Vol 9, No 3 (2009)

Articles
Humoral and cellular immunity against atherosclerosis: possibility to develop a vaccine
Nagornev V.A., Ketlinsky S.A.

Abstract

Development of atherosclerosis is influenced by innate and adaptive immune responses. Innate immunity based on detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors on macrophages and dendritic cells. Pattern recognition receptors binding a wide range of protein, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids, but those considered most important in atherosclerosis are scavenger receptors and the Toll-like receptors. Recent observation has suggested the possibility that selective suppression of proatherogenic immune responses or selective activation of antiatherogenic immune response may provide new approaches for atherosclerosis prevention and treatment.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):2-15
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Potential of surgery in treatment of multiple metastatic pulmonary lesions
Tarasov V.A.

Abstract

Metastatic pulmonary lesions are present in 30-50% of patients that die because of malignant neoplasms. Approaches to treatment of this condition accepted at present as standard can hardly be considered effective. Based on the review of literature and personal clinical experience of surgical treatment of more than 300 patients with multiple metastatic pulmonary lesions, he author discusses variants of pathogenesis of metastatic process, justifies the appropriateness of surgical stage in complex treatment of metastatic pulmonary neoplasms, describes the principles of assessment of patients with multiple pulmonary metastases, resectability criteria, features of surgery, locoregional therapeutic techniques that exist now and are being developed, postsurgical adjuvant therapy, immediate and long-term results of complex treatment.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):16-28
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Sindbis fever
Lukin E.P.

Abstract

In the review, up-to-date data confirming existing of genocomplex of Sindbis viruses are presented. The complex unifies so called Sindbis, Pogosta, Ockelbo and Karelian fevers. These diseases, in accordance with priority of the first place where the virus was isolated, should have unified name - Sindbis fever. Ecologically, epidemiologically and genetically the causative agents of above-mentioned fevers are identical. Clinical manifestations are also similar.The diagnosis is based on dominating symptoms: polyarthritis, arthalgia and rash.There are emergent foci of Sindbis virus In Russia - in Volga and Kuban river deltas. In Russian Karelia, there is stable focus as a part of virus areal formed in Fenoscandia in the 70-es of XX century.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):29-41
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Of the antihypoxic effect of N-phenylalkyl derivate of taurine
Bulion V.V., Selina E.N., Krylova I.B., Sapronov N.S.

Abstract

The antihypoxic effect of IEM-1715 was shown on the model of rat sharp histotoxic hypoxia produced by the glycolysis blocker sodium fluoride. Its antihypoxic activity which became apparent on this model can be compared with the effect of amthizol.The stabilization of energy metabolism and antioxidant action of IEM-1715 were demonstrated during acute brain and myocardial ischemia in rats.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):42-46
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Cytogenetic investigation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in Hodgkin's lymphomas
Kolubaeva S.N., Novitsky A.V., Myakoshina L.V., Illyin N.V., Vinogradova J.N., Evtushenko V.L., Viktorova N.A., Krasnova O.P., Titova A.A.

Abstract

Chromosomal injuries in 84 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma were investigated by differential painting. Clonal aberrations were found in 22 patients and 61 patients had various nonclonal aberrations. Comparison of discovered injuries with the injuries published by others shows that the character of injuries and immunological status may depend on geographical regions where the patients live.The most frequent regions of chromosomal injuries were localized in the chromosomes 2.3,6,12, X.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):47-51
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Cardiopulmonary reflex and analgesia stimulation of gastric vagal afferents by adrenaline
Serdyuk S.E., Gmiro V.E.

Abstract

Intravenous (i.v.) administration of serotonin and adrenaline in the minimal effective dose in the lightly anesthetized rats causes cardiopulmonary reflex and maximal analgesia in the hind paw withdrawal test as a result of stimulation of cardiopulmonary vagal afferents. The combined i.v. administration of serotonin and adrenaline in the threshold independently noneffective doses comprising 1/10-1/12 part of the minimal effective dose, leads to the development of cardiopulmonary reflex and maximal analgesia. The basis for the mechanism of potentiation is the stimulation of vagal afferents in gastric mucosa by adrenaline.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):52-56
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Tuberous sclerosis: molecular-genetic concepts, diagnostics criteria
Ledashcheva T.A., Scoromets A.A.

Abstract

This articles covers contemporary diagnostic and forecasting criteria and methods of prenatal diagnostics of one of the most wide-spread phacomatosis types - tuberous sclerosis. Issues of medical genetic consulting with the aim of posterity forecasting and prenatal diagnostics are also considered.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):57-61
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Clinical and immunological characteristics of fingers complicated pyoinflammatory diseases
Simbirtsev S.A., Konichev A.V., Rutenburg D.G., Ivanenko A.B., Kokorev O.V.

Abstract

Fingers pyoinflammatory diseases diagnostic technique and surgical treatment perfecting is severe socio-medical problem. It is a retrospective analysis of 450 medical cards. 100 cases with complicated panaritium, and 40 - with noninflammatory diseases as a control group have been presented. Capable of working male-population morbidity high rate, right hand I, II fingers injuries dominate, microtrauma considerable proportion in fingers surgical infection have been determined. Finger pyoinflammatory diseases prehospital management deficiency have been noted. Tumor necrosis factor a and interferon-y impoverishment during acute inflammation regression have been detected. In addition, clinical presentations of pathologic alteration, bone tissue affected segment structure and consistency with proinflammatory cytokinins concentration correlation have been determined. Complicated panaritium ambulatory surgical care reorganization, home and occupational traumatism prophylaxis, stage and character of inflammatory process immunologic criteria usage, these factors are able to reduce treatment duration and to reach the best cosmetic and functional result.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):62-65
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Breast cancer and pregnancy
Semiglazov V.Я., Dashyan G.A., Semiglazov V.V.

