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Vol 16, No 2 (2016)

Articles
ON THE HISTORY OF THE EMERGENCE OF THE CHOLESTEROL MODEL OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS
Parfenova N.S., Golikov Y.P., Klimov A.N.
Abstract
The year 2012 marked the centenary of the cholesterol model of atherosclerosis developed by Nikolai Nikolayevich Anichkov and Semion Sergeyevich Khalatov. The emergence of the model was an important milestone for developing the concepts of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and determined the lines of the further work of N.N. Anichkov and his scientific school, as well as of many other research teams in Russia and abroad. The present article cites important events of the biographies of N.N. Anichkov and S.S. Khalatov and describes the history of the cholesterol model of atherosclerosis in rabbits, which was developed by these two scholars. Modern concepts of hypercholesterolemia are discussed with emphasis on the genetic model suggested by Watanabe, which highlights the importance of lipoprotein receptors in cholesterol homeostasis. The contribution of N.N. Anichkov and S.S. Khalatov to atherosclerosis research is hard to overestimate. Their model of atherosclerosis has passed the test of time and has been being used by thousand of researches worldwide to elucidate different aspects of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):7-14
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YEVGENI ALEKSANDROVICH GANIKE: THE PRINCIPAL AIDE OF I. P. PAVLOV AT INSTITUTE OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
Golikov Y.P., Sysuev V.M.
Abstract
The activities of a notable Russian scientist Ye.A. Ganike, who was the principal aide of I. P. Pavlov at Institute of Experimental Medicine in Saint Petersburg, is described based on archival materials. The publication is dedicated to the centenary of the establishment of the Physico-Physiological Department of IEM by Ye. A. Ganike in 1916.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):15-20
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MODERN CONCEPTS OF THE PATHOGENESIS, RISK FACTORS, AND APPROACHES TO THE TREATMENT OF POSTSTROKE DEPRESSION
Belokoskova S.G., Tsikunov S.G.
Abstract
The review addresses up-do-date data about the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of poststroke depressive conditions. The neurobiological and psychological hypotheses of the development of depressive states after stroke are considered. The significance of brain lesion localization and size, neuromediator disbalance, neurotrophic factor deficit, immune system activation, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system hyperactivity, disturbed neurogenesis, reduced brain blood flow, and personal traits and peculiarities of responses to stress are discussed. The likely trends of the further studies of risk factors of depressive conditions after stroke and of therapy for such conditions are delineated.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):21-31
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MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS IN ONCOLOGY
Imyanitov E.N.
Abstract
Molecular diagnostics has become an indispensable part of modern clinical oncology. Most often, molecular tests are used to examine patients suffering from neoplasia of the reproductive organs, lung, colon, and skin. The detection of hereditary defects in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is now a routine in examining females who have breast and ovary carcinomas. Besides discovering patient’s healthy relatives who bear BRCA 1/2 mutations, the objectives of such examination include modifying the regimens of treatment of already diagnosed tumors. The discovery of mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR and ALK led to tremendous progress in treating lung cancer: for the first time in oncology the newly developed tests allow to personalise therapy at a virtually 100% confidence. Many publications address the issue of improving the methods of molecular genetic monitoring of tumor cell clones based on testing the physiological and pathological liquids of human body. Of interest are studies of the usability of DNA and RNA markers for the differential diagnostics of tumors whose primary sites are unknown. Molecular diagnostic is currently being revolutionized by the introduction of whole genome sequencing techniques. A significant expansion of the range of DNA and RNA tests used in clinical practice may be expected in the nearest future.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):32-41
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SEARCH OF THE NOVEL GENETIC DETERMINANTS IN STREPTOCOCCUS DYSGALACTIAE SUBSPECIES EQUISIMILIS
Dmitriev A.V., Kisely ov A.M., Kireeva A.G., Il’yasov Y.Y., Sergushichev A.A., Kazakov S.V., Kalinina O.V.
Abstract
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) previously considered to be a commensal bacterium, is currently recognized as a causative agent of about 60% of infections caused by groups C and G streptococci. Goal of the present study was to search the novel genetic determinants in the genome of four SDSE strains using next generation sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. As result, genome sequences of four SDSE strains were determined, and numerous DNA fragments previously uncharacterized for SDSE were revealed. Most of the fragments were presented by migrating genetic elements such as bacteriophages, transposons, plasmids, integrative conjugative elements etc. For the first time the resistance genes to antibacterial drugs (tetS, tetT - resistance to tetracycline, and lsaE, lnuB - to lincosamides) were determined in the studied SDSE strains. Given that horizontal gene transfer, in particular, virulence genes associated with migrating genetic elements, is a driving force of streptococcal evolution, an emergence of novel virulent SDSE clones is expected.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):42-50
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A ROLE OF INTERLEUKIN-8 AND T-LYMPHOCYTES IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUE DESTABILIZATION IN HUMANS
Pigarevsky P.V., Maltseva S.V., Snegova V.A., Davydova N.G., Yakovleva O.G., Vorozhbit R.A.
