Vol 9, No 2 (2009)

Articles
Endogenous digitalis-like substances and alcohol dependence
Kashkin V.A., Zvartau E.E., Bagrov A.Y.

Abstract

Endogenous digitalis-like substances (EDLS) and Na/K-ATPase are involved into water-salt homeostasis, regulation of cardiovascular system functions and pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. Na/K-ATPase activity is modified also by ethanol. Experiments conducted by authors showed the ability of EDLS, in particular, marinobufagenin, to suppress motivational-and-reinforcing properties of this psychoactive agent. "Na/K-ATPase- EDLS" system is supposed to contribute to individual vulnerability to alcohol dependence, while centrally acting selective inhibitors of Na/K-ATPase are potential medications for the treatment of alcoholism. Data are presented also demonstrating the involvement of EDLS into the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension in alcohol withdrawal and in neurotoxic properties of this agent.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):3-10
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Dendritic cells and their role in atherosclerosis
Bobryshev Y.V., Lord R.A., Nagornev V.A.

Abstract

Dendritic cells were discovered and recognized as antigen-presenting cells in 1973. Since then, large volume of information has accumulated showing role of dendritic cells as a key element connecting the innate and adaptive immunity. Nowadays, dendritic cells are considered to be professional sensors of the immune system, capable of recognizing both antigen amounts and antigen persistence via complex mechanisms that involve decoding and integration of various signals received in a receptor-dependant manner. Tissue microenvironment plays an important role in the modulation of effector functions of dendritic cells, leading either to activation or to suppression of immune reactions. Dendritic cells maintain the homeostasis and are involved in a number of diseases, including infection diseases and cancer. The presence of dendritic cells in arteries has been reported in 1995 and since then, the importance of dendritic cells in atherogenesis has been evaluated. This review briefly describes current knowledge on dendritic cells and their role in atherogenesis.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):11-24
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RNA interference as a regulatory mechanism of genes activity in the nervous and immune systems
Kazakova T.B., Korneva E.A.

Abstract

The review is devoted to the research results of the RNA interference processes in the nervous and immune systems, the small RNAs structures and functions, the possibility in the use of the siRNAs and miRNAs in the human disease therapy, and also - to the several problems connected with analysis of the siRNAs systems particularity functioning in different organisms, nature of the signals for dsRNAs appearance, technologic approaches to the RNAi targets screening.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):25-35
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Changes in immunoreactivity of orexin-A-positive neurons after restraint stress and cold stress applications
Shainidze K.Z., Novikova N.S., Aleshina G.M., Darinsky J.A., Synchikova A.P., Korneva E.A.

Abstract

As it is known influence of any stressor factors leads to considerable changes of immune system activity that affects current of infection process. Change of the expression level of preproorexin gene has been studied after restraint and cold-restraint stress application. Also selective alteration of immunereactivity of orexin-containing neurons is established after these kinds of stress application. Orexin-containing neurons are located mostly in structures on brain slices of 28,29,31 levels, and have different immunoreactivity, that testifies a functional heterogeneity of population of orexin-containing neurons in hypothalamus. The revealed changes of reactions in the central nervous system during stress-induced dysfunction of immune system are important for considering in clinical practice in the people with infection process who have transferred strong psychoemotional stress.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):36-40
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Prevalence of GJB2 gene mutation 35delG among healthy population of Northwest Region of Russia
Zhuravskiy S.C., Ivanov S.A., Taraskina A.E., Grinchik O.V., Kurus A.A.

Abstract

Mutation 35delG of GJB2 gene is a major genetic factor of hereditary recessive prelingual deafness in Caucasian population. This study investigated heterozygous carrier prevalence of the mutation among healthy native population of Northwest region of Russia. DN A analysis was carried out on blood material from inhabitants (n=1153) of Arkhangelsk, Pskov, Saint Petersburg and Kaliningrad region. The prevalence of heterozygous 35delG/GJB2 mutation in healthy individuals was found to be 5.0%, 4.7%, 5.5%, and 7.5%, respectively, which is considerably higher than the average prevalence in Europe. Possible causes of such high prevalence of the 35delG/GJB2 mutation are discussed.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):41-45
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Epidemiological peculiarities of tuberculosis with multidrag resistance in Karelia
Markelov Y.M.

