Vol 59, No 2 (2019)

Marine Phisics
Structure and variability of the synoptic disturbances of ocean currents in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea
Koshlyakov M.N., Repina I.A., Savchenko D.S., Tarakanov R.Y., Taroyan V.K.
Abstract

Twenty two years data of the satellite altimeter observations are used for the analysis of structure and variability of the ocean current synoptic disturbances in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea. Wavelet analysis of the time series of ocean surface absolute dynamics topography (OSADT) at a set of points in the studied ocean area has revealed a high degree of the statistical nonstationarity of these series appearing as short (few years) intervals of intensive fluctuations of OSADT separated by long intervals of weak fluctuations. Analysis of the synoptic OSADT maps has showed that the intervals of the strong ocean current fluctuations at a point are conditioned by the alternation of processes of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddy-meanders formation by the jets of Antarctic Circumpolar Current, strengthening of the eddies, their following attenuation and final eddy confluence with the mother jets. Besides of the statistical nonstationarity, a considerable spatial variability of the statistical characteristics of the ocean current synoptical disturbances has been revealed for the scales of 150–200 km.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):191-200
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Wave boundary layers in a stably-neutrally stratified ocean
Reznik G.M.
Abstract

The theory of wave boundary layers developed in [7], is generalized to the case of stably-neutrally stratified ocean consisting of upper homogeneous and lower stratified layers. In this configuration, in addition to the boundary layers near the ocean bottom and/or surface, a wave boundary layer develops near the interface between the layers in the lower stratified part of basin. Each the boundary layer is a narrow domain characterized by sharp, growing in time, vertical gradients of buoyancy and horizontal velocity. As in [7], the near interface boundary layer arises as a result of free linear evolution of rather general initial fields. An asymptotic solution describing the long-term evolution is presented and compared to exact solution; the asymptotic solution approximates the exact one fairly well even on not very large times.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):201-207
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Asymmetry of jet streams formed under nonlinear geostrophic adjustment in shallow water
Kalashnik M.V.
Abstract

The process of geostrophic adjustment in a rotating layer of shallow water is considered. For initial distributions of the fluid depth in the form of a step and a localized rectangle, this process results in the formation of an isolated jet stream and a system of two counter jet streams, respectively. In this paper, the features of these flows structure, related to the nonlinearity of the adjustment process, are studied. The main feature for an isolated jet stream is the horizontal asymmetry of its velocity profile. For a system of two opposing flows, a mirror asymmetry is characteristic, which is caused by the dependence on the sign of the amplitude of the initial disturbance of depth. The velocity of flows with a negative sign (depression) always exceeds the velocity with a positive sign (elevation).

Океанология. 2019;59(2):208-215
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Marine Chemiatry
Spatial and temporal variability of the transformation of dissolved matter runoff in the Mezen’ River estuary
Savenko A.V., Demidenko N.A., Pokrovsky O.S.
Abstract

Spatial and temporal variability of the transformation of dissolved matter runoff in the Mezen’ River estuary is studied by results of the complex hydrological-hydrochemical researches lead in 2009 and 2015. The conservative behavior of major ions and dissolved forms of Li, Rb, Cs, Sr, B, F, As, Sb, and Mo is demonstrated. The additional input into solution reaching 93 and 32–38% of content in the river water mass is determined for phosphates and silicon. This is caused, apparently, by mobilization of these nutrients from pore waters of regularly tide-stirred bottom sediments and vertical mixing of the water column. The desorption flux of barium and uranium due to long-term interaction of terrigenic material with saline waters exceeded their input with a continental runoff reaching 180–380 and 90–150% of content of these elements in the river waters. Up to 50, 43, 29, 32, 44, 50, and 45% of Fe, Pb, Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd supplying with river runoff which are present in the form of strong organic complexes are removed from solution at the beginning of the mixing zone due to coagulation of colloids. It is drawn a conclusion on spatial homogeneity and long-term stability of transformation features of dissolved matter runoff in the Mezen’ River estuary. Peculiar characteristic of migration of dissolved phosphates, silicon, barium, and uranium are caused by hydrological features of the estuary.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):216-226
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Dynamics of organic matter in bottom sediments on the cut Razdol'naya River-Amur Bay (Sea of Japan)
Polyakov D.M., Maryash A.A., Khodoeenko N.D.
Abstract