Abstract
Comparative histological and immunohistological studies of atherosclerotic lesions in human aorta, coronary arteries, and basilar artery revealed a marked expression of the potent chemotactic factor interleukin-8 in the endothelial cells that line the surfaces of nascent and mature unstable atherosclerotic plaques. Concomitantly, macrophage and T-cell fixation at the endothelium and their subsequent penetration in the intima of arteries were observed. The T-cells are represented mainly by CD4 cells and Th17 helpers. Based on the original findings and data reported in the literature, a hypothesis is put forward that interleukin-8 and the above cells promote immuno-inflammatory reactions when unstable atherosclerotic plagues develop.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):51-55
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CHARACTERIZATION OF IBA-1-IMMUNOPOSITIVE CELLS IN RAT SPINAL CORD AND GANGLIA
Kolos E.A., Korzhevskii D.E.
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to examine the morphological features and the distribution of Iba-1 + cells in adult rat spinal cord and ganglia. Seven adult Wistar rats were used. Iba-1+ cells were detected with polyclonal goat antibodies. Immunohistochemical antigen detection was carried out in paraffin-embedded tissue sections fixed with zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde. Microglial cells in Rexed laminae were shown to make contacts with ependymal cells and the cerebrospinal fluid of the spinal cord. Morphological differences between spinal ganglia Iba-1+ cells and spinal cord microglial cells are found. Terminology used to describe Iba-1 + cells in spinal ganglia is discussed. The data are useful for comparative characterization of changes possible upon modeling of different pathological processes.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):56-64
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THE COMPARISON OF THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND SAFETY OF BIS-AMMONIA ADAMANTANE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND THEIR MONOAMMONIA ANALOGUE MEMANTINE
Gmiro V.E., Serdyuk S.E., Veselkina O.S.
Abstract
The substance 1-amino-4-(1-adamantane-amino)-butane dihydrochloride (IEM-1913) has significant advantages over memantine, which is used in clinics, because the former exceeds the latter with regard to the antihypoxic, antiseizure, antidepressant, and analgetic activities being equivalent with regard to the antiparkinsonian activity and being less toxic and more safe in use. 1-Amino-6-(3,5-dimethyl-1-adamantane-amino)-hexane dihydrochloride (IEM-2121) and 1-amino-6-(3,5-dimethyl-1-ada- mantane-amino)-butane dihydrochloride (IEM-2127) are equivalent to memantine with regard to the antiparkinsonian, antiseizure, and antidepressant activities, but outperform memantine with regard to the antihypoxic and analgetic activities and are less toxic and more safe in use. At difference from memantine, which is effective only at the maximal doses of 15-20 mg/kg, IEM-1913 produced significant pharmacological effects at doses ranging from 0.03 to 1 mg/kg, and IEM-2121 and IEM-1227, at doses ranging from 0,3 to 3 mg/kg. The high pharmacological activities and low toxicities of IEM-1913, IEM-2121, and IEM-2127 are explained by the fact that, at difference from the mono-cationic selective NMDA blocker memantine, the above bis-cationic substances block both, NMDA and AMPA receptors in the brain.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):65-71
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THE CONTRIBUTION OF GENE POLYMORPHISM OF THE XENOBIOTIC DETOXICATION SYSTEM TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA PHENOTYPES IN CHILDHOOD
Kuropatenko M.V., Ivaschenko T.E., Galustian A.N., Zhelenina L.A.
Abstract
The present prospective study was carried out to assess the contribution of polymorphisms of the genes that code for the enzymes of the second phase of detoxication of xenobiotics and for antioxidant enzymes of the GSTT1 glutathione-S-transferase family to the development of bronchial asthma phenotypes in childhood. The study group comprised 238 children having bronchial asthma diagnosed according to GINA criteria valid at the time of examination. The children were categorized into groups according to the following phenotypes: atopic asthma (AA, 128 subjects), asthma associated with limited allergic lesions of the respiratory tract in children whose parents suffered from allergies (RA_H+, 88 subjects), and the same as in the latter group but without hereditary predisposition to allergy (RA_H-, 22 subjects). It has been shown that, despite the absence of differences in the rates of homozygous deletion polymorphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes between virtually healthy people living in Saint Petersburg and bronchial asthma patients, different asthma phenotypes show significant differences between them and upon comparison of any of them with the general population. In children having asthma associated with limited allergic lesions of the respiratory tract without hereditary predisposition to allergic diseases, the key determinants of the pathogenesis of their disease are genetically determined defects in the enzymes of GSTT1 and GSTM families involved in the detoxication of xenobiotics.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):72-81
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CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTIFOCAL VASCULAR LESIONS IN ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASES PATIENTS
Shcheglov D.S., Dudanov I.P., Shcheglova L.V., Avdeeva M.V.