Abstract

The prevelance of primary and second MDR has been studied in the last for 8 years in Karelia. The statistics of 306 case histories of patients with pulmonary form ofTB including 170 with MDR and 63 with preserving drug sensibility shoues that ТВ with MDR characterises clear destructive changes in lungs and intensive bacterioexcretion truethfully more often than forms with pulmonary sensibility the presense of steable intensive bacterioexcretion, low effectiviness of treatment and associativites with social desadapteded patients/adcition with late and not full diagnostication of numerous basilar forms of ТВ assists epidemiological prevelance of ТВ among the population and increases epidemiological risk of ТВ with MDR in Karelia.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):46-51
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Neurophysiological mechanisms of compensations of damaged function of upper limbs in therapy with electromyography biofeedback
Jakovlev N.M., Alexandrov N.M.

Abstract

Based on complex psychophysiological evaluation of clinical severity of existing extremity and selection of adequate reconstructive operation was developed a methodological approach forming new dynamical stereotypes in CNS by retraining motor coordination not inherent in them before with help of biofeedback.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):52-58
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Reorganization in callosal and associative connections animals brain in remote period after callosotmy
Bersnev V.P., Kasumov R.D., Gabibov I.M., Kasumov V.R.

Abstract

Compensatory mechanism was studied by injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the area 21 of the cat associative cortex. In intact brain this was found to result in a characteristics pattern of neuron staining in area 17 in separate groups of 2 to 15 neurons. In two months after callosotomy a large quantity of marked neurons could be still seen on the slices in this area. A large number of marked neurons were found in area 7. In intact brain in area 7 after introduction of a marked HRP in area 21 only single marked neurons were found. More than 20% of the stained area 7 neurons of callosotomy were inhibitory interneurons. We may conclude that extensive compensatory reorganization occurs in the associative visual cortex after callosotomy involving changing connections in areas 17 and 7 at least.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):59-63
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Features of the course of community-acquired pneumonia of pneumococcal etiology
Larina N.A., Dudanova O.P., Stafeev S.V.

Abstract

Aim;to study the incidence as well as the course of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Pneumococcus and its resistant strains in the region of the Republic of Karelia. Methods:\Ne have examined 933 patients with CAP, among them 592 males (63.5%) and 341 females (36.5%) with an average age of 44.0±0.7 years. The diagnosis of CAP was established based on traditional clinical and roentgenological criteria. For all the patients general and bacteriological sputum analysis was carried out. The sensitivity of pneumococcal strains to antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion method. The frequency of pneumococcal strains resistant to three antibiotics (penicillin, erythromycin) was analyzed. Accepted clinical criteria were used to assess the severity of pneumonia, and to recognize complications and prolonged course of the disease. Statistical methods were applied to compare the severity of the disease, the relative frequency of complications and of prolonged course of CAP caused by different bacterial agents, including resistant strains of Pneumococcus. ftesu/rs:The incidence of pneumococcal infection among CAP patients in Karelia amounted to 30.2%, whereby Gram-negative enterobacteria were revealed in 6.4% of the patients, Staphylococcus in 2.1%, Haemophilus influenzae in 1.5%, rare flora in 2.5%, and in a significant number of patients, 57.2%, the etiology of pneumonia remained unverified. Penicillin-resistant Pneumococcus strains were revealed in 53.1% and erythromycin-resistant strains in 40.6% of the patients. Pneumonia caused by Pneumococcus was distinguished by a more favorable course than that caused by Gram-negative flora or Staphylococcus aureus, while it did not differ in the basic clinical parameters from pneumonia of undetermined etiology. The resistance of Pneumococcus to antibiotics did not affect the severity of clinical manifestations, but resulted in more frequent complications and prolonged course of pneumonia.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):64-72
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Changes interhemispheric coherence eeg of patients with ischemic stroke from the brain hypostases during the acute period
Stafeeva I.V., Subbotina N.S.

Abstract

After making analysis EEG of patients with ischemic stroke from the brain hypostases during the acute period of their disease we calculate interhemispheric coherence of two hemispheres: the affected and the healthy. According to these figures all the investigated patients were divided into two groups: the first had positive dynamics of their disease and the second - negative dynamics (It means the dynamics on scale NIHSS more than 2 points). It has been shown that a decrease of the rates of interhemispheric coherence in healthy hemisphere during the acute period of disease seems to be unfavourable sign for a stroke's current for those patients which have positive dynamics of disease, the permanent increase of interhemispheric coherence in the majority of clinical healthy hemisphere's areas during the sharp period of stroke is typical. In our option an increase of clinical rates of interhemispheric coherence at fronto-temperalis and fronto-centralis areas of healthy hemispheres during the whole ischemic stroke's sharp period allows us to make such predictions as the recovery of disturb functionsfparticularly of Impellent system) for the first group' patients.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):73-78
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Immunocytochemical study of Helicobacter pylori in oral, stomach and rectum mucosa
Kravtsov V.Y., Grukhin Y.A., Sourovtseva T.V., Mazurova Y.Y., Kobiashvili M.G., Aleksanin S.S.