Contents of Corg, as well as humine (HA) and fulvic (FA) acids, have been investigated within soil, riverine and marine sediments along the profile, joining the Razdolnaya River and the Amur Bay. The elevated contents of the Corg. have been elucidated within soil deposits against to riverine and marine sediments, and it is associated with peatlands. There has been noted, that the increase of HA contents against FA ones has been taken place just within those sediments, that has been corresponded the initial period of the water mixing, and it has been connected with flocculation. There have been established the riverine sediments with extended contents of FA, Fe, Mn, and it has testified about the active processes of flocculation and Fe-Mn oxihydroxides forming. It has been noted, that the soil sediments have contained more humiphicated organic matter than marine ones. To a great extent, marine sediments have contained not biogeochemically processed organic matter.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):227-233
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Organic substances of sea bottom sediments in conditions of the coast urbanization (for example Kazachiya Bay, The Black Sea)
Soloveva O.V., Tikhonova E.A., Klimenko T.L., Skrupnik G.V., Votinova T.V.
Abstract

The data on the hydrocarbons compound in the sea bottom sediments of adjacent water area to the zone of mass cottage building (Kazachiya Bay, the coast of Sevastopol, the Black Sea) are given. As a result of the survey conducted in the summer of 2015, pH, Eh, natural moisture, chloroform extractable substances, oil hydrocarbons, petroleum products, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and n-paraffins in the sea bottom sediments of the water area were determined. Areas with unfavorable and moderately adverse environmental conditions are identified. The impact of coastal urbanization on the deterioration condition of the sea bottom sediment is shown.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):234-242
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Marine Biology
Spatial variability of phytoplankton primary production characteristics in the North Atlantic in summer 2013
Demidov A.B., Mosharov S.A., Gagarin V.I., Gladyshev S.V., Dukhova L.A., Romanova N.D., Mosharova I.V.
Abstract

Spatial variability of phytoplankton primary production characteristics has been studied along the transects between Shetland Islands and Iceland (transect I) and along 59.5° N (transect II) from 30 June to 16 July 2013. It has been shown that surface chlorophyll a concentration (Chl0) varied more than two order of magnitude from 0.07 to 6.67 mg/m3 (transect I) and from 0.02 to 3.63 mg/m3 (transect II). Water column integrated primary production (IPP) changed by a factor of 3.8 from 273 to 1040 and by a factor of 5.6 from 68 to 379 mgC/m2 per day along transects I and II, respectively. It has been established that spatial variability of Chl0 and IPP was consistent with distribution of the main surface flows and thermohaline fronts. That conclusion was made on the basis of reliable positive correlation between Chl0 and the zonal potential temperature gradient (R = 0.43, p < 0.01, N = 65). Phytoplankton assimilation activity along transect II depends on nutrients concentration. That conclusion was confirmed by reliable positive correlation between optimum chlorophyll specific carbon fixation rate (Pbopt) and phosphate concentration (R = 0.58, p < 0.05, N = 76) and between Pbopt and dissolved silica (R = 0.51, p < 0.05, N = 76).

Океанология. 2019;59(2):243-256
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Marine Geology
Changes in the geomagnetic field and the evolution of marine biota
Barash M.S.
Abstract

The ideas about the influence of the geomagnetic field on evolution and biodiversity are controversial. The quantitative distribution of datum levels of oceanic microplankton during the last 2.0 million years shows a correlation with geomagnetic inversions. Lowering of the field intensity increases cosmic irradiation of the Earth's surface, which can activate mutagenesis leading to new species emergence. Moreover, since the correlation of the geomagnetic field intensity with the composition of the atmosphere, temperature, climate, volcanism and other environmental conditions is revealed, it is possible to assume its influence on evolutionary processes as a part of the general complex of environmental conditions. Geomagnetic polarity superchrons ended by mantle plume formation which produced the trap eruptions and initiated Phanerozoic faunal mass extinctions. The sources of the geomagnetic field and plume formation leading to trap volcanism are at the boundaries of the inner spheres of the Earth, which explains their correlation. And their correlation with impact events as one of the causes of extinction can be explained by the common cosmic root cause located outside the solar system.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):257-264
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The accumulative coasts dynamics in enclosed bays of Antarctica (in example the key area of the South Georgia microcontinent)
Dunaev N.N., Leont’yev I.O.
Abstract

