Ophthalmology Journal

Medical peer-reviewed journal of research and practice “Oftalmologiceskie vedomosti” is published quarterly since 2008. The journal is published under the aegis of the All-Russian Public Organization “Association of Ophthalmologists”.

Chief editor

Dmitriy V. Davydov M.D., Ph.D., professor.

 Main publications of the journal are focused on key issues of modern ophthalmology: etiology and pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical picture features, up-to-date methods of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of eye diseases and of those of its adnexa.

The journal publishes original articles, scientific reviews, lectures, clinical case descriptions (presented by Russian and foreign authors), and informs about past congresses and conferences in Russia.

The journal is oriented toward practicing ophthalmologists, including ophthalmic surgeons, scientific and teaching staff of medical higher educational institutions, physicians in ophthalmology training, as well as for specialists of allied health specialties.

The journal’s mission:

  1. To integrate research results of Russian scientists and the rich clinical experience of practicing doctors in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of eye diseases into the international scientific space; to be an international scientific platform for discussions and sharing experiences;
  2. To provide for ophthalmologists of the Russian Federation actual and high quality research and practice insights into most up-to-date treatment and prevention methods of eye diseases and of those of its adnexa.


“Oftalmologiceskie vedomosti” journal is included into the List of peer-reviewed scientific journals and reviews, in which main research results of theses for a doctor's and candidate’s degree ought to be published.

The journal is indexing in the following international databases and directory editions:

  • RSCI
  • Google Scholar
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory
  • WorldCat
  • CNKI

The journal is registered by the Russian State Committee for Press and Mass Media on May 04, 2016 (Registration Number ПИ № ФС 77-65574).



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Vol 14, No 1 (2021)

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Original researches

Evaluation strength of the supporting apparatus of the lens at combination of age-related cataract with involutional changes in connective tissue
Sorokin E.L., Belonozhenko Y.V., Krivko S.V., Danilov O.V.

AIM: The clinical evaluation of zonules condition in patients with age-related cataracts without weak zonular support signs against the background of connective tissue somatic involutional changes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The main group consisted of 70 patients (70 eyes) with connective tissue involutional somatic pathology without concomitant eye pathology, eye injuries, and decompensated systemic diseases; the control group included 60 people (60 eyes) with age-related cataracts without connective tissue involutional pathology. Using ocular echography (Aviso S, Quantel Medical, France) with high resolution (50 MHz) sensor, we estimated the “ciliary processes to lens equator” distance symmetry in 2 main meridians (of 6 and 12 hours). Its equal value in 2 opposite meridians or difference less than 0.3 mm between them was considered as the sign of symmetry; the difference of 0.3 mm and more was a sign of asymmetry.

RESULTS: The presence of “ciliary processes to lens equator” distance asymmetry between the meridians was revealed in 28 eyes in the main group (40%); in 14 of the eyes with asymmetry ranging from 0.4 and more, a 1st degree lens subluxation was revealed intraoperatively.

CONCLUSIONS: The presence of “ciliary processes to lens equator” distance asymmetry indicates subclinical involutional changes in the lens’ ligament apparatus, which has a prognostic value for choosing a model of an intraocular lens to be implanted.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):5-13
pages 5-13 views
Long-term results of corneal collagen crosslinking for recurrent corneal erosion
Novikov S.A., Tkachenko N.V., Frolov O.A., Seyfeddin A.S.

BACKGROUND: Recurrent corneal erosion (RCE) is characterized by excacerbation and remission episodes, reduced patient’s quality of life affecting their daily and professional activities. In case of conservative therapy inefficacy surgical procedures are used (Bowman’s membrane polishing with diamond drill, excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy, anterior stromal puncture, and amniotic membrane transplantation). All methods have their advantages and weak points, as well as a certain percent of recurrence. In this regard the use of corneal collagen cross-linking is of the interest as an alternative method of the RCE surgical treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 patients (20 eyes) with RCE without central corneal stroma scars, aged from 30 to 66 (average 49,5 ± 10,6, all women), after conservative treatment failure (more than 6 months) underwent cross-linking according to the Dresden protocol with the UVX device, version 1000, by IROC INNOCROSS (Switzerland).