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori (HP) was verified in human stomach (antrum), mouth and rectum in the same patients by means of immunocytochemistry.This technique allows detect both coccoid and spiral forms of HP. Results of HP detection in oral cavity and rectum corresponded with HP detection in stomach in 80% and 83%, respectively. Immunocytochemical observation of HP in oral, stomach and rectum mucosa let make a suggestion that HP bacterial cells enter human gut as coccoids, colonize stomach mucosa as vegetable spirals forms and leave human gut for out as coccoid forms. Thus our data strongly support hypothesis that HP infection spread and contaminate human gut through coccoid forms.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):79-84
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Methodology of simulation in ecological and epidemiological investigation of morbidity
Lobzin Y.V., \Maximov G.K., \Uiba V.V., Maximov A.G.

Abstract

Dynamic epidemic models for evaluation of incidence and prevalence of infectious diseases were worked out. The models took into account epidemiologic characteristic of two population groups, namely the residential population (the primary nidus of infection) and the work collective (the secondary nidus of infection).The epidemic process was described via ordinary differential equations. Analytical solutions of the equations were obtained. General approaches to simulation of epidemic processes were proposed.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):85-90
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Psychopharmacological properties of peptides with nootropic type of action
Shabanov P.D., Lebedev A.A.

Abstract

The phychopharmacological analysis of 9 peptide drugs (cortexin, cerebrolysine, deltaran, cortagen, oleyl-cortagen, semax, selank, noopept, dilept) in comparison with piracetam and mexidol was shown that cerebrolysine (1 mg/kg), oleyl-cortagen (1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg) possessed activating effect on motor and research components of behavior in "open field"test, and piracetam and cerebrolysine increased the emotional status of rats. Deprimating type of action was revealed in dilept (1 mg/kg), which decreased horizontal and vertical motor activity in rats. Only one peptide, selank (0,1 mg/kg), possessed antiaggresion action. A number of peptides (oleyl-cortagen, dilept and cortexin) demonstrated antidepressant effects, while cerebrolysine (1 mg/kg), oleyl-cortagen (1 mg/kg) and selank (0,1 mg/kg), on the other hand, performed depressant action on rat behavior in the Porsolt'test. At last, oleyl-cortagen and cortexin activated self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. Therefore, the significant psychoactivating properties are typical for cerebrolysine, oleyl-cortagen, cortexin and piracetam, while dilept, selank and in the less degree semax inhibited rat behavior, demonstrating deprimating type of action.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):91-97
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Chronic pancreatitis: kinds of operative interventions
Evtihova E.J., Gagua A.K., Lebedeva O.A., Andrew J.V., Dudanov I.P.

Abstract

Results of surgical treatment 183 patients with a chronic pancreatitis are presented. Following kinds of operative interventions were carried out: longitudinal pancreatojejunal anastomosis - in 12 patients; longitudinal pancreatojejunal anastomosis and choledochoduodenal anastomosis - in 6; cystojejunal anastomosis - in 29; cystogastrical anastomosis - in 5; cystooentero - holedohoentero - and gastroenteroanastomosis - in 5; excision a pancreatic fistula - in 2, fistulojejunal anastomosis - in 2, allocation and excision a fistula to a pancreas with formation longitudinal pancreatojejunal anastomosis - in 6, distal pancreas resection - in 7 patients. Also in 109 patients the proximal pancreas resection is executed: in 86 - classical pancreatoduodenal resection, in 1 б - pylororetentive variant pancreatoduodenal resections and in 7 - a resection of a head of a pancreas. The general postoperative lethality has made 5,46%, after pancreatoduodenal resections - 8,8%. The remote results in terms from 2 till 14 years are analysed: researches have shown that surgical tactics of treatment of a chronic pancreatitis remains multiple. The kind of operative intervention is defined by the clinical form of a chronic pancreatitis. Process stabilisation in a pancreas after operation in many respects depends on timeliness of its performance.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):98-102
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Review on monograph by P. D. Shabanov «Psychopharmacology»
Sapronov N.S.

Abstract

Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):103-105
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Levashev Yuriy Nikolaevich. On the 70 anniversary
- -.

Abstract

Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):106-107
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Belaykov Nikolay Alekseevich. On the 60 anniversary
- -.

Abstract

Medical academic journal. 2009;9(2):108-108
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