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to use angiography for assessing the prevalence and characteristics of multifocal atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels in ischemic heart diseases in patients aged above 50 years. Angiography was focused at the brachiocephalic and coronary arteries, the abdominal segment of aorta, and lower limb arteries of 67 IHD patients whose mean age was 60,1±0,1 years. Results: In patients aged above 50 years without hemodynamically significant coronary stenoses, angiographic examinations reveal stenoses equal to or above 75% involving brachiocephalic arteries in 20% and involving lower limb arteries in 70% of cases and stenoses equal to or above 50% involving renal arteries in 10% of cases. Irrespective of the degree of the stenotic lesions of coronary arteries, IHD patients aged above 50 years often have obliterating atherosclerosis of lower limb arteries associated with stenosis equal to or above 75% (Group 1, 70%; Group 2, 85,7%, and Group 3, 96,9% at p<0,05). Conclusion: IHD patients aged above 50 years should undergo screening for lesions of other blood vessels, especially of lower limb arteries.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):82-87
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LASER DOPPLER FLOWMETRY IN THE INTRAOPERATION DIAGNOSTICS OF BURN WOUND DEPTH
Fistal E.Y., Soloshenko V.V., Fistal N.N.
Abstract
The main technique for assessing the depth of burn lesions in the majority of specialized medical facilities is still the visual examination of a lesion and the assessment of the condition of its floor. The accuracy of currently available techniques for the objective assessment of the depth of burns is not more than 70%. Modern approaches to the treatment of large dermal burns imply that surgery is performed within 24 h and thus require accurate estimates of the depth of a thermal lesion. The aim of the present work was to assess the accuracy of estimating the depth of burn wounds based on laser doppler flowmetry data. Burn wounds were examined in operation rooms according to «Protocol for the Diagnostics of the Depth of Burns in Victims of Explosions of Methane-and-Coal Dust Mixtures» suggested by the present authors. The results of treatment of 115 miners admitted to the Department of Burns in 2004-2012 were analyzed. The suggested technique for estimating the depth of burn wounds is based on the use of laser doppler flowmetry for assessing capillary blood flow in the upper layers of derma. The technique made it possible to increase the accuracy of diagnostics of surface burns and deep burns by more than 1% and by 0,7% of whole body area, respectively, compared with the cases where the depth of burns was assesses based on clinical cues only. Thus, the use of laser doppler flowmetry makes it possible to significantly reduce inaccuracies in the determination of burn wound depth and to optimise treatment regimens.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):88-93
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NIH - RFBR Collaborative Research Partnership
- -.
Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):94-98
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BRAIN LESIONS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS WITH HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY: CLINICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL COMPARISONS
Bakulina E., Trofimova T., Rassokhin V.
Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):99-100
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A SEARCH OF INFORMATIVE BIOMARKERS FOR EARLY IMMUNOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS OF TUBERCULOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH HIV-INFECTION
Vasileva E., Kudryavtsev I., Panteleev A., Verbov V., Totolian A.
Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):101-102
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THE EVALUATION OF IMMUNE DYSREGULATION DURING ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL TREATMENT AND EARLY REMISSION AMONG HIV INFECTED ALCOHOLICS
Vetrova M., Toussova O., Yaroslavtseva T., Palatkin V., Blokhina E., Krupitsky E.M., Zvartau E.E.
Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):103-104
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TUMOUR NECROSIS FACTOR-a INDUCES CARDIOMYOCYTE PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES THAT LEAD TO DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY
Voronova A.D., Tkachev G.A., Chadin A.V., Valikhov M.P., Stepanova O.V., Kulikova T.G., Masenko V.P., Sukhikh G.T.
Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):105-106
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SKIN EXPLANT MODEL FOR OPTIMIZATION OF DELIVERY OF GENETIC VACCINES AND GENE BASED DRUGS
Gordeychuk I., Petkov S., Latanova A., Starodubova E., Tukhvatullin A., Abakumov M., Logunov D., Isaguliants M.
Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):107-107
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DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS OF BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL NATURE IN HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS
Yelistratova T.A., Tikhonova E.P.
Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):108-110
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THE EPIDEMIC OF COMORBID AND ADVANCED STAGES OF HIV INFECTION IN THE NORTHWEST OF RUSSIA
Konovalova N.V., Ogurtsova S.V., Belyakov N.A., Boeva E.V.
Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):111-112
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Samoilov V. O.
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):113-114
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PRAVILA OFORMLENIYa STATEY
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(2):115-115
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