RESULTS: All patients were asymptomatic and had no recurrence during the observation period (from 1 to 6 years, in average 2,6 ± 1,6). There was a slight but statistically significant BCVA improvement (from 0,93 ± 0,09 at baseline to 0,97 ± 0,07 after intervention).

CONCLUSIONS: Crosslinking may be an additional and effective treatment in a number of RCE cases when there is no central corneal stromal scars present. To reduce stromal keratocytes alteration during the procedure modified protocols may be used.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):15-24
pages 15-24 views
Endpoints selection in registration clinical trials and the needs of real-world clinical practice with the example of anti-VEGF therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration
Astakhov S.Y., Plavinskii S.L.

The issues of endpoints selection for regulatory requirements and real-world clinical practice using the example of anti-VEGF therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) are discussed in the article. New technologies (optical coherent tomography) introduction are shown to change clinical practice but not regulatory requirements on the endpoints. In the same time for regulatory purpose clinical trials design is changed from superiority to non-inferiority. The changes in the approach to primary endpoint selection are not anticipated due to regulator’s conservatism but there is a requirement to the comparison with best treatment alternative (i.e. same class comparator in case of anti-VEGF therapy) due to ethical reasons. To satisfy real-world clinicians need, the secondary endpoints are analyzed, but multiple testing problem appears. Statistical methods developed in recent years allow using specified comparison to be made without inflating Type I error. HAWK and HARRIER clinical trials demonstrated an example how superiority of brolucizumab over aflibercet on anatomical endpoints was reliably found.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):25-33
pages 25-33 views
Effects of treatment interruption on anatomical and functional status of eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration receiving anti-VEGF therapy
Kharakozov A.S., Kulikov A.N., Maltsev D.S.

AIM: To study anatomical and functional changes in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) receiving anti-VEGF therapy and experienced treatment interruption during COVID pandemic.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 58 eyes (49 patients, 34 males and 15 females with a mean age of 73.2 ± 9.4 years) with nAMD. Eyes in the first-year treatment group (18 eyes) received up to 7 intravitreal aflibercept injections, eyes in the second-year treatment group (21 eyes) were treated with pro re nata regimen. The treatment interruption period in the first and second-year treatment group was 5.5 ± 0.7 and 5.5 ± 1.0 months, respectively.

RESULTS: Over the treatment interruption period, the first-year treatment group showed no statistically significant differences in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT), p = 0.25 and p = 0.09, respectively. At the same time, the second-year treatment group showed a statistically significant decrease in BCVA (p = 0.0004) and an increase in CRT (p = 0.002). Baseline BCVA was positively associated with BCVA at the end of treatment interruption (r = 0.82; p < 0.0001). Presence of sub- and intraretinal fluid (p = 0.015 and p = 0.007, respectively), low BCVA (p < 0.0001), high CRT (p = 0.019), alteration of the ellipsoid zone (p < 0.001) were negatively associated with BCVA at the end of treatment interruption. Age (p = 0.8), gender (p = 0.41), and the number of intravitreal injections (p = 0.5) showed no association with changes in BCVA.

CONCLUSIONS: NAMD patients of the second year of anti-VEGF therapy appear to have a higher risk of functional loss during treatment interruption. Higher CRT and lower BCVA, as well as sub- and intraretinal fluid before treatment interruption, are associated with poorer functional status at the end of the interruption period.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):35-42
pages 35-42 views
Results of treatment of myopia progression by the method of cryogenic scleroplasty
Pashtaev N.P., Grigorieva I.N.

AIM: To evaluate the results of the effectiveness of cryogenic scleroplasty.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 184 children (313 eyes) (mean age 11,72 ± 3,76 years) with moderate and high progressive myopia were examined before and after cryogenic scleroplasty (main group) and Pivovarov’s scleroplasty (control group).