The object of direct study represents the accumulative coast of the King Edward Bay of the South Georgia island of the same name microcontinent of Antarctica. In terms of neotectonic uplift of the island of accumulative coastal processes zone pairing of land and sea are being implemented in areas of relative tectonic subsidence. Geological-geomorphological studies and mathematical modeling of lithodynamic coastal zone give leave highlight the main factors of its current state and to justify the forecast of development in the XXI century.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):265-270
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Regularities in variations of the pume volcanics composition in the Southern Atlantic and at the African plate
Chernysheva E.A., Eroshenko D.V.
Abstract

The action of the African Superplume provided input and accumulation of the volatile, alkaline and some others elements at the base of continental lithosphere. Transformation and interaction of these components with mantle peridotites took place under the African continental plate of the great thickness. Generation of low silica and rich in CO2 melts occurs at the great depth: this is the family of kimberlites, melilitites and carbonatites. At the shallower levels of the lithospheric plate the melts of basalts originated; they are more rich in SiO2 and poor in volatiles. The origin of deep generated volcanics was controlled by the pressure of CO2 in the fluids. The melting of basalts is connected mainly with tectonic position.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):271-281
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Kinematics of the neargreenland region in the Eurasian basin
Schreider A.A., Sazhneva A.E., Kluev M.S., Brehovskih A.L., Rakitin I.Y., Zuev O.A.
Abstract

The bottom of the Lincoln Sea was formed in a continental area stretching Greenland-Barents Sea shelf. Prior to stretching the continental plateau of the shallow Morris Jesup and Ermak rep-resented the single unit. In the course of a single continental rifting is split in the plateau, giving rise to a process propagating mid-oceanic Gakkel Ridge. The process continued split-huddled around 1.5 my. in the range of 35.3–33.7 my. The introduction of numerous basic dikes in the process of rifting could determine high amplitude magnetic anomalies on a single plateau. For the first time carried out the restoration of the geometry of the crack split the continental crust, the Euler pole and angle describing its kinematics and restored paleobathymetry on the flanks of the cracks.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):282-291
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Artificial beach as a structure to defend a sea coast from the storm surge impact (based on the example of the eastern Gulf of Finland)
Leont’yev I.O.
Abstract

The model of artificial beach to protect a sea coast subjected to erosion under impact of significant storm surge is suggested. The beach profile properties are based on the concept of equilibrium profile by Dean. It is shown that the use of coarser sand provides greater total width of beach, but requires greater volume of constructional berm. At the same time, the loss of material due to longshore sediment transport decreases. Application of the model to three segments of eroded coast in Kurortniy region of St. Petersburg (Eastern Gulf of Finland) allows recommend the medium sand 0.3–0.5 mm to construct the artificial beach. In this case, the width of dry beach section would be about 80–140 m, while the volume of constructional berm would be (1.3÷3.2)×102 m3/m depending on sediment deficit in a given coastal segment. In order to minimize the relative loss of material it is suggested to construct the beach of which the length is not less than 1 km. In this case, more than half of initial beach volume would be kept even after 30 years. Modeling of extreme storm impact leads to conclusion that the designed beach profiles are only slightly deformed and able conserve their resource over a long time.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):292-301
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Information
Geological studies in the Eastern Indian Ocean: cruise SO258/1 of the R/V Sonne (Germany) with the participation of Russian researchers
Levchenko O.V., Marinova Y.G., Werner R., Portnyagin M.V.
Abstract

New geological-geophysical data were obtained during Cruise SO258 leg 1 of the R/V SONNE carried out in the eastern part of the Indian Ocean in 2017. This expedition was part of the research project INGON, which is a collaboration between the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel. Multibeam echo-sounder bathymetry, seismic reflection profiling and rock sampling were done on 3 areas on 85° E Ridge and close to the Ninetyeast Ridge. The paper describes the first results.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):302-304
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Complex research during the 33-rd cruise of research vessel “Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov”
Sivkov V.V., Peyve A.A., Bubnova E.S., Akhmedzyanov V.R., Kreehik V.A., Sukhih E.A.
Abstract

