Vol 18, No 4 (2018)

Articles
HIV infection, secondary conditions and comorbidities. Part 1: Epidemiology and the basis of the problem
Belyakov N.A., Rassokhin V.V., Stepanova E.V., Leonova O.N., Boeva E.V.
Abstract

An analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic’s trajectory with priority-setting taking into account HIV-associated comorbidities for each time period was performed. A classification of comorbid diseases and conditions in HIV infection by cause and setting of their occurrence is presented. Opportunistic infections and secondary diseases that remain some of the leading causes of severe complications and mortality are characterized. The difficulty of the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome against the background of late diagnosis of HIV infection and initiation of antiretroviral therapy is highlighted.

Medical academic journal. 2018;18(4):7-16
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Adiponectin and atherosclerosis
Tanianskii D.A., Parfenova N.S., Nikulcheva N.G., Denisenko A.D.
Abstract

The review is devoted to discussion the data regarding involvement of the adipocytes’ secreting protein, adiponectin, in atherogenesis. The questions relating the structure of its molecular forms, mechanisms of its production and signaling are also considered. Based on analysis of clinical studies and the results obtained in animals and cell cultures it is thought that adiponectin has both antiatherogenic and proatherogenic properties.

Medical academic journal. 2018;18(4):17-26
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State guarantees of free medical care: What has changed in 20 years?
Perkhov V.I., Yankevich D.S.
Abstract

Over the past two decades, state guarantees of free medical care remain the most uncertain type of state guarantees, which leads to an increase in public payments for medical services. The authors believe that state guarantees are necessary not by themselves, but for the most complete implementation of human rights to ensure health care and health in real life. The compulsory health insurance system in Russia that primarily imitates insurance resembles a distribution (budget) financing model based on the organized purchase of guaranteed medical care by private entities, which are not subject to political and economic control. Therefore, in Russia, the share of private expenditure on health care in the structure of total expenditure is almost three times higher than that found in economically developed foreign countries that implement the insurance model in health care. The health care system must be equipped with a “medical policy” that has a strategic focus and covers all levels and components of the health care system. Moreover, this policy must create conditions where the circle of strategic decision-makers in health care will be separated from the circle of people who develop and implement tactical tools.

Medical academic journal. 2018;18(4):27-33
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Production of recombinant IGF1 and its action on neuroblastoma cells in vitro
Ishuk S.A., Bogomolova E.G., Dobrovolskaya O.A., Akhmetshina A.O., Krasnoshchek D.S., Lukovenko A.A., Fedorova E.A., Klyus A.M., Kolmakov N.N., Zherebtsova J.V., Dukhovlinov I.V., Klimov N.A., Simbirtsev A.S.
Abstract

This study aimed to develop a method for producing human recombinant insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) based on a prokaryotic expression system and to characterize the highly purified protein.

To achieve the study’s goal, the following methods were conducted: we performed automated chemical synthesis of DNA, constructed the expression plasmid, obtained Escherichia coli cell-producers of human recombinant IGF-1, cultivated the obtained producer cells with the induction of recombinant protein synthesis by isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside and lactose, and purified human recombinant IGF-1 with affinity and cation exchange chromatography.

The recombinant protein IGF-1 forms inclusion bodies during synthesis in Escherichia coli BL21 cells that contain plasmid pET28-IGF-1. Purified recombinant protein was obtained with a purity of 98% using affinity and cation exchange chromatography methods. The protein yield was 6 mg of human recombinant IGF-1 from 1 g of raw biomass. The resulting protein has the ability to protect Neuro 2a neuroblastoma cells from death caused by the deprivation of serum in the culture medium and can stimulate the differentiation of cells into neurons.

Thus, a highly purified human recombinant IGF-1 was obtained. This protein has biological activity and is suitable for preclinical studies.