RESULTS: A smaller average annual difference in the spherical equivalent of refraction (∆SEav) and the average annual gradient of the axial length (∆ALav) were recorded in the group of patients after cryogenic scleroplasty according to the data obtained during the two-year follow-up. ∆SEav was –0,48 ± 0,45 diopters in the main group and –0,51 ± 0,34 diopters in the control group in children of the younger age subgroup (up to 9 years old); –0,35 ± 0,31 diopters in the main group and –0,69 ± 0,61 diopters in the control group (p = 0,047) in the older age subgroup (9 years and older). ∆ALav in the main group was 0,15 ± 0,11 mm in children under 9 years of age, 0,31 ± 0,14 mm (p = 0,016) in the control group; 0,29 ± 0,18 mm and 0,34 ± 0,32 mm in children 9 years old and older, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed technology of cryogenic scleroplasty has two surgical approaches in the lower-internal and upper-external parts of the eyeball; the scleroplastic material adheres evenly to the sclera, covers all four quadrants of the eyeball; it is fixed under the rectus muscles of the eye; at a 24-months follow-up period showed a good stabilizing effect.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):43-49
pages 43-49 views
Сentral serous chorioretinopathy and vitelliform dystrophies occurring in adults: predictors of differential diagnosis
Matcko N.V., Gatsu M.V.

AIM: To study predictors in order to optimize the differential diagnosis of persistent central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and different forms of vitelliform dystrophies occurring in adults.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety eyes of 61 patients with long-term serous retinal detachments were recruited in study. All patients underwent ophthalmologic examination including family history, best corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopy, and multimodal imaging including fundus photo, SD-OCT, OCT-A, BAF, FA, ICGA. After the studies, the patients were divided into two groups: with vitelliform dystrophies – 30 eyes of 30 patients and with CSCR – 31 eyes of 31 patients. Diagnostic predictors found in both groups were scrutinized, mathematical models were obtained, and their recognition quality was assessed by the area under ROC curve. The criteria for all types of research were studied and the predictive value was assessed with the use of ROC analysis.

RESULTS: The most informative non-invasive predictors for the diagnosis of vitelliform dystrophies occurring in adults are the following: a positive family history of the disease, brightness and gradient of hyperautofluorescence (hyperAF), typical hyperAF in the form of a “crescent” and “beads”, the presence of massive subretinal deposits and deposits in the form of “stalactites”. The most informative non-invasive predictors for the diagnosis of persistent CSCR are the following: additional hypoAF or hyperAF points or areas outside the main focus, hyperreflective dots in the neurosensory retina and an increase in choroidal thickness, irregular pigment epithelial detachments, presence of CNV. The highest predictive value for both groups was determined for BAF studies.

CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained make it possible to optimize the differential diagnosis of persistent CSCR and different forms of vitelliform dystrophies occurring in adults.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):51-61
pages 51-61 views


Ultrasound biomicroscopy in ophthalmology
Tereshchenko A.V., Erokhina E.V., Volodin D.P.

This review presents data on the use of the method of ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM) of the anterior segment of the eye in ophthalmological practice in adults and children. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) is a contact non-invasive method for visualizing structures of the anterior segment of the eye using high-frequency ultrasound in the range from 35 to 100 MHz. Literature data indicate that UBM can be used to visualize almost all structures of the anterior segment, including the cornea, iridocorneal angle, anterior chamber, iris, ciliary body and lens, as well as the peripheral parts of the retina, vasculature and vitreous. There is data on the use of this method in the study of pathogenetic aspects of glaucoma, pseudoecfoliative syndrome, various types of cataracts, post-traumatic injuries of the anterior segment of the eye, meimobium gland dysfunction and other ophthalmopathologies. The use of UBM in children, due to the peculiarities of its implementation, is not widespread, but due to the specificity of the data obtained using it, it is promising. The limited information about the use of UBM in retinopathy of prematurity and the diagnostic capabilities of the method makes its use especially relevant in this severe retinal disease of premature newborns.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):63-73
pages 63-73 views
Non-standard computer perimetry in the diagnosis of some optic neuropathies
Tikhonovskaya I.A., Simakova I.L.