The 33rd cruise of the R/V “Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov” was in the Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea, and included a complex of geological, hydrological and hydrochemical works. According to the results of a multibeam echo sounder survey of the bottom, digital models of bottom landscapes were constructed. Using the dredging method, new geological samples were obtained, and the values of geothermal flows in the Atlantic Ocean were measured.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):305-307
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Winter study of Antarctic zone of the Southern Ocean (to the 25-th anniversary of the Soviet-Russian-American drift station “Weddell-1”)
Antipov N.N., Bagriantsev N.V., Danilov А.I., Klepikov А.V.
Abstract

The information concern oceanographic investigations in 1980-90 within Antarctic sea-ice formation area together with “International oceanographic study of Antarctic Zone” ( “iAnZone”) program is given. The supreme component of these investigations became the soviet-american winter expedition “Ice Station Weddell-1” (ISW-1), supported by “Academic Fedorov”(SU), “Nathaniel Palmer” (US) and drift station (3.02.92–9.06.92). The water mass structure and circulation patterns in most remote part of the Weddell Gyre, including Western boundary current parameters and bottom water from the shelf were for the first time defined.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):308-310
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The integrated geological and geophysical expedition aboard the R/V Akademik Oparin to the Tatar Strait, Sea of Japan (cruise No. 54, 2017)
Valitov M.G., Shakirov R.B., Yatsuk A.V., Aksentov K.I., Proshkina Z.N., Belous O.V., Mishukova G.I.
Abstract

According to the Plan of Integrated Scientific Research of the World Ocean for 2017–2022, the Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (POI FEB RAS) began a comprehensive study of the northern part of the Sea of Japan and the Tatar Strait, having developed a three-year plan for expeditionary research in the area. The first expedition from the three-year expeditionary research cycle was carried out from September 21 to October 31, 2017 on the R/V “Akademik Oparin” (cruise № 54). The main goal of the expedition was to study the geological structure, conditions and mechanisms for the formation of the Tatar Strait, to study the correlation of the distribution of gas-fluid flows with a network of tectonic disturbances of different ranks in one of the seismic areas of Sakhalin Island, as well as the reaction of the Sea of Japan to climate change and increasing anthropogenic impacts.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):311-314
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Comprehensive studies of the Black Sea during the cruise 101 of the research vessel Professor Vodyanitskiy
Klyuvitkin A.A., Garmashov A.V., Latushkin A.A., Orekhova N.A., Kochenkova A.I., Malafeev G.V.
Abstract

From 14 to 28 December 2017, in the central part of the Black Sea, within the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation, a joint interdepartmental comprehensive oceanological expedition was carried out on board the R/V «Professor Vodyanitsky». The main goal of the expedition was to study the characteristics of the hydrological, hydrochemical, hydro-optical and hydrobiological structure of the Black Sea waters during the winter, as well as to collect material for studying the sedimentation system of the sea, which allows assessing the particle fluxes in the water column, the rate of its sedimentation to the bottom and biogeochemical processes occurring in water and bottom sediments.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):315-318
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Engineering geophysical studies in the Black Sea from onboard the R/V Ashamba during 2017
Dmitrevskiy N.N., Ananyev R.A.
Abstract

In May and October 2017, expeditionary research was carried out in the area of Gelendzhik in the Black Sea at the R/V «Ashamba». The main tasks were the mapping of the seabed and the search for small-sized objects at the bottom of the water area using a WASSP WMB-3250 multibeam echo sounder. Surveys included areal surveying and drawing up bathymetric maps of test sites in Gelendzhik Bay and in the transition zone from the shelf to the continental slope. In addition, the echo sounder was used to search and determine the exact coordinates of the bottom seismograph installed at the seabed near the Divnomorskoye village in May 2016. The article presents the results of the work carried out.

Океанология. 2019;59(2):319-320
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