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Vol 13, No 1 (2013)

Articles
ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE RECOMBINANT CYTOKINE THERAPY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
Simbirtsev A.S.
Abstract
Cytokines are the family of endogenous polypeptide mediators ensuring intercellular interaction. Cytokines have some common biochemical and biological properties and can be marked out as a new separate homeostasis regulatory system. Cytokines have huge potential of formation and regulation of defense reactions, and pretend to the role of the most effective medical products affecting all sides of resistance and immunity and also pathology development. Undoubtedly, the future of cytokine therapy is connected with genetically engineered products that can repeat the functions of endogenous regulatory mediators. There are two principal variants of cytokine usage in clinical practice: 1) Cytokine therapy which can be used for hematopoiesis activation, for enhancement of defense reactions including antitumour response, and for gene therapy for the correction of genetic defects in the cytokine system; 2) Anticytokine therapy for inhibition of biological activity of endogenous cytokines. There are some cytokine products registered in the world, including erythropoietin, interferon alpha, colony-stimulating factors, interleukins-1, -2, -7, and some other cytokines. Several products are ongoing clinical trials. There is a promising perspective of cytokine clinical usage for treatment of widespread diseases, including infectious, immunodeficiency and cancer.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):7-22
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PHARMACOECONOMIC STUDY OF FORTOLIZIN® ORIGINAL THROMBOLYTIC DRUG
Markin S.S., Belousov Y.B., Semenov A.M.
Abstract
The pharmacoeconomic study has found that Fortelizin® surpasses Aktilize® in terms of reduced price of the course of treatment, effectiveness and costs cutting. It offers the opportunity to recommend Fortelizin® for inclusion in standards for health care delivery for patients diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):23-29
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SURGICAL TREATMENT OF MODERATE ISCHEMIC MITRAL INSUFFICIENCY
Khubulava G.G., Volkov A.M., Ivanov G.M., Splender E.I., Yacenko I.A.
Abstract
Ischemic mitral regurgitation is a widespread mitral valve pathology associated with left ventricular remodeling due to coronary disease in patients with normal valvular anatomy. It’s incidence continues to rise together with the improvement in survival after myocardial infarction. The presence of mitral regurgitation has a direct impact on treatment results and long-term quality of life after coronary artery bypass grafting. Owing to the new methods of instrumental and laboratory diagnostics development its pathophysiology is now well understood. Nevertheless, prior strategy working-out (especially in patients with moderate mitral regurgitation) remains one of the most actual and disputed questions. Current review shows several conceptions to solve this problem. There are some advantages and disadvantages of simultaneous myocardium revascularization with correction of moderate mitral valve disease. Under certain conditions, particularly in high risk patients, off-pump myocardial revascularization is proposed.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):30-38
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MEDICAL REHABILITATION: PROSPECTS FOR SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION
Lobzin Y.V.
Abstract
The article covers theoretical and methodological justification of the rehabilitation process. Review is given of main sanogenesis and adaptation mechanisms as typical organism responses forming the basis of the rehabilitation process. Prerequisites for formation, goals, objectives, composition and structure of interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams, rehabilitation location within the system of medical and preventive measures are discussed. Interrelations of medical, social and professional rehabilitation aspects, research trends in the field of rehabilitation medicine are described.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):39-51
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MRI DIAGNOSTICS OF CORTICAL DEVELOPMENT MALFORMATIONS, FETUS BRAIN DIVERTICULATION ANOMALIES
Khalikov A.D., Trofimova T.N.
Abstract
Materials for fetus brain state evaluation by means of magnetic resonance image (MRI) have been presented. Indication for MRI — changes detected or suspected in the course of fetus ultrasound examination (USE), compromised anamnestic record, difficulties of US examination performance. MRI overcomes USE in cortical development anomalies diagnostics, posterior cranial fossa anomalies diagnostics, fetus brain destructive damages diagnostics. Major diagnostics challenges are associated with cortical development malformations detections, which may further cause neurological deficiency, developmental legging. MRI allows evaluation of culci cerebri condition, which is vitally important for lissencephaly and polymicrogyria diagnostics; determination of ventricular system condition, which is subject to changes under septooptic dysplasia, holoprosencephaly, schizencephaly; detection of brain parenchyma changes under heterotopia. Successful diagnostics of cortical dysplasia depends on the equipment, correct choice of radio-frequency coil and scanning protocol, which are optimal for the given gestation term and anomaly type.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):52-60
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DISTRIBUTION OF PGP 9.5-IMMUNOPOSITIVE NERVE FIBERS IN HUMAN HEART
Chumasov E.I., Petrova E.S., Sukhorukova E.G., Korzhevsky D.E.