Medical academic journal. 2018;18(4):34-41
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Mitotic activity of epithelia of ectoand entodermal types in spontaneous and experimental teratomas of mice
Dyban P.A.
Abstract

Spontaneous ovarian teratomas in mice (LT/Sv and LT/SvXBJ) and experimental teratomas (the result of blastocyst transplantation underneath a testicle capsule of CBAXC57 mice) are represented with derivatives of three germ layers. During the process of cytodifferentiation, the epithelium of various origins forms closed cavities (cysts), whereas in more complex morphogenetic processes, the epithelium participates in reduced organogenesis. Intestine analogs have been reported in spontaneous and experimental teratomas, but skin analogs have been shown only in experimental teratomas. The mitotic activity of lining epithelia of organ analogs differs significantly from karyokinetic figures of similar epithelia in cysts. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed in this paper.

Medical academic journal. 2018;18(4):42-46
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Synergy of action of antimicrobial peptides PG-1 and ChBac3.4 with antiseptics against antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Zharkova M.S., Umnyakova E.S., Afinogenova A.G., Afinogenov G.E., Kolobov A.A., Shamova O.V.
Abstract

We investigated the combined effects of antimicrobial peptides PG-1 and ChBac3.4 with antiseptics (sodium hypochlorite, dioxidine, prontosan, poviargolum, and etidronic acid) to identify combinations that display synergistic antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We used the checker-board titration method to calculate fractional inhibitory concentration indices, and based on the indices the type of combined action was determined. The combined effect on the metabolic activity of bacteria was evaluated using the fluorescent marker resazurin, and the effect on the permeability of bacterial membranes for chromogenic markers was studied spectrophotometrically. The combined hemolytic activity of the combinations was investigated. Sodium hypochlorite was shown to be antagonistic with both antimicrobial peptides. With other antiseptics, combined action was characterized by additivity or synergy. Synergy was most pronounced with the preparation of highly dispersed silver poviargolum. Antiseptics accelerate the development of the antimicrobial effect of antimicrobial peptides but do not significantly affect the dynamics of the membranolytic action of antimicrobial peptides on bacterial cells. Synergy of hemolytic activity is rare. Thus, the combined use of antimicrobial peptides and antiseptics is promising for combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria and can be used to reduce the toxic effects of these compounds.

Medical academic journal. 2018;18(4):47-57
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Modulating effect of recombinant lactoferrin isolated from the milk of transgenic goats on platelet aggregation activity
Shamova E.V., Grigorieva D.V., Gorudko I.V., Sveshnikova A.N.
Abstract

This work showed for the first time that recombinant lactoferrin isolated from the milk of transgenic goats binds to the plasma membrane of platelets. The interaction of recombinant lactoferrin with platelets leads to the potentiation or inhibition of agonist-induced platelet aggregation depending on the type of agonist (adenosine diphosphate, thrombin, plant lectins WGA, Con A, and SNA). Using fluorescently labeled antibody CD42b it was shown by flow cytometry that recombinant lactoferrin binds to GPIb on platelets.

Medical academic journal. 2018;18(4):58-63
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Clinical research
Clinical and electrophysiological heterogeneity of essential tremor
Muruzheva Z.M., Ezhov A.A., Karpenko M.N., Fominceva M.A., Klimenko V.M., Stolyarov I.D.
Abstract

This study aimed to identify clinical and electrophysiological signs that determine the phenotypic heterogeneity of essential tremor using a cluster analysis. Seventy-five patients with essential tremor were examined. To identify the heterogeneity of the disease, a cluster analysis was applied (k-means method). Clustering was performed according to clinical and electromyographic parameters. The heterogeneity of essential tremor is justified by amplitude characteristics, topography of tremor, duration disease, and severity of impaired of daily activity. Detecting heterogeneity in essential tremor can broaden understanding of pathogenesis disease and justify heterogeneity of the pharmacological response in patients with essential tremor.

Medical academic journal. 2018;18(4):64-72
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Chronicle
MemoriAl plate unveiled in memory of staff of the Institute of Experimental Medicine who were victims of political repression
Zakharova E.T., Kolmakov N.N., Sokolov A.V.
Abstract

MemoriAl plate unveiled in memory of staff of the Institute of Experimental Medicine who were victims of political repression

Medical academic journal. 2018;18(4):73-91
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