Abstract

Breast cancer during pregnancy is still a relatively uncommon occurrence. It has been shown that breast cancer occurs in between 1/3000 and 1/10,000 of all pregnant women [3-7] Research to date has shown that the relationship between pregnancy and breast cancer is quite complex [40]. However, the available studies are limited by substantial potential biases, and concerns remain for some women and their doctors about the risks of pregnancy after breast cancer. This article reviews what is known about the association between pregnancy and breast cancer, discusses treatment options for women diagnosed with the disease during pregnancy, and summarizes evidence regarding the safety of pregnancy after breast cancer.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):66-73
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Importance cytomorphologic neutrophiles changes of peripheral blood in diagnostics local epilepsy
Selivanov E.A., Lobzin S.V., Dyskin D.E., Kuznetsov A.M., Vasilenko A.V., Asyamov K.V.

Abstract

Clinical, computerized-tomography and cytomorphologic studies of peripheral blood were carried out at 241 human. 102 patients with local epilepsy were entered into analysed group. 61 patients without epileptic seizures entered into comparative group. 35 practical healthy humans were included into the control group. At cytomorphologic study the definite changes of peripheral blood neutrophiles in analysed group of patients with local epilepsy. Comparative analysis of results of the clinical, EEG and cytomorphologic studies in analysed group of patients with local epilepsy established, that changes at EEG were meat more frequently. Large equivalent at comparative analysis of results of the MRI and cytomorphologic studies in analysed group of patients with local epilepsy was established. Structural neutrophiles changes can be consider as specific marker for local epilepsy and other paroxysmal seizures of epileptical nature, that presents a new perspective diagnostic direction.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):74-77
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Lipid metabolism disorders within chronic kidney disease in association with metabolic syndrome
Tarakanovskaya T.A., Yunusov I.A.

Abstract

The distribution and predictors of chronic kidney disease associated with metabolic syndrome among outpatients investigated and treated in policlinic № 30 (Petrograd region, St. Petersburg) were studied. 1800 patients with cardiovascular pathology were investigated, among them 380 patients (205 or 53,9% females and 175 or 46,1 % males) with metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria were selected. The middle age of the patients was 59,2±3,6 (43+73) years, arterial hypertension lasted 12,0+ 4,5 years. The chronic kidney disease was diagnosed according to decrease of glomerular filtration rate and microalbuminuria. The distribution of metabolic syndrome with microalbuminuria among all patients studied was 21,1%. In patients with metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria, a level of lipid metabolism disorders was shown to grow higher and blood pressure was increased in accordance with reduction of kidney function, that elevated risk of cardiovascular complications.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):78-84
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The role of platelet activation in the pathogenesis of retinal venous thrombosis
Tultseva S.N.

Abstract

In the present study, the role of different platelet glycoprotein receptors Gpla, Gplb and Gpllla gene polymorphisms in the intravascular activation of platelets was studied in 182 patients with retinal venous occlusion. It was concluded that the 434(C/T) Gplba and 1565(T/C) Gpllla polymorphisms were associated with the increased platelet aggregation and represent the risk factors of the ischemic form of retinal venous thrombosis.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):85-91
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Early diagnostics of a neuropathy at the degenerative disorders of the spine of children
Kuznetsova L.V., Varlamova T.V.

Abstract

Elektromyographia (EMG) allows obliquely to diagnose structural integrity of muscles, peripheral nerves and spinal cord, and also to estimate a functional state of the nervimuscular kettle. The examination enables to localize a lesion at eight levels cortex-muscular of a route: suprasegment, level of cornu anterius, radicular, level of a plexus, fulcrum of a nerve, terminalis of nervous fibers, nervimuscular synapse, muscle fiber. In children's age there are considerable recompenses of an opportunity of the nervimuscular kettle, therefore EMG-ALTERATIONS at early stages of disease can wear transient character. Use EMG of methods is rather valuable to early diagnostics of a lesion of peripheral nerves. The complex EMG examination can be utilised as a method of the check behind dynamics of course and efficacyy of therapy of a nervimuscular set of symptoms at the degenerative disorders of the spine of children
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):92-95
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Features of HIV-infection in St-Petersburg
Beliakov N.A., Stepanova E.V., Rakhmanova A.C., Jolobov V.E., Volkova G.V., Dvorak S.I., Panteleeva O.V.

Abstract

HIV/AIDS epidemic is a great challenge to the health care system. The incidence of new HIV infections in the Russian Federation is among the highest in the world. Over the past decade, the number of officially registered HIV-infected persons in St. Petersburg has exceeded 30,000 people. At present, there is a shift from the IDU to the sexual route of HIV acquisition; the frequency of sexual HIV acquisition has doubled. Among the HIV-infected people those below 30 years of age predominate (57-62%); however, we also observe an increase in the incidence of HIV infection among people over 30 while the incidence of HIV infection among younger population decreases. Beginning from 2002, the detection rate of HIV infection in pregnant women and the number of children born to HIV-infected mothers has been persistently increasing. In St. Petersburg the rate of mother-to-child HIV transmission remains high (6.7%). Over the last years, there is an increase in the number of patients with advanced stages of HiV (4A, 4B, 4C).The statistical data analysis revealed that the leading opportunistic infections are mycobacterial infection, candidiasis and Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The number of people infected with both HIV and tuberculosis increases 1.5 times every year.The mortality analysis showed the persistent increase in the mortality rate among patients in the AIDS stage (from 14.2% in 2004 to 41.0% in 2008). This observation is related both to the improvement of HIV detection and increase in HIV disease severity.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):96-104
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Beliakov Nikolay Alexeevich. On the 60 anniversary
- -.

Abstract

Medical academic journal. 2009;9(3):105-106
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