Abstract
Using immunohistochemical reaction for PGP 9.5, three nerve plexuses were found in the anterior wall of the left ventricle of man. The first is represented by nerve trunks from myelinated and non-myelinated fibers and non-fleshy myelinated fibers and is located in the ventricular epicardium. The nerve fibers of the trunks penetrate the myocardium. They form a second plexus. It has a high density and consists of PGP 9.5 — positive preterminal and terminal fibers. Supporting cells accompany them. Specialized nerve terminations are located between cardiomyocytes and capillaries. Third plexus is localized in the endocardium. Its preterminal and terminal branches are located directly under the endothelium. They occupy a large area on the border with the cavity of the left ventricle. Based on the fact that the described plexus includes PGP 9.5 and some morphological criteria (presence of characteristic nerve fibers arborization, the presence of specialized nerve endings and supporting cells), it is concluded that all three nerve plexuses are the afferent sensory apparatus of the left ventricle of the human heart. The function of these receptors is discussed.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):61-66
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THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS STAT6, STAT4, GATA-3 AND T-bet COOPERATION WHEN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA HAS BEEN DIAGNOSED
Trophimov V.I., Mineyev V.N., Sorokina L.N., Nema M.A., Lim V.V., Yeremeyeva A.V.
Abstract
Lymphocyte signal systems cross-talk interactions present complex net consisting of receptors, enzymes and transcription factors. Using Western blotting for analyzing STAT6, STAT4, GATA-3 and T-bet content in mononuclears, derived from 96 asthma patient and 20 healthy persons, we revealed increase of STAT6 and GATA-3 levels and decrease of STAT4 and T-bet levels in asthma patients, what is obviously may be explained by disturbing of balance in Th1/Th2 regulation interactions. Besides, decrease in STAT4 and T-bet expression in allergic asthma patients was shown, what may indicate malfunction of lL-12-signal-ing pathway in allergic asthma. It may be supposed, that revealed changes in analyzed transcription factors expression levels are connected with clinical and pathogenetic asthma features and probably reflect genetic determination of biology defects.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):67-72
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THE WAY OF REDUCING MATERNAL AND PERINATAL MORTALITY IN WOMEN WITH HEMOSTATIC SYSTEM DISTURBANCES
Zainulina M.S.
Abstract
The article discusses the dynamics and structure of maternal and perinatal mortality in the Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg and North-West Federal district. Based on the structure of maternal mortality, caused by hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications, and the structure of perinatal mortality, caused by decompensation of placental insufficiency, we came to conclusions about the importance of control of the hemostatic system to prevent these complications. The paper presents algorithms for complex prevention of hemostatic system disturbances in pregnant women with congenital and acquired thrombophilia, complicated obstetrical, gynecological or general medical history, complicated pregnancy and signs of the activation of intravascular coagulation, developed in The D.O. Ott Research Institute RAMS. The use of these algorithms allowed to reduce the frequency of major bleeding by 10 times from 1998 to 2011., to prevent thrombotic complications, to decrease the of abruptio placenta by 5 times and led to 2-fold decrease of intrauterine growth retardation in the structure of infant morbidity.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):73-82
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DISORDERS OF VERBAL MEMORY AND LEARNING IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE
Belokoskova S.G., Stepanov I.I., Tsikunov S.G.
Abstract
The main goal of the study was to assess overall memory impairment in patients with dyscirculatory encephalopathy (DE) stage I or II and in patients with stroke using our modification A.R. Luria free-recall memory test. Our modification of this test included 1) use 16 words, taken from four semantic categories: vegetables, animals, ways of traveling, and furniture, 2) use six lists of words that allows avoiding «item-specific» practice during retesting of each patient, 3) use six trials during each test, and 4) modeling the learning curve with an exponential function Y = B3xexp(—B2x(X—1))+B4x(1—exp(—B2x(X—1))), where Y is the number of correct recalled words, X is the trial number. The parameters are: B2 — the learning rate; B3 is an estimator of the general functional state of a participant before starting the test and is called «readiness to learn»; B4 is an estimator of general ability to learn and is called «ability to learn». The software SPSS and Mathematica were used for modeling the learning curves. Memory assessment with the ’Mini Mental State Examination’ method revealed no memory impairment. On the other hand, the modified free-recall memory test revealed moderate, but significant (p<0,01) impairment of readiness to learn (short-term memory) and ability to learn (long-tern memory) in the DE group as well as in the group of patients after stroke in comparison with the control group. At that, the learning curve did not differ between the DE and the stroke group (p>0,20) for each coefficient. Thus, the modified Luria’s verbal learning test might be used for estimation of initial memory impairment in patients with cerebrovascular diseases and effects of pharmacotherapy in the rehabilitation of these patients.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):83-91
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EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICAL AGENTS IN CLINICAL COURSE OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
Trofimov E.A., Mazurov V.I., Ripachev V.V.
Abstract
The aim of this study was to reveal DMARD’s (methotrexate) and biological agents (infliximab, rituximab) influence on the progression of bone erosions during the 54 weeks study period. Radiographic (based on MRI-data) erosion progression was stopped in infliximab and methotrexate treated subjects.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):92-97
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THE CONCEPT OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE IN PHYSICAL THERAPY AND REHABILITATION
Ponomarenko G.N.
Abstract
The article is devoted to the possibility of using the concept of translational medicine in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. Detailed description of the main directions of development of translational medicine in physical therapy and rehabilitation — a personalized, evidence-based physiotherapy, physiotherapy economy and marketing are described in detail. The prospects for translational research in physiotherapy were determined.
Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):98-106
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YuBILEI
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Medical academic journal. 2013;13(1):107-108
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