it varies from 7.11 to 8.08 wt %. As the common distinctive feature, the Kolmozerskoe deposit spodumenes have elevated contents of iron and rubidium in their chemical composition.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):65-78
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New data on chemical composition and Raman spectra of epidote-supergroup minerals

Varlamov D.A., Ermolaeva V.N., Chukanov N.V., Jančev S., Vigasina M.F., Plechov P.Y.


Compositional variations of the epidote-supergroup minerals from various magmatic, metasomatic and metamorphic formations of the Pelagonian Massif (Republic of Macedonia), the Urals (Russia) and the Eifel Mountains (Germany) have been studied and new data on isomorphism in these minerals have been obtained. Nine potentially new mineral species belonging to the epidote supergroup were identified, including minerals in which Cr, Ga, La, Ce, Nd and Pb are the species-defining components, as well as a number of varieties with unusually high Zn and Cu contents. Relationship between the chemical composition of epidote-supergroup minerals and their Raman spectra is discussed.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):79-99
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Mineralogical Crystallography

Tschermigite from thermal fields of Southern Kamchatka: high-temperature transformation and peculiarities of IR-spectrum

Zhitova E.S., Sergeeva A.V., Nuzhdaev A.A., Krzhizhanovskaya M.G., Chubarov V.M.


Tschermigite, (NH4)Al(SO4)2 ∙ 12H2O, is a widespread mineral in efflorescence at geothermal fields associated with Kambalny and Koshelevsky volcanoes (Southern Kamchatka, Russia). The determined temperature ranges of stability of tschermigite and products of its high-temperature evolution by in situ powder X-ray diffraction: tschermigite (23—60°C) → X-ray amorphous phase (70—200 °C) → godovikovite (210—390°C) → millosevichite (380—>620°C). This implies decomposition of tschermigite (23—60°C) first to the interim X-ray amorphous phase (probably melt) from which godovikovite is then formed, without direct transformation of tschermigite to godovikovite, as it was suggested in some papers previously. Deammonization of godovikovite to millosevichite occurs at 380—390°C. Thermal expansion coefficients are given for tschermigite, godovikovite and millosevichite with discussion on some peculiarities on their formation. Regarding IR bands that refer to ammonium ion: ν3 (~1430 cm–1) split, ν1 (~3100 cm–1) active, what attests about at least partial shift of N (NH4+) in tschermigite crystal structure from site 4b (S6) to site 8c (С3). In O—H stretching region, higher wavenumber band (~3380 cm–1) corresponds to «extraframework» water, while the observed band ~2950 cm–1 corresponds to water coordinating Al.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):100-116
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Experimental mineralogy

Experimental and computational model of pyrite-sphalerite-barite assemblage formation under the mixing of fluids

Laptev Y.V.


Experimental and thermodynamic study of the formation conditions of sulfates and sulfides under the mixing of fluids has been carried. This geochemical process is very important for modern sulfide ore formation at the floor of the oceans. Experimental procedure was based on the scheme H2S (H2SO4) + МеСl2 → MeS (MeSO4) + 2HCl. During experiments, sphalerite and pyrite, together with barite, were synthesized by mixing aquatic solutions of chloride of zinc, iron, and barium with sulfide-containing solutions at temperature of 200—275 °C and pressure of 100 bar. Experimental data on the composition of fluid and solid phases were used to validate a computational model. To calculate the composition of non-ideal solid solution of sphalerite (ZnS-FeS), the Margules asymmetric model was applied. Contents of iron in sphalerite calculated through this model and determined from experiments at 243 °С are 1.5 and 1.0 wt % correspondingly. The good similarity of these values indicates the feasibility of the proposed model of deep-sea sulfide ore formation in ocean floor structures.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):117-125
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The IX all-Russian school of young scientists «Experimental mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry»

Kovalskaja T.N., Saphonov O.G., Khanina E.V.


The IX All-Russian School of Young Scientists «Experimental mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry» was held in Chernogolovka on the basis of the Institute of Experimental Mineralogy RAS from the 2nd to the 3rd November 2018. In total, more than 80 people from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Chernogolovka, Belgorod, Syktyvkar, Novosibirsk, Voronezh, Yekaterinburg, Vladivostok, Irkutsk, and also from Australia participated in the work of the School as lecturers, speakers and listeners. The school program included plenary lectures by leading scientists in the field of experimental mineralogy, reports by young scientists, a master class and an excursion to scientific laboratories of IEM RAS. At the final meeting, it was decided to hold the next anniversary X All-Russian School of Young Scientists in the autumn of 2019.

Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society). 2019;148(1):126-129
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