Modern computer perimetry is divided into traditional – white stimulus-on-white background, the gold standard of which is perimetry performed by using expert class perimeters Humphrey and Octopus and therefore called standard automatic or automated perimetry (SAP), and non-traditional or non-standard perimetry, which differs, first of all, in a different nature of a stimulus. The article is a review devoted to the assessment of the diagnostic capabilities of non-standard computer perimetry in the form of different variants of perimetry with doubling the spatial frequency (Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry or FDT perimetry), which is performed by using perimeters of the 1st (Carl Zeiss Humphrey 710 Visual Field / FDT, 1997) and the 2nd (Carl Zeiss Humphrey Matrix / HM 715, 800 Visual Field Analyzer, 2005, 2010) generation. Most authors consider that FDT perimetry is effective in a glaucoma screening and, possibly, in monitoring a glaucomatous process, but only a few authors consider that non-standard perimetry method can be useful in diagnosing optic neuropathies of a different nature.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):75-87
pages 75-87 views
The role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma. Part 1. Connective tissue
Zhuravleva A.N., Kirillova M.O., Zueva M.V., Kadyshev V.V.

The article presents an analytical review of works devoted to molecular and genetic studies in primary open-angle glaucoma from the perspective of the concept of hereditary inferiority of the connective tissue of the eye (“scleral component”), and the entire body as a whole, as triggers in the development of the disease. The relationship between the main theories of the pathogenesis of glaucoma optical neuropathy and the determining role of molecular and genetic mechanisms of specific changes in the eye tissue is shown. The clinical features of primary open-angle glaucoma in patients with a family history are analyzed. Potentially new directions for preclinical diagnosis of glaucoma and pathogenetically oriented therapy are proposed.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):89-100
pages 89-100 views

Case reports

Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis of choroidal neovascularization in children
Zhukova S.I., Samsonov D.Y., Zlobin I.V.

AIM: Report cases of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in children and describe structural and hemodynamic changes in retina associated with this pathology detected by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and OCT-angiography (OCTA).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 children (4 girls, 2 boys) aged from 7 to 17 years with CNV associated with pathological myopia, post-traumatic choroid rupture and optic disc abnormalities were examined. The activity of neovascular complexes was evaluated by ophthalmoscopy, OCT, and OCTA. The maximum follow-up period was 4 years.

RESULTS: 7 cases of CNV were detected. One child had a two-way process. Myopic and posttraumatic membranes were localized sub- and juxtafoveally and were the membranes of type 2. In children with optic disc anomalies of the 1 type membrane and mixed (1st and 2nd) type was located extrafoveally. The decrease in visual acuity was determined by the localization of membranes, the severity of edema, and the severity of dystrophic changes in the retina. On OCT, subretinal fluid and hyperreflective material corresponding to hemorrhages were visualized in the projection of active membranes. OCTA revealed a network of small capillaries with a large number of loops and anastomoses. Intravitreal angiogenesis inhibitors injections were performed in 5 cases. A persistent effect after a single injection was observed in 2 cases. The return of membrane activity in 3 cases allowed us to justify the repeated administration of angiogenesis inhibitors. Along with a decrease in the activity of CNV, progressive dystrophic changes in the pigment epithelium around the membrane were detected.

CONCLUSIONS: High sensitivity of OCT was demonstrated for early detection of structural and hemodynamic retinal disorders, determining the activity of neovascular complexes, predicting outcomes of the disease, and evaluating the effectiveness of therapeutic measures. The progression of dystrophic changes in the retinal pigment epithelium in response to therapy with angiogenesis inhibitors requires long-term monitoring of children and determining the optimal strategy for treating CNV in children.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):101-110
pages 101-110 views


Veniamin Vasilievich Volkov (The 100th birth anniversary)
Beldovskaya N.Y., Reytuzovv V.A., Rubtsova I.V.

Article is dedicated to the 100th birth anniversary of the Hero of Socialist Labor, Honored worker of science of RSFSR professor V.V. Volkov. Authors described his life, scientific and pedagogic activity.

Ophthalmology Journal. 2021;14(1):111-118
pages 111-